Zambia

$1,120.6
18.9M
Ranking
46/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

113/ 376
Executive partner
Emmanuel Matambo
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

34%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

21%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

27%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Zambia had a GDP per capita of US$1,121 and a total population of 18.92 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 20,000 people or 0.1% of the total population.

Zambia and China established formal relations on 29 October 1964, five days after Northern Rhodesia gained independence from Britain and was christened the Republic of Zambia. The latest report of the latest Reporters Without Borders Index puts Zambia at 109 out 180 countries studied. However, the report further states that Hakainde Hichilema’s election as president in August 2021 has improved the situation for the media after some difficult years even though the legislative framework still needs improving and Zambia’s economic problems continue to hold back journalistic independence. Freedom House’s Global Freedom Status categorises Zambia as partly free. This, again was based on the restrictive nature of governance under the Patriotic Front.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    25.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    37.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    45.5% / 33.6%
  • Society
    20.0% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    0.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    45.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    52.8% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    47.7% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

While China has some media presence in Zambia, this is does not translate into Zambian media organizations being in the Wolrd Chinese Media orbit

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      Yes

      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      According to a 31-year-old Zambian youth, who has worked on a Chinese project and has informal ties with the youth of the Patriotic Front in Zambia, sections of Zambian media were indeed captive to Chinese media organizations. The respondent argued that during the PF, reportage on China by government media houses was favorable. As an example, he cited the article in a Zambian paper that was published in Chinese. It could be assessed in URL 1. However, upon verification, this seems not to be the case. Zambian journalists are not affiliated with media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC. In fact occasionally they have been very critical as can be deduced from URL 2.

      1. https://www.africanews.com/2018/10/04/zambian-govt-newspaper-publishes-in-chinese-mandarin-the-morning-call//
      2. https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1070&context=sajpd

      Supplementary Notes

      Some journalists choose to remain mum on this topic, but evidence was there especially during the tenure of the Patrioic Front government

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        Yes

        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Journalists such as Chibale Silwizya who works for the state-owned Daily Mail was invited to China by the China Africa Press Centre programme. Her story can be verified from her own writing in the below URL.

        1. http://www.daily-mail.co.zm/zambian-journalists-journey-to-china/

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          This was verified as China has been doing so for a long time, and now does it through the Beijing Television (TV) Dramas and Movies Broadcasting Season in Africa. In the specific case of Zambia, the government fully supported the airing of Chinese stories. Matambo, Mr Mwale (who works for Lady M Guest House) and lives in the Copperbelt (where China's mining interests are palpable) and another Zambian youth and community activist all converged on this fact and the verifiers' report drew from the below URL.

          1. http://www.daily-mail.co.zm/china-offers-more-than-just-kung-fu/

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            English is the main medium

              Supplementary Notes

              Here upon further probing, a person who resides on the Copperbelt and works for Lady M Guest House noted the majestic advertisements about the Bank of China and Huawei, that do not only appear newspapaer, but have also been mounted at the Kenneth Kaunda International Airport, and splashed on wall fences alogn Lusaka. The reviewers noted that while advrtising in newspapers has not been very prominent, private Chinese enterprises usually insert their advertisement in Zambian publications. Mwale referred to the following pictures cum advertisements: Link

              1. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2019/dec/11/china-steps-in-as-zambia-runs-out-of-loan-options

              Answered by 3 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              6.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              19 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              0 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Through agencies such as TopStar, China is involved in the distribution of media signals. There were indications that this migth extend to influence content

              1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2021-01/14/c_139668394.htm

              Supplementary Notes

              This was not always done by government media, but by government itself discouraging negative disclosures about Chian. In a way this was self-censoring from the government and it was done even against people withing government who exposed China. More could be gleaned from this: Link

              1. https://diggers.news/local/2020/05/27/stick-to-your-lane-banda-warns-sampa-for-closing-chinese-businesses/

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Skip

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              This was espeially common under the Patriotic Front government. Reports of China wanting to twin its cities with Zambian cities came from China

