Academia

32.9%
Median
84.1%
Highest
4.5%
Lowest
09.

In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

11/ 75

Affected Countries

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Overeall

Overeall Score

Ranking | 1

Original Score | 1 / 44

  • Country

    Score

  • Japan

    Yes

    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

    Answer

    Skip

    No

    Few, but insignificant

    More than a few, but insignificant

    Few, but significant

    More than a few, and significant

    Supporting Evidence

    See below article.

    1. https://globe.asahi.com/article/14357341

      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

      Explore Japan >Hide
    1. United States

      Yes

      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

      Answer

      Skip

      No

      Few, but insignificant

      More than a few, but insignificant

      Few, but significant

      More than a few, and significant

      Supporting Evidence

      See below link.

      1. https://www.npr.org/2019/04/25/716032871/visas-are-the-newest-weapon-in-u-s-china-rivalry

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

        Explore United States >Hide
      1. Germany

        Yes

        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

        Answer

        Skip

        No

        Few, but insignificant

        More than a few, but insignificant

        Few, but significant

        More than a few, and significant

        Supporting Evidence

        An entire German research institute (Merics) was recently denied access to China in March 2021. Individual researchers have experienced this on and off for years.

            Answered by Didi Kirsten Tatlow, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Explore Germany >Hide
          1. Sweden

            Yes

            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

            Answer

            Skip

            No

            Few, but insignificant

            More than a few, but insignificant

            Few, but significant

            More than a few, and significant

            Supporting Evidence

            Björn Jerden is publicly banned from China.

            1. https://www.ui.se/english/news/2021/ui-condemns-chinese-sanctions-on-bjorn-jerden/
            2. https://www.ui.se/english/about/staff/bjorn-jerden/
            3. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262010089_The_Assertive_China_Narrative_Why_It_Is_Wrong_and_How_So_Many_Still_Bought_into_It_vol_7_pg_47_2014

              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

              Explore Sweden >Hide
            1. Taiwan

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              Answer

              Skip

              No

              Few, but insignificant

              More than a few, but insignificant

              Few, but significant

              More than a few, and significant

              Supporting Evidence

              Many of the scholars, who raise a more critical view toward China, would choose not to visit China for their own safety, as the physical security is less protected in China. Also, Taiwanese people have to apply for the Mainland Travel to travel to China. And the Chinese authorities are likely to barricade the applications of those they dislike during the process without given a specific reason. In contrast, more Taiwanese scholars have confronted the situation of being openly denied visa to or being deported back from Hong Kong since 2013.

              1. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/china/2014/05/140530_hk_taiwan_scholar_banned
              2. https://www.rti.org.tw/news/view/id/385301

                Answered by Pu Lin, and has been reviewed by Lee Penghsuan

                Explore Taiwan >Hide
              1. Australia

                Yes

                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                Answer

                Skip

                No

                Few, but insignificant

                More than a few, but insignificant

                Few, but significant

                More than a few, and significant

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                1. https://archive.ph/wip/aDtjA

                  Answered by Nathan Attrill, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Explore Australia >Hide
                1. Estonia

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                  Answer

                  Skip

                  No

                  Few, but insignificant

                  More than a few, but insignificant

                  Few, but significant

                  More than a few, and significant

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Märt Läänemets, one of the leading experts on China, was denied visa for his Tibetan rights advocacy. Recently these restrictions have been lifted and he has participated in conferences held in the PRC.

                  1. https://icds.ee/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/ICDS_EFPI_Brief_Academic_Cooperation_with_the_PRC_M%c3%a4rt_L%c3%a4%c3%a4nemets_April_2020_cor.pdf

                    Answered by Frank Jüris, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Explore Estonia >Hide
                  1. United Kingdom

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                    Answer

                    Skip

                    No

                    Few, but insignificant

                    More than a few, but insignificant

                    Few, but significant

                    More than a few, and significant

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Though there are not significant numbers of cases where academics have been censured for their research in the manner described here, when it has taken place it has been serious. The most obvious example is Dr Jo Smith Finley, a scholar at Newcastle University who was sanctioned by the PRC government because of her research on Xinjiang. “The sanctions include a ban on entering China, Hong Kong and Macau, the freezing of property in China and the prohibition of doing business with Chinese citizens and institutions.”

