Domestic Politics

40.9%
Median
75%
Highest
0%
Lowest
08.

In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

3/ 81

Affected Countries

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Overeall

Overeall Score

Ranking | 1

Original Score | 1 / 44

  • Country

    Score

  • Zambia

    Yes

    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

    Answer

    Skip

    No

    Few, but insignificant

    More than a few, but insignificant

    Few, but significant

    More than a few, and significant

    Supporting Evidence

    This has mostly been done in subtle ways, such as in 2006 when Chine threatened to cut ties with Zambia if Michael Sata had won the election

    1. https://www.ft.com/content/d6d5d176-3d0a-11db-8239-0000779e2340

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

      Explore Zambia >Hide
    1. Germany

      Yes

      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

      Answer

      Skip

      No

      Few, but insignificant

      More than a few, but insignificant

      Few, but significant

      More than a few, and significant

      Supporting Evidence

      This is very limited.

          Answered by Didi Kirsten Tatlow, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Explore Germany >Hide
        1. Panama

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          Answer

          Skip

          No

          Few, but insignificant

          More than a few, but insignificant

          Few, but significant

          More than a few, and significant

          Supporting Evidence

          Aunque sí ha habido señalamientos al partido gobernante, Partido Revolucionario Democrático, por haber enfriado las relaciones con China para complacer a Estados Unidos, no se ha establecido un vínculo entre estos críticos y el UFWD o el Partido Popular Comunista Chino, aunque sí con thinks tanks que promueven narrativas favorables a China.

          1. https://www.laestrella.com.pa/nacional/211010/caja-pandora-oculta

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Explore Panama >Hide
          1. Taiwan

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            Answer

            Skip

            No

            Few, but insignificant

            More than a few, but insignificant

            Few, but significant

            More than a few, and significant

            Supporting Evidence

            There is no group directly subordinate to United Front Work Department in Taiwan. However, all political parties that are not aligned to pro-unification and other pro-China position, have been criticized as anti-Chinese and against the One-China Principle.

                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                Explore Taiwan >Hide
              1. Australia

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                Answer

                Skip

                No

                Few, but insignificant

                More than a few, but insignificant

                Few, but significant

                More than a few, and significant

                Supporting Evidence

                No publicly available evidence to support this claim.

                    Answered by Nathan Attrill, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Explore Australia >Hide
                  1. New Zealand

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    Answer

                    Skip

                    No

                    Few, but insignificant

                    More than a few, but insignificant

                    Few, but significant

                    More than a few, and significant

                    Supporting Evidence

                    No publicly available evidence to support this claim.

                        Answered by Nathan Attrill, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Explore New Zealand >Hide
                      1. Indonesia

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        Answer

                        Skip

                        No

                        Few, but insignificant

                        More than a few, but insignificant

                        Few, but significant

                        More than a few, and significant

                        Supporting Evidence

                        There seems little information on the activities of UFWD in Indonesia and it seems a strategy to do so due to the majority of Indonesian's doubts about the loyalty of ethnic Chinese to the Indonesian state. See, Greta Nabbs-Keller, "The contending domestic and international imperatives of Indonesia’s China challenge", in Australian Journal of Defence and Strategic Studies, Volume 2, Number 2 (2020)

                        1. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/https://unhas.ac.id/en/article/title/universitas-hasanuddin-and-shanghai-ocean-university-agreed-on-aquaculture-collaboration

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Explore Indonesia >Hide
                        1. Singapore

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          Answer

                          Skip

                          No

                          Few, but insignificant

                          More than a few, but insignificant

                          Few, but significant

                          More than a few, and significant

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Foreign involvement in Singapore politics is frowned upon. As a result, groups are likely to be less open about endorsement or opposition to candidates based on an overtly foreign policy related issue. Lobbying may well take place in private, out the view of observers.