                Supplementary Notes

                Mr Kangwa did not provide persuasive support for this, choosing only to rely on informal discussions with his Patroti Front- affiliated friends whose only denial about possible human rights violations in China was that other countries are interfering with China's internal affairs

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                  Hide
                  8.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  38 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  8 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  This is very common in Zambia. Some shopping malls, including institutions such as airports have advertisements written in Chinese

                  1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cezm/eng/sgzxdthxx/t1793536.htm
                  2. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2016/03/01/114195/

                  Supplementary Notes

                  Previous Ambassador to Zambia, Li Jie presided over events at which the Communist Party of China presented the Patriotic Front with the Epidemic Prevention and Control Materials Aid. More information was posted on the website of the Chinese Embassy: Link Members of the Patriotic Front youth had met with Chinese officials at the Chinese Embassy to raise concerns about the then opposition party in Zambia the United Party for National Development. Link

                  1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cezm/eng/sgzxdthxx/t1793536.htm
                  2. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2016/03/01/114195/

                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                  Hide
                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Pressure was usually put on government which in turn pressured journalists in state-owned media houses

                  1. http://www.focac.org/eng/zfzs_1/202110/t20211020_10405469.htm

                  Supplementary Notes

                  This has mainly been through Zambia's affirmation of China as the representative of all Chinese, and all research participants agreed on this. For example, Zambia's current Minister of Foreign Affairs, Stanley Kakubo has recently reaffirmed the PRC as the only recognizable China, an oblique prevention of Taiwan from international recognition. More: Link

                  1. http://www.focac.org/eng/zfzs_1/202110/t20211020_10405469.htm

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                  Hide
                  10.
                  Effect

                  In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  4 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  51 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  11 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  9 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  4 countries chose this answer

                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  This was the case among state-owned media outlets. We are yet to see if this continues after Zambia changed government in 2021

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                      Hide
                      11.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      2 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      44 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      18 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      This is usually done by what is called "whataboutism", which simply means those accusing China are mostly the West who have a lot of issues such as racism, xenophobia and anti-immigration to deal with

                      1. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00XHZX.pdf
                      2. https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/chinese-run-education-programmes-strengthen-economic-cooperation-zambia

                      Supplementary Notes

                      What happens at the University of Zambia (UNZA) through the Confucius Institute, in terms of language learning has also been replicated in some secondary schools in Zamibia. Partnerships at UNZA have been struck by Hanban and the Hebei University of Economics and Business. For more: Link it is also noteworthy that there seems to be a connection, informal but patent, that language learning at the Confucius Institue helps one to get influential positions in Chinese-owned enterprises such as Zhongyang Eco-Agriculture Industry Park and Hongsen Company. Link

                      1. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00XHZX.pdf
                      2. https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/chinese-run-education-programmes-strengthen-economic-cooperation-zambia

                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                      Hide

                      Academia

                      The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                      1.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                      More

                      0/ No

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      6 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      31 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      25 countries chose this answer

                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      This is actually done under the Confucius Institute and other initiatives in agriculture and medicine - inter alia

                      1. http://www.chinafrica.cn/Homepage/202006/t20200618_800210441.html
                      2. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00XHZX.pdf
                      3. https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/chinese-run-education-programmes-strengthen-economic-cooperation-zambia

                      Supplementary Notes

                      What happens at the University of Zambia (UNZA) through the Confucius Institute, in terms of language learning has also been replicated in some secondary schools in Zamibia. Partnerships at UNZA have been struck by Hanban and the Hebei University of Economics and Business. For more: Link it is also noteworthy that there seems to be a connection, informal but patent, that language learning at the Confucius Institue helps one to get influential positions in Chinese-owned enterprises such as Zhongyang Eco-Agriculture Industry Park and Hongsen Company. Link

                      1. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00XHZX.pdf
                      2. https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/chinese-run-education-programmes-strengthen-economic-cooperation-zambia