                    1. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-tyne-56545200

                      Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                      Explore United Kingdom >Hide
                    1. France

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                      Answer

                      Skip

                      No

                      Few, but insignificant

                      More than a few, but insignificant

                      Few, but significant

                      More than a few, and significant

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                      1. https://www.lejdd.fr/International/Asie/le-chercheur-antoine-bondaz-insulte-par-lambassade-chinoise-a-paris-pekin-nous-fait-passer-un-test-4033182

                        Answered by Filip Noubel, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Explore France >Hide
                      1. Netherlands

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                        Answer

                        Skip

                        No

                        Few, but insignificant

                        More than a few, but insignificant

                        Few, but significant

                        More than a few, and significant

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                        1. https://www.vpro.nl/argos/lees/onderwerpen/china/2021/china-academici.html
                        2. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2020-07/Rapport_politieke_beinvloeding_in_het_onderwijs_juni_2020.pdf

                        Supplementary Notes

                        No examples have been found, but a think tank reports that it's the strategy of the chinese embassy to create self censorship. In a news item on this type of diplomacy and hostage diplomacy, there's also no concrete dutch cases, but there are academics saying they fear they would probably not get one. There are no concrete names of academics that have been denied visa to the PRC, but the scholars in the sources argue that they know it is common practice for the PRC to deny visa. Whether they refer to foreign colleagues, or Dutch colleagues that have not talked to media is not certain. The grade depend also on how heavy self-censorship weighs into the picture. Some scholars are not applying for visa as they fear they won't get it.

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                          Explore Netherlands >Hide
                        1. Turkey

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                          Answer

                          Skip

                          No

                          Few, but insignificant

                          More than a few, but insignificant

                          Few, but significant

                          More than a few, and significant

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                          1. https://www.iha.com.tr/haber-turk-akademisyenler-cinden-sinir-disi-edildi-561036/

                          Supplementary Notes

                          There are a few instances of Turkish academics who were denied entry to the PRC due to their opinions. In 2016, an academic group affiliated with a Turkish nationalist association was denied entry to China while they were planning to visit China’s Uyghur region.

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                            Explore Turkey >Hide
                          1. New Zealand

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            Answer

                            Skip

                            No

                            Few, but insignificant

                            More than a few, but insignificant

                            Few, but significant

                            More than a few, and significant

                            Supporting Evidence

                            No publicly available evidence to support this claim.

                                Answered by Nathan Attrill, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Explore New Zealand >Hide
                              1. Indonesia

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                Answer

                                Skip

                                No

                                Few, but insignificant

                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                Few, but significant

                                More than a few, and significant

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There is no public record found on Indonesian scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC. There is, however, concerns in Indonesian of people from PRC arriving in Indonesia to work without proper visa and there is local demand to tighten visa applicants from China, this may impact tightening of granting visa for Indonesian to travel to China in the future.

                                1. https://travel.tribunnews.com/2016/09/10/visa-tiongkok-biar-nggak-ditolak-inilah-hal-yang-wajib-kamu-tahu-sebelum-apply
                                2. https://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/indonesien/16770.pdf

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Explore Indonesia >Hide
                                1. Singapore

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  Answer

                                  Skip

                                  No

                                  Few, but insignificant

                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                  Few, but significant

                                  More than a few, and significant

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  None known at present.