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Explore Singapore >Hide
                            1. Georgia

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              Answer

                              Skip

                              No

                              Few, but insignificant

                              More than a few, but insignificant

                              Few, but significant

                              More than a few, and significant

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Tinatin Khidasheli

                                  Explore Georgia >Hide
                                1. Kyrgyzstan

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  Answer

                                  Skip

                                  No

                                  Few, but insignificant

                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                  Few, but significant

                                  More than a few, and significant

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Not Found

                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                      Explore Kyrgyzstan >Hide
                                    1. Kazakhstan

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      Answer

                                      Skip

                                      No

                                      Few, but insignificant

                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                      Few, but significant

                                      More than a few, and significant

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                          Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                          Explore Kazakhstan >Hide
                                        1. Armenia

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          Answer

                                          Skip

                                          No

                                          Few, but insignificant

                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                          Few, but significant

                                          More than a few, and significant

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                              Answered by Artak Kyurumyan, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                              Explore Armenia >Hide
                                            1. Tajikistan

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              Answer

                                              Skip

                                              No

                                              Few, but insignificant

                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                              Few, but significant

                                              More than a few, and significant

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                                  Answered by Umedjon Majidi, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                  Explore Tajikistan >Hide
                                                1. Ethiopia

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  Answer

                                                  Skip

                                                  No

                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  Few, but significant

                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  No evidence to suggest

                                                      Answered by Jean Githae, and has been reviewed by Tolera Gemta

                                                      Explore Ethiopia >Hide
                                                    1. Kenya

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      Answer

                                                      Skip

                                                      No

                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      Few, but significant

                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      No evidence to include

                                                          Answered by Cathy Wamaitha, and has been reviewed by Allan Cheboi

                                                          Explore Kenya >Hide
                                                        1. Nigeria

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          Answer

                                                          Skip

                                                          No

                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          Few, but significant

                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          No evidence to include

                                                              Answered by Eromosele John Aitokhuehi, and has been reviewed by Lekan Otufodunrin

                                                              Explore Nigeria >Hide
                                                            1. South Africa

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              Answer

                                                              Skip

                                                              No

                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              Few, but significant

                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              No evidence

                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                  Explore South Africa >Hide
                                                                1. Senegal

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  Answer

                                                                  Skip

                                                                  No

                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  No evidence to support this

                                                                      Answered by Christian Ngnie, and has been reviewed by Fadel Thior

                                                                      Explore Senegal >Hide
                                                                    1. Brazil

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      Answer

                                                                      Skip

                                                                      No

                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      No evidence was found of groups linked to United Front Work Department (UFWD).

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                          Explore Brazil >Hide
                                                                        1. Bolívia

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          Answer

                                                                          Skip

                                                                          No

                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          No evidence of groups with reported links to the United Fork Work Department (UFWD) in Bolivia.

                                                                              Answered by Eloisa Larrea Montaño, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                              Explore Bolívia >Hide
                                                                            1. Argentina

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              Answer

                                                                              Skip

                                                                              No

                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              There has not been any declarations against any political candidate on the basis of an anti-China position.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                  Explore Argentina >Hide
                                                                                1. Uruguay

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Through an online search, major newspapers and academic journals, no events of UFWD public statements.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                      Explore Uruguay >Hide
                                                                                    1. Paraguay

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                      1. https://www.swissinfo.ch/spa/coronavirus-paraguay_senado-paraguayo-rechaza-por-segunda-vez-acercamiento-con-china/46461072

                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                      There are no reports of groups with a link to the United Front Work Department (UFWD).

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                        Explore Paraguay >Hide
                                                                                      1. Chile

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        There isn’t any information regarding contact between the UFWD and local politicians or support to local politicians by UF members. There isn’t any public intervention or support from any companies, or PRC individuals during the last campaign. Moreover, the main presidential candidate has rather portrayed a positive image from the PRC.

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Explore Chile >Hide
                                                                                          1. Colombia

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            There has been no such occurrence in Colombia.

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                Explore Colombia >Hide
                                                                                              1. Mexico

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  No hay evidencia de esto para el caso de México

                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Explore Mexico >Hide
                                                                                                  1. Peru

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      We didn’t find evidence that this has happened. For this reason, we validate the answer.

                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Explore Peru >Hide
                                                                                                      1. Venezuela

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Explore Venezuela >Hide
                                                                                                          1. South Korea

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                Explore South Korea >Hide
                                                                                                              1. Japan

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                    Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                    Explore Japan >Hide
                                                                                                                  1. Vietnam

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                        Explore Vietnam >Hide
                                                                                                                      1. Canada

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                            Explore Canada >Hide
                                                                                                                          1. Philippines

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              There are no articles or information showing public statements from UFWD. Given the tensions between China and Philippines in the disputed SCS, Filipinos are exhibiting anti-Chinese sentiment.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Explore Philippines >Hide
                                                                                                                              1. Thailand

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Supporting evidence not found.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Explore Thailand >Hide
                                                                                                                                  1. Cambodia