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                      Hide
                      2.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                      More

                      0/ No

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      14 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      31 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      27 countries chose this answer

                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      The Confucius Institute at the University of Zambia is a very visible structure, and it stands out due to its imposing and attractive physical state, compared to the rest of the University. It is also a hub of learning Mandarin in Zambia, thought it should be noted that the first Chinese school in Zambia was opened in 2009, with donations from the Chinese Embassy and the Chinese Ministry of Commerce. The Confucius Institute was opened a year later in 2010

                      1. https://www.unza.zm/confucius/about/introduction

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                        Hide
                        3.
                        Exposure

                        My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        46 countries chose this answer

                        4/ Yes

                        35 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Mandarin has grown in prominence in Zambia, and it was more so during the tenures of the MMD and PF governments. In 2018, the Times of Zambia, a state-owned newspaper published an article in Mandarin, sparking derision and horror among Zambians. The country has numerous languages, many of which have never had the distinction of finding their way into national papers.

                        1. http://www.daily-mail.co.zm/chinese-mandarin-language-in-zambian-schools/
                        2. https://www.africanews.com/2018/10/02/zambia-state-owned-media-publishes-article-in-chinese//#:~:text=On%20Tuesday%20morning%2C%20patrons%20of,language%20for%20all%20of%20China.

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                          Hide
                          4.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          2 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          40 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          17 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          7 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          14 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          2 countries chose this answer

                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          There is not evidence of this

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                              Hide
                              5.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              10 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              21 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              19 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              10 countries chose this answer

                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              People have even been given scholarships for learnership programmes. This has been facilitated through the Chinese Embassy and the Chinese government scholarship programme

                              1. http://www.chinafrica.cn/Homepage/202108/t20210816_800255613.html

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                Hide
                                6.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                Skip

                                More

                                Skipped

                                3 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                47 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                While these programmes are not many, they receive a lot of publicity from the Chinese Embassy in Zambia. Some competitions, such as the Bridge Competition, usually happen in concert with the Confucius Institute

                                1. http://www.focac.org/eng/zfzs_1/202110/t20211020_10405469.htm
                                2. http://www.focac.org/eng/zfzs_1/202110/t20211020_10405469.htm

                                Supplementary Notes

                                This has mainly been through Zambia's affirmation of China as the representative of all Chinese, and all research participants agreed on this. For example, Zambia's current Minister of Foreign Affairs, Stanley Kakubo has recently reaffirmed the PRC as the only recognizable China, an oblique prevention of Taiwan from international recognition. More: Link

                                1. http://www.focac.org/eng/zfzs_1/202110/t20211020_10405469.htm

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide
                                7.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                13 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                17 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                15 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                12 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                This has happened to a modest degree among established Zambian scholars, but students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate studies have received the biggest share

                                1. https://www.unza.zm/confucius/featured/educational-delegation-to-china

                                Supplementary Notes

                                On this score, Emmanuel Matambo and a Zambian national educated in China and currently works for Plastic for Change can personally testify that they have taken trips to China sponsored by the Chinese government. Matambo went for a short course, while the other participant did an entire academic programme in China. In addition High School principals and officials of Zambia's Ministrty of Education have taken trips to China under the auspices of Chinese entities. Link

                                1. https://www.unza.zm/confucius/featured/educational-delegation-to-china

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                Hide
                                8.
                                Pressure

                                In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                1 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                64 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                3 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                3 countries chose this answer

                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There are institutes with tenuous support from China, but they are not involved in censoring other students and this is due to the fact that membership to such groups almost always entails a favourable stance on the PRC

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                    Hide
                                    9.
                                    Pressure

                                    In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Such scholars and journalists abound in Zambia, but have expressed little known interest to travel to China

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                        Hide
                                        10.
                                        Effect

                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ Yes

                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        This is mostly done through additional initiatives to education at the Confucius Institute. While the Institute should be expressly tailored toward teaching Mandarin, more is done by way of promoting Zambia-China political relations, with a favourable interpretation of China's history, Japanese historical occupation and aggression, and China's claims on Hong Kong and Taiwan