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Explore Singapore >Hide
                                    1. Georgia

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      Answer

                                      Skip

                                      No

                                      Few, but insignificant

                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                      Few, but significant

                                      More than a few, and significant

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Tinatin Khidasheli

                                          Explore Georgia >Hide
                                        1. Kyrgyzstan

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          Answer

                                          Skip

                                          No

                                          Few, but insignificant

                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                          Few, but significant

                                          More than a few, and significant

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                              Explore Kyrgyzstan >Hide
                                            1. Armenia

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              Answer

                                              Skip

                                              No

                                              Few, but insignificant

                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                              Few, but significant

                                              More than a few, and significant

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                                  Answered by Artak Kyurumyan, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                  Explore Armenia >Hide
                                                1. Tajikistan

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  Answer

                                                  Skip

                                                  No

                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  Few, but significant

                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                      Answered by Umedjon Majidi, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                      Explore Tajikistan >Hide
                                                    1. Ethiopia

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      Answer

                                                      Skip

                                                      No

                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      Few, but significant

                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      No evidence to include

                                                          Answered by Jean Githae, and has been reviewed by Tolera Gemta

                                                          Explore Ethiopia >Hide
                                                        1. Nigeria

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          Answer

                                                          Skip

                                                          No

                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          Few, but significant

                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          No evidence to include

                                                              Answered by Eromosele John Aitokhuehi, and has been reviewed by Lekan Otufodunrin

                                                              Explore Nigeria >Hide
                                                            1. South Africa

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              Answer

                                                              Skip

                                                              No

                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              Few, but significant

                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              No evidence

                                                                  Answered by Amanda Strydom, and has been reviewed by Chris Roper and Joyce Lin

                                                                  Explore South Africa >Hide
                                                                1. Senegal

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  Answer

                                                                  Skip

                                                                  No

                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  No clear evidence

                                                                      Answered by Christian Ngnie, and has been reviewed by Fadel Thior

                                                                      Explore Senegal >Hide
                                                                    1. Brazil

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      Answer

                                                                      Skip

                                                                      No

                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      The reason for denying a visa is Chinese administrative data. The searches found no evidence of academics that had been denied visas to China.

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        It may be interesting to review this indicator, considering that this type of information is confidential to China.

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                          Explore Brazil >Hide
                                                                        1. Bolívia

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          Answer

                                                                          Skip

                                                                          No

                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          No evidence of visa denial for Bolivian scholars/academics.

                                                                              Answered by Eloisa Larrea Montaño, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                              Explore Bolívia >Hide
                                                                            1. Argentina

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              Answer

                                                                              Skip

                                                                              No

                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                There are no reports from scholars or academics on any denial of visas to travel to the PRC. There have been no news about this in the local media, and even though there are oppossing views in the academic community there is little debate about China's domestic policies.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                  Explore Argentina >Hide
                                                                                1. Uruguay

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Through an online search, major newspapers and academic journals, no events of academics that have been denied VISA.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                      Explore Uruguay >Hide
                                                                                    1. Paraguay

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Although no information is found in this regard in the consultations carried out, it is not possible to rule out that this has occurred.

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                          Explore Paraguay >Hide
                                                                                        1. Chile

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          No known cases of Chilean scholars being rejected for critical opinions to the PRC appear on news.

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Explore Chile >Hide
                                                                                            1. Colombia

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              There is no record of this happening. An affected scholar or academic would be expected to denounce this publicly, and that has not been found either.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Explore Colombia >Hide
                                                                                                1. Mexico

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    No hay evidencia que compruebe la cancelación o negación de visas a académicos o investigadores mexicanos para viajar a China

                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Explore Mexico >Hide
                                                                                                    1. Peru

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        Based on experience, there is no evidence that this has happened. In the supposed case, this would have been made public or had claimed, however we didn’t find this situation. By this reason, we validate the answer.

                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Explore Peru >Hide
                                                                                                        1. Venezuela

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Explore Venezuela >Hide
                                                                                                            1. South Korea

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                It is almost impossible to find the sources on this topic.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                  Explore South Korea >Hide
                                                                                                                1. Canada

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                      Explore Canada >Hide
                                                                                                                    1. Philippines

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                      1. https://www.oversixty.com.au/entertainment/movies/5-actors-who-are-banned-from-china

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      There are some famous people banned in entering China due to racial discrimination act and some who discussed issues (such human rights violation) happening in China, on the other hand, there is no record of scholars or academics banned in China from my country.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Explore Philippines >Hide
                                                                                                                      1. Thailand

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        .