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Explore Cambodia >Hide
                                                                                                                                      1. Malaysia

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        No supporting evidence found

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Explore Malaysia >Hide
                                                                                                                                          1. Estonia

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Explore Estonia >Hide
                                                                                                                                              1. Czech Republic

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Tobiáš Lipold and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Hála

                                                                                                                                                    Explore Czech Republic >Hide
                                                                                                                                                  1. Bosnia and Herzegovina

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    There is no publicly available data or information.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic, Emir Muric and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Explore Bosnia and Herzegovina >Hide
                                                                                                                                                      1. Poland

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        No such significant cases have been reported. There were no national nor local elections held last year.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Explore Poland >Hide
                                                                                                                                                          1. United Kingdom

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            1. We don't believe this has occurred publicly.

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                              Explore United Kingdom >Hide
                                                                                                                                                            1. Egypt

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Egypt >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                1. Jordan

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Jordan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Lebanon

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Lebanon >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Turkey

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Turkey >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Serbia

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Serbia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                1. India

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  China or groups linked with UFWD haven't made any public statements with regards to local Indian political candidates or party. Even if they have done os, it is very discreet and no such public statement evidence exists.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore India >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Albania

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Albania >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Montenegro

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Montenegro >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              No record found in that regard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Latvia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Uzbekistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No public evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Farkhad Tolipov, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Uzbekistan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Sierra Leone

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No available data on this question

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Sierra Leone >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Ghana

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Evidence of UFWD presence was not found in Ghana.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Ghana >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Tanzania

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              interview with government officials found no records on UFWD -linked group have made public statements opposing the candidacy of local political party.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Tanzania >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Gambia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Interview with staff of ministry of foreign affairs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Gambia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Filip Noubel, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Slovakia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. France

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Filip Noubel, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore France >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Bangladesh

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No such incident happened in Bangladesh. No data found. Also the last election was in 2018. The next is in 2023.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Bangladesh >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Konstantinas Andrijauskas, and has been reviewed by Vida Macikenaite and Linas Didvalis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Lithuania >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Bulgaria

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Rumena Filipova and Mirela Petkova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Bulgaria >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Austria

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No such instance has up until now been identified.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Austria >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              NA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Hungary >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Belgium

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence for such activities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Belgium >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Sweden

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Sweden >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Finland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Finland >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Greece

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No such links have been reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Greece >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. North Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore North Macedonia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Afghanistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No UFWD in Afghanistan, the Chinese expat community reportedly ranged from 20 to 60 depending on stability in the country during that period.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Afghanistan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Turkmenistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Turkmenistan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Costa Rica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              En las campañas políticas, las relaciones diplomáticas de Costa Rica con la RPC no han sido objeto de debate, ni se ha promovido ningún tipo de modificación en dichas relaciones.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Costa Rica >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Ecuador

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No existe ningún tipo de reporte sobre este tema, ni del organismo concreto ni ningún organismo formal e informal de la RPC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Ecuador >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There have been no politicians accused of being "anti-China", especially because very few Romanian politicians have taken positions critical of the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Romania >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No such evidence could be found, and very seldom Moldovan politicians express views on China at all

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Moldova >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence of such activity Interview with expert

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No public or non-public information about this

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Ukraine >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There seems to be no evidence of anything of the sort. If it would happen, it would likely be restricted to areas with large Chinese immigrant populations and not be highly visible in the media

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Explore Italy >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No examples found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Explore Netherlands >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Azerbaijan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Gubad Ibadoghlu and Vusal Guliyev, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Explore Azerbaijan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Belarus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Though not opposing to a candidacy or coming from the UFWD but straight from the Embassy (see URLs below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.lavanguardia.com/politica/20200314/474130186160/embajada-china-ortega-smith-racista-malditos-virus-chinos-coronavirus.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.elplural.com/comunicacion/internet/china-harta-macarena-olona-responde-contundencia-vox-peste-siglo-xxi_237673102

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Hernan Alberro, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Nicaragua

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No such incident occurred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Hernan Alberro, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Pakistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. No evidence. Seems not applicable in Pakistani context

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. United States

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Unclear. Almost all at local level.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is a lot of activity, but providing the direct linkages to confirm the UFWD-connected groups & individuals have made such statements is an analytic endeavor beyond the scope here. Significant also would mean that the elections were close enough that Chinese-American community groups provided enough voters to push elections one or another--or at least were sufficiently large to be a key constituency.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

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