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          This response was mostly tailored to the Confucius Institute's monopoly over designing Mandarin classes. It does not design other curricula at universities or high schools, and Zambia's curriculum of history and politics is more West-facing

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                            Hide
                                            11.
                                            Effect

                                            In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                            77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Unless you are at the Confucius Institute, China does not feature much in Zambia's academic discourse. That initiative has been taken up by ordinary Zambian citizens, workers and journalists who have been unnerved by some troubling aspects of China's presence in Zambia.

                                            1. https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00XHZX.pdf
                                            2. https://www.dandc.eu/en/article/chinese-run-education-programmes-strengthen-economic-cooperation-zambia

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            There is a dearth of academic discussion, especially in the curricula about internal Chinese politics and so two reviewers, a worker at Lady M Guest House and a youth community activist argued that there is no need to avoid a topic that does not even come for discussion. For this reason the response is revised to 0=NO

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                              Hide

                                              Economy

                                              The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                              1.
                                              Exposure

                                              The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              0/ No

                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              The PRC is one of Zambia's biggest trade partners in goods, but not the biggest. It should be noted that China claims attention because of general economic ties and investment in Zambia

                                              1. https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/ZMB/Year/2019/TradeFlow/EXPIMP/Partner/by-country#:~:text=In%202019%2C%20Zambia%20major%20trading,%2C%20India%20and%20Congo%2C%20Dem.

                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                Hide
                                                2.
                                                Exposure

                                                PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                Yes

                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Hide
                                                3.
                                                Exposure

                                                The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                0/ No

                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                It is noteworthy, though, that China comes second only to Switzerland

                                                1. https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-product/raw-copper/reporter/zmb#:~:text=The%20main%20destination%20of%20Raw,%2C%20and%20Namibia%20(%24105M).

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                  Hide
                                                  4.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  0/ No

                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Chambishi Copper Mine is owned by the Non-Ferrous Company–Africa (NFCA), and is the biggest Chinese-owned mining company in Zambia. Historically, South Africa, Canadian and European companies have dominated copper mining in Zambia. We now see China as an ambitious new player on the market, involved in copper and other minerals and sectors, including agriculture

                                                  1. https://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/03/zambia-workers-detail-abuse-chinese-owned-mines

                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                    Hide
                                                    5.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    0/ No

                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    55 countries chose this answer

                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    No, Zambia has not joined the AIIB

                                                    1. https://www.aiib.org/en/news-events/news/2020/AIIBs-Membership-in-Africa-Grows-as-Liberia-Joins-the-Bank.html

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    Zambia is not even listed as a prospective member

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      6.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                        The absence of this is probably because Zambia is a landlocked country

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                          Hide
                                                          7.
                                                          Pressure

                                                          My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                          Yes

                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          This happens even in the tender-awarding processes. The country is also flooded with Chinese-made goods, some of them which were a preserve of the Zambian manufacturers such as traditional clothing

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            No. Initially, the participants speculated on the 2006 threat by Li Baodong to the MMD government that if the PF won that year's elections, then China would cut ties with Zambia, which was going to be devastating because China is one of Zambia's trade partners

                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                              Hide
                                                              8.
                                                              Pressure

                                                              In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Usually businesses do not get involved in China's territorial affairs and the treatment of minorities

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  9.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  There have been numerous agreements signed. It is not easy to pick out free trade ones

                                                                  1. https://agritrade.cta.int/Agriculture/Topics/Market-access/Increase-in-Zambian-duty-free-access-to-the-Chinese-market-announced.html

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  The reviewers could not come up with enough evidence to put this beyond doubt. Please refer to the following, which also includes a FOCAC perspective: Link

                                                                  1. https://agritrade.cta.int/Agriculture/Topics/Market-access/Increase-in-Zambian-duty-free-access-to-the-Chinese-market-announced.html