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Explore Thailand >Hide
                                                                                                                          1. Cambodia

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            No supporting evidence found.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Explore Cambodia >Hide
                                                                                                                              1. Malaysia

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                No supporting evidence found.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Explore Malaysia >Hide
                                                                                                                                  1. Czech Republic

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    No evidence of that available.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by Tobiáš Lipold and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Hála

                                                                                                                                        Explore Czech Republic >Hide
                                                                                                                                      1. Poland

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        No such publicly available information is known to author. However, in previous years the people who were denied visa to China usually did not make public statements about that. In 2020, due to pandemic situation the scholar exchanges were suspended. Moreover, the PRC-critical scholars or analysts do not apply for PRC visa fearing denial or fearing that they would have difficulties with leaving China. Those who still wish to visit the PRC do not touch the topics that are considered as sensitive by the CCP. The visa issues are not discussed publicly by scholars.

                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                          The answer NO provided in original response is correct: „No such case publicly available report is known to author” is direct response to the question posed. The comment provided in comment was meant to highlight, that the problem is not about being denied visa. „The point is that scholars or analysts who are critical of China do not apply for Chinese visa fearing denial or fearing that they would have difficulties with leaving China.” and also: „The fear of visa denial or loosing access to Chinese financing is very important factor influencing the public position of many scholars on China and the mark for this question would be 4” No supporting evidence can be provided as this opinion is based on private and confidential conversations, where interviewers would not not wish to be identified. „To reflect the current situation in Poland this questions should be reformulated and take into the consideration the non-public opinions of scholars and academic involved in China research.” which would require rephrasing the questions and allowing for local experts to evaluate the situation without providing evidence as the opinion is mainly based on private and confidential conversations.

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Explore Poland >Hide
                                                                                                                                          1. Egypt

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                Explore Egypt >Hide
                                                                                                                                              1. Jordan

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                    Explore Jordan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                  1. Lebanon

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                        Explore Lebanon >Hide
                                                                                                                                                      1. Serbia

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Explore Serbia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                          1. Albania

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Edval Zoto, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Explore Albania >Hide
                                                                                                                                                              1. Montenegro

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Explore Montenegro >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Uzbekistan

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Farkhad Tolipov, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                        Explore Uzbekistan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Sierra Leone

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        No available data on this incident but from my knowledge as an academic I could not find anything suggesting to the contrary.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Explore Sierra Leone >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Ghana

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            no data/ evidence to verify this

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Explore Ghana >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Tanzania

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Interview with academics shows no evidence that academicians and teachers have been denied visas into China for being critical of Chinese government

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Explore Tanzania >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Gambia

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Interview with staff of ministry of foreign affairs

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Explore Gambia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Zambia

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Such scholars and journalists abound in Zambia, but have expressed little known interest to travel to China

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Explore Zambia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Slovakia

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Medzi slovenských aktérov, ktorí sa o Číne vyjadrovali negatívnejšie, patria v prvom rade novinári (Peter Morvay, Andrej Matišák, Matúš Krčmárik a ďalší), akademici (Martin Slobodník),

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by , and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Explore Slovakia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Bangladesh

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                We have found no data as evidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Explore Bangladesh >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Lithuania

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Konstantinas Andrijauskas, and has been reviewed by Vida Macikenaite and Linas Didvalis

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Explore Lithuania >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Bulgaria

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence to suggest otherwise

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Rumena Filipova, and has been reviewed by Matej Šimalčík

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Explore Bulgaria >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Austria

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            There has up until now been no public report of such an incident.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Explore Austria >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Hungary

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is no evidence for this claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Kristína Kironská

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Explore Hungary >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Belgium

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Academics deny that they have been censored by China or were not allowed to travel to China due to their critical research.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.veto.be/artikel/navigating-allegations-of-chinese-espionage-and-interference-in-academia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Alfred Gerstl

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Belgium >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Finland