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  10.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Zambia played a pioneering role in hosting Economic Zones on the African continent

                                                                  1. https://www.wider.unu.edu/publication/special-economic-zones-zambia-and-south-africa
                                                                  2. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/720981495115586647/pdf/115143-WP-PUBLIC-Feb-2016-GTCCS-ZambiaMFEZ.pdf
                                                                  3. https://core.ac.uk/outputs/302956070

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  SEZ have been established in Zambia, by the PRC, and it is noteworthy that when then Chinese president Hu Jintao visited Zambia in 2007 he was supposed to open an special economic zone in Chambishi on the Copperbelt Province. He later changed his schedule when fear surfaced that local residents might protest: for more: Link further information could be gleaned from: Link

                                                                  1. https://core.ac.uk/outputs/302956070
                                                                  2. https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/720981495115586647/pdf/115143-WP-PUBLIC-Feb-2016-GTCCS-ZambiaMFEZ.pdf

                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  11.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Hide

                                                                  Society

                                                                  The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                  1.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Local groups in Zambia stay clear and some are ignorant of China's affairs, except China's presence in Zambia

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 4 anonymous experts.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      2.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      This is absent in Zambia

                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          3.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          The labour union movement in Zambia has actually clashed with Chinese employers in the past. This is mainly due to poor working conditions in Chinese-run firms, and the inclination by Chinese employers to hire casual labour. On other occasions, workers' union have not endorsed Chinese employment. They have merely argued that almost all big investors and employers in Zambia flout labour laws every now and then

                                                                          1. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2011/11/05/mineworkers-union-zambia-refuse-blame-chineseowned-mining-firms-flouting-labour-laws/
                                                                          2. https://www.reuters.com/article/zambia-mining/zambias-chinese-owned-copper-plant-workers-strike-idINLDE72O0NI20110325

                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            4.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            This has not happened. Students at the Confucius Institute usually attend, rather than local groups

                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                5.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                Skip

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Through the Embassy, organisations from China have in the past donated to women initiatives in Zambia, including the foundation of Esther Lungu, the former First Lady of Zambia

                                                                                1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cezm/eng/sgzxdthxx/t1797881.htm
                                                                                2. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2017/04/07/wynter-kabimba-challenges-chinese-embassy-k200000-cash-donation-esther-lungu-foundation/

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                None of the reviewers was in a position to offer concrete evidence. All they had were hunches and speculations

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  6.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Please refer to the responses in question 5. This has happened quite frequently, but the people who are targeted are usually people of political influence.

                                                                                  1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/webSkipping.htm
                                                                                  2. https://www.znbc.co.zm/news/chinese-community-donates/
                                                                                  3. http://en.people.cn/n/2014/0601/c90883-8735458.html

                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                  On this score, the URL on my side has been working properly. Chinese organisations have donated mainly to orphanages rather than religious institutions or causes. Kabwata orphanage, which is one of the most vibrant in Lusaka has been a beneficiary For more, please consult: Link

                                                                                  1. http://en.people.cn/n/2014/0601/c90883-8735458.html

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  7.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  in 2016 Zambia launched a Chinese-funded digital television project catering for 500 villages. The project was part of the Access to Satellite TV for 10,000 African Villages. This was the initiative StarTimes Group.

                                                                                  1. http://en.cidca.gov.cn/2018-06/26/c_261135.htm

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 4 anonymous experts.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    8.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    There is no evidence of this on television or social media. In fact, many young people in Zambia take an alarmist perception of China

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 4 anonymous experts.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        9.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        If celebrities did this, they would incur the ire of many Zambians, on whom they depend for their fame. Those in government usually curry favour with China, but not those who are outside government

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 4 anonymous experts.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            10.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            There has been a change of government in Zambia since August 2021, so we are yet to see how the new local government officials will treat China. Historically, such officials sold China's propaganda

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              The answer for this was No as there is no evidence to support such

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Zambia is beset by a lot of problems, that range from unemployment, poverty and inequality. The Zambian government has also incurred a lot of debt that has reduced the government's capacity to provide public goods such as education, basic healthcare and electricity. China is usually blamed for some of these factors and so the majority of Zambian do not have a positive view of China. There are some who welcome Chinese employment and goods, and these are typically Zambians who work in Chinese firms, and without this low-paying opportunity might otherwise be unemployed. Thus, their attitude toward China is that of resignation rather than convincing endorsement of PRC.

                                                                                                    Answered by 3 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                    Military

                                                                                                    The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Russia and Israel have dominated this sphere of imports

                                                                                                    1. https://tradingeconomics.com/zambia/imports/russia/arms-ammunition-parts-accessories

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    There was some debate among participants on this matter because if rumours are that China is involved in training some security personnel in Zambia, then maybe it also exports some military or law-enforcement equipment

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Zambia has no capacity to produce and export military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC

                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          This does not happen

                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              This has not happened, at least thus far

                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  It should be noted, however, that Chinese communities and businesses in Zambia have been involved in disaster relief initiatives

                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      This has not happened. It is a result of Zambia's general stability from armed conflict, and the country's vast geographic distance from China

                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          There have been rumours of Chinese personnel training Zambians in Zambia.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              At the moment, Zambian peacekeeping personnel are usually trained under the auspices of the United Nations and the African Union

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  This is not happening, but it might change. It should be noted that in a country where the political space is not dominated by the military, there is little incentive for China to coddle retired military officers from Zambia. In Zambia, China targets influential politicians

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      The response to the previous question applies here, too

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          This, again, is not the case.

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            Zambia is not a militarized country, and hence there is little justification for such

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                              Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                              The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              There is not extradition treaty between Zambia and China

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  This is mostly done at the SADC or AU level

                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                    Things might change in the future is the risk of terrorism emerges in Zambia. Zambia has been mute on China's internal terrorism concerns, thereby eliminating the basis for agreements to combat it

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Individual Chinese immigrants/employers do cause some havoc, but to a marginal degree

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          There is not persuasive evidence. It should be noted rather, that Chinese entities have benefited from lucrative contracts in Zambia, but the funding for such contracts came from China in the first place

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              The PRC has usually clung to the mantra that it will be close to any Zambian government

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  If there are Chinese in Zambia, then they have not been vocal about their opposition to the Chinese government

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      While the answer is negative this needs qualification because of the proximity that entities such as Huawei have with the Chinese government. From this background, if Huawei technology has been used in Zambia, it would not be farfetched to suspect that the Chinese government can benefit or have access to it

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          But there have been speculation about Chinese police training Zambian police

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Zambia is against people who meddle in China's internal affairs but the government has never had to be compelled to arrest such individuals. In any case, Zambia is mostly worried about anti-Chinese sentiment among Zambians rather minority groups from China.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 3 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      It is noteworthy that this has happened due to misbehaviours of Chinese individuals. They actually broke Zambian laws, and it was the initiative of the government to deport them. China might not have been happy with the Zambian government.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.africanews.com/2017/06/07/zambia-deports-31-chinese-illegal-miners-after-diplomatic-protest/

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                      There has been no evidence on this and hence the answer remains NO

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        A lot of entities are highly visible in Zambia

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.networkworld.com/article/2884554/huawei-faces-outcry-over-telecom-towers-in-zambia.html

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        The piece of evidence provided directly accords with what a worker at Lady M and the Chinese-educated founder of Plastic for Change asserted

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Huawei has actually been involved in constructing communication towers, drawing masssive backlash from Zambia

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/africa/2021-03/04/c_139783992.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Our national broadcaster, the Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) is using TopStar from China to navigate from analog to digital television.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              The link provided for by Double Think Tank somewhat justifies the positive reading even though the reviewers and the respondent did not entirely agree on the issue

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Huawei has been in the forefront of this

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/africa/2021-03/04/c_139783992.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://e.huawei.com/za/publications/global/ict_insights/201806041630/success/201808170846