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest otherwise.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by Richard Turcsányi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Finland >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Greece

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Greece >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. North Macedonia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore North Macedonia >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Afghanistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No such cases revealed except the latest Corona-related restriction where Afghan students were stranded in Afghanistan following their vocations to home or newly selected students on the waiting for visas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Afghanistan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Turkmenistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Turkmenistan does not allow any spaces for freedom of speech to begin with. Thus, there are already no scholars who can engage in critical analysis in general.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Turkmenistan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Costa Rica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No hay evidencia de este tipo de incidentes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Costa Rica >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Ecuador

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://bit.ly/3wwTCpf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              no existen reportes de ningún nacional ecuatoriano, académico o periodista que haya sido impedido de viajar a China por críticas políticas o de otro tipo. No existen tampoco visitas turismo o estadía corta desde la pandemia. Cabe recordar que para visitas de turismo existe también un acuerdo entre dos países sin necesidad de visas formales (ver enlace “1”).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Explore Ecuador >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Panama

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                En la base de datos del Servicio Nacional de Información no se encontró información que permita sustentar esta hipótesis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IwWSElzchv8iFk1X6z0fiR2ikjHTaeHr/view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Explore Panama >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There a no publicly known cases in Romania, but nor are there scholars known for being critical of the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Explore Romania >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      We could find no reports of academics being denied PRC visas because of their critical views towards the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Explore Moldova >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Although experts note that visa bans for critical research could have happened, there is no evidence of this

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Explore Ukraine >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              If it exists, it has not been noted in the plentiful documentation about PRC's influence in Italy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Explore Italy >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Azerbaijan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Gubad Ibadoghlu and Vusal Guliyev, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Explore Azerbaijan >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Belarus

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Explore Belarus >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Spain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No such incident occurred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Hernan Alberro, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Explore Spain >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Nicaragua

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No such incident occurred.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Hernan Alberro, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Explore Nicaragua >Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Kazakhstan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The first link Link says that Consulate General of China commented on the refusal to issue individual visas to Kazakhstanis, however it is not specified whether there were scholars among those Kazakhstanis. Also the complaint of Kazakh students who were going to study in China and could not apply for a visa Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://tengrinews.kz/kazakhstan_news/genkonsul-kitaya-prokommentiroval-otkaz-vyidache-300882/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://rus.azattyq.org/a/studenty-viza-v-kitay-problemy/28656058.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Tatiana Sedova, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Kenya

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    [Doublethink Lab Review]: The link which our local expert has provided is denied entry into Zambia instead of China: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://face2faceafrica.com/article/kenyan-lawyer-and-pan-africanist-denied-entry-into-zambia-over-china-africa-lecture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Cathy Wamaitha, and has been reviewed by Allan Cheboi

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Vietnam

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Although there is no report in the Internet about a specific case, but Vietnam’s scholars and academics are aware that they may be harassed and punished if they are too critical of China, especially in sensitive issues related to China’s “core interests”. There is self-censorship among Vietnamese academics about this. Thus, although there may be no specific case, the pressure is real and PRC punishment serves as a deterrent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Bosnia and Herzegovina

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no available data to answer this question.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Tobiáš Lipold, Amina Celikovic, Selma Asceric, Darko Brkan, Emir Velic, Semir Dzebo, Aldin Karahasanovic and Emir Muric, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. India

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/india-foundation-cancels-visit-to-china-after-visa-denied-to-2-junior-researchers-1722005

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The news story above confirms the denial of Visa but it is not directly clear that it was due to what the 2 Junior researchers from India Foundation published.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Latvia

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                According to expert's knowledge, this kind of incident has taken place, but the public record of the fact is not available.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Pakistan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Most Pakistanis who go to China go there on business, student, tourist visas or official business. Journalists have also been taken there with the aim of "educating" them about all the "good work" China is doing in Pakistan. If it happens, it would usually be concerns over applicant's involvement with Islamic groups. Human rights activists in Pakistan have not really sought to go to China to investigate things there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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