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is hardly evidence of this, and Zambia is highly centralised

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      There is a road towards China-sponsored smart cities. For now there are building blocks toward it, such as the Smart Zambia Initiative

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2019-01-10/china-s-digital-silk-road-is-looking-more-like-an-iron-curtain#xj4y7vzkg
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/data

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Huawei is part of the Smart Zambia initiative, initiated during the presidency of Edgar Lungu. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/data/

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      This facility is open to Zambians doing business in China. It is also notable that Chinese currency can be used for transactions in Zambia

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.cips.com.cn/en/about_us/about_cips/direct_participants_list/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Please refer to the URL for an illustration of the positive response

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        The information was hard to come by all participants

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          A worker at Lady M, based on the Copperbelt Province had based this on a rumour that start ups, especially those involved in transport (such as Ulendo) were supported by Chinese venture-capital interests. Further verification did not establish this as fact. Final answer: No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This has been done between PRC-connected entities and companies that are neither Zambian nor Chinese

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              The answer given by a worker at Lady M was verified by the founder of Plastic For Change and a youth community activist, but does not provide evidence and hence has to be revised to 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                There are Zambians who use Wechat and Beidou, but these are mostly people who have started in China and others who have business interests and/or family members in China

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Beidou is used but not at the urging of local governments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        During the tenure of the PF, this was prevalent during the reign of the Patriotic Front. We are yet to see whether the current officials will be doing the same

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.xinhuanet.com//english/2017-02/10/c_136044806.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2017/07/29/twinning-lusaka-province-sichuan-province-transform-livelihoods-veep/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The response to the previous question somewhat applies here

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2017/07/29/twinning-lusaka-province-sichuan-province-transform-livelihoods-veep/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            While this does not receive widespread attention, it is noteworthy that within Zambia itself, politicians are usually feted by Chinese individuals and entities and plied with gifts. This is usually done as a subtle way of China extracting positive responses in situations when Chinese individuals and entities have to vie for tenders with competitors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This has been done for politicians in the ruling party. For example, when Bowman Lusambo was Minister of Lusaka Province he went to China for the 3rd Western China Public Procurement Conference during the 17th Western China International Fair being held in Chengdu, Sichuan Province. For more: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2018/10/07/lusambo-wants-a-china-town-where-all-chinese-nationals-will-conduct-their-businesses-in-lusaka/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is a very usual occurence. Even Michael Sata, Zambia's fifth president who was not known for constant travel was invited for a week to visit China. Usually, government officials meet a variety of Chinese players in both the public service and the private sector.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://sydney.china-consulate.gov.cn/eng/zgxw/202203/t20220320_10653587.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2021-02/23/c_139759645.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cezm/eng/sgzxdthxx/t1026791.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                This has happened to a marginal but dramatic degree as when Chinese nationals. In 2017, the Zambian government provoked an uproar when eight Chinese reservists were commissioned as part of Zambia's Police Service. This came in the same year when a judgement had ruled that police personnel are not allowed to have dual citizenship and to get married to foreign spouses. The Zambian government promptly reversed this move, due to pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-42413330

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The answer was later revised to 0=No because Matambo, a worker at Lady M and a youth community activist had mistaken illegal activities of a Chinese national who gave a small group of Zambians elementary military training. Regarding judicial training, China has never done such in Zambia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The PF party, during one of its last conventions as a ruling party even invited a Chinese citizen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A little more than a year to the crucial 2021 election, in July 2020 the then ruling party in Zambia, the Patriotic Front received thousands of face masks from China, to fight COVID-19. This, as argued by a community activist who has connections with the youth ranks in the PF, was used by the PF as cover to hold campaign rallies under the pretext of distributing face masks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This has been the case in the past

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Support has been rendered to political parties and individuals such as local leaders in Mungule Area, but they do not belong to the United Front Workers so this could also be revised to 0=No if belonging to the United Front Workers is the sine qua non

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          This has mostly been done in subtle ways, such as in 2006 when Chine threatened to cut ties with Zambia if Michael Sata had won the election

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.ft.com/content/d6d5d176-3d0a-11db-8239-0000779e2340

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            This is more than common. It is actually predictable that everytime Zambian politicians in the ruling party meet with their Chinese counterparts, they usually make references to the "all-weather" friendship that the countries share. References is also usually made to China's contribution towards the construction of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway (TAZARA).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202107/1228521.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://za.china-embassy.gov.cn/eng/zfgxss/201707/t20170712_6137769.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. http://english.scio.gov.cn/internationalexchanges/2020-12/29/content_77060192.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2016/03/20/president-lungu-hails-china-zambia-relations/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2018/09/22/china-is-an-all-weather-friend-lusambo/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6. http://web.sabc.co.za/sabc/home/channelafrica/economy/details?id=d67c88e3-930d-487f-8aed-7ec5ec976558&title=China%20Railway%20to%20visit%20Zambia%20over%20planned%20train%20system

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This has happened in plenty Chinese facilities, especially in Chinese casinos, restaurants and shopping marts that have become a major feature of Zambia's infrastructure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. tps://diggers.news/local/2022/04/18/kakubo-and-the-cement-story-public-reacts-after-minister-receives-gift-from-chinese/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Gladys and Kangwa could not offer persuasive evidence of this. There was an incident when Zambian Foreign Minister Stanley Kakubo was seen accepting what appeared to be be a gift from the Chinese running Sinoma mine. It was that which swayed the reviewers, but hardly counts as watertight. For more: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://diggers.news/local/2022/04/18/kakubo-and-the-cement-story-public-reacts-after-minister-receives-gift-from-chinese/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mostly to train locals. There have been cases of illegal military training, outside of the laws of Zambia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.africanews.com/2018/10/06/kenya-zambia-arrest-chinese-threats-to-national-security//

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                It should be said, though, that members of parliament in the previous regime took trips to China

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Actually, members of the Chinese government even attended a party conference of the Patriotic Front (PF) at the time when the PF was in power. However, the socialist party invited the Cuban Ambassador to their conference, the PF government was angered. The PF government actually expelled the Cuban Ambassador

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.africanews.com/2018/04/02/zambia-expels-cuban-ambassador-for-backing-new-opposition-party/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cezm/eng/sgzxdthxx/t1793536.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2016/03/01/114195/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Previous Ambassador to Zambia, Li Jie presided over events at which the Communist Party of China presented the Patriotic Front with the Epidemic Prevention and Control Materials Aid. More information was posted on the website of the Chinese Embassy: Link Members of the Patriotic Front youth had met with Chinese officials at the Chinese Embassy to raise concerns about the then opposition party in Zambia the United Party for National Development. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cezm/eng/sgzxdthxx/t1793536.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2016/03/01/114195/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There is simply no evidence of this

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Miles Sampa, who was at the time saving as Mayor of Zambia's capital city was told to halt his uninvited inspections at Chinese-run firms where he found evidence of labour abuse. The government led attacks on their own member, all in an effort not to offend China

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.lusakatimes.com/2020/05/27/milesmiles-unreservedly-apologises-to-the-chinese-community-and-government-leaders/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Citizens and students based in China steer clear of politics. Zambian politicians in China tend to tow the Zambian government's line of non-interference in the internal affairs of partner states

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 3 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              When the PF was an opposition party, it had described Taiwan as a country. It changed its tone after coming to power. Leading up to 2006 general elections in Zambia, China said it would have nothing to do with Zambia if the PF won because of its description of Taiwan as a country

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2006-09/05/content_682036.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 4 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Usually this is done as support for the developing world leaders

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This is usually characterised as showing support for China's territorial integrity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There has been silence on this matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On this score as well, Zambia has remained silent and it has never invited the Dalai Lama

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There has been silence on this, too

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Media
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Academia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Military
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Domestic Politics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Open
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Cards