Vietnam

$3,694.0
98.1M
Ranking
43/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

113/ 364
Executive partner
National Bureau of Asian Research
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

29%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

34%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

35%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Vietnam had a GDP per capita of US$3,694 and a total population of 98.1 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 1.2 million people, or 1.2% of the total population.

Vietnam established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1991. Vietnam was ranked 174th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Not Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 19/100.  

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    10.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    11.1% / 34%
  • Economy
    60.0% / 33.6%
  • Society
    11.4% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    54.5% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    36.4% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    32.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    63.9% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

          Hide
          3.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          11 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          15 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          15 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          5 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          23 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          13 countries chose this answer

          71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

              Hide
              4.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              37 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              16 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              2 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                  Hide
                  5.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  18 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  10 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                      Hide
                      6.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      2 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      44 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      19 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      14 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      0 countries chose this answer

                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      You can find in link 1 that there are some of Chinese shareholders in VNG such as: Tenacious Bulldog Holdings Limited, Prosperous Prince Enterprises Limited and Shen Hao. Rumor said that Tenacious Bulldog Holdings Limited and Prosperous Prince Enterprises Limited relates to Tencent Holding Limited – a Chinese game company. The second link is a popular web portal and e-magazine in Vietnam, which belonging to VNG Corporation. VNG has Chinese shareholders but insignificant.

                      1. https://viettimes.vn/dich-chuyen-so-huu-o-vng-post144358.html
                      2. https://zingnews.vn/

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                        Hide
                        7.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        3 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        22 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        21 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        6 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        23 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        7 countries chose this answer

                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                            Hide
                            8.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            38 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            13 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            7 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            15 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            8 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Not Found

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                Hide
                                9.
                                Pressure

                                In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                1 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                57 countries chose this answer

                                4/ Yes

                                24 countries chose this answer

                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Not Found

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                    Hide
                                    10.
                                    Effect

                                    In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                                    Skip

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      Skip this question because I don’t have any evidence for this argument, but I believe the answer is “yes”. For security reasons and keep good relationship with China, some news related to China need to be carefully censor such as border and sea disputes.

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                        Hide
                                        11.
                                        Effect

                                        In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        44 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        In Vietnam, China is not considered as a country which have good human right implementation. Media in Vietnam have reported a lot news regarding to some alleged human rights violations in China. I did try to research about the term of “China respect Human rights”, “no human right abuse in China” or relating, but there is no result or something significant related. In fact that, media would not be allowed to say that “PRC has human right abuse” in official channels because of political reasons. However, by reporting news about Xinjiang, Hong Kong, Tibel, Tiananmen in China also make public significantly concern about PRC has problem with human right.

                                        1. http://cand.com.vn/Binh-luan-quoc-te/Dang-sau-lenh-trung-phat-cua-phuong-Tay-voi-Trung-Quoc-634813/
                                        2. https://tuoitre.vn/150-thuong-hieu-toan-cau-co-the-vi-pham-nhan-quyen-o-tan-cuong-20210330095454911.htm
                                        3. https://vnexpress.net/tag/nguoi-duy-ngo-nhi-835419
                                        4. https://trithucvn.org/trung-quoc/nguyen-nhan-nao-khien-trung-quoc-gia-tang-dan-ap-nguoi-duy-ngo-nhi.html
                                        5. https://tuoitre.vn/anh-to-bi-trung-quoc-bit-mieng-ve-van-de-tan-cuong-20210326161135494.htm
                                        6. https://www.facebook.com/quocan.mai/posts/10214546502928827
                                        7. https://vnexpress.net/topic/bieu-tinh-chong-du-luat-dan-do-o-hong-kong-23993
                                        8. https://thanhnien.vn/the-gioi/hong-kong-bieu-tinh-lon-nhat-sau-bau-cu-1157197.html

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                          Hide

                                          Academia

                                          The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                          1.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          0/ No

                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          See below note.

                                              Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                              Hide
                                              2.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              0/ No

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              27 countries chose this answer

                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              See below link.

                                              1. https://vi-vn.facebook.com/vienkhongtuhanuvn/

                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                Hide
                                                3.
                                                Exposure

                                                My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Yes, Chinese is a foreign language from 6-12 grades, but no, Vietnam does not receive free educational books and teachers from PRC; textbooks used in the Chinese language curriculum in Vietnam’s schools must conform with Vietnam’s official policy, thus, Chinese language books that contain China’s claims in the South China Sea are banned in Vietnam

                                                1. https://hoc360.net/chuong-trinh-giao-duc-pho-thong-mon-tieng-trung/

                                                  Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                  Hide
                                                  4.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                      Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                      Hide
                                                      5.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                      72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Academic institutions that have received financial support from PRC entities include, but are not limited to, the Hanoi University that has a Confucius Institute, and the Ho Chi Minh Academy of Politics (HCMA), the central training institution of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam. The HCMA has received financial support from the PRC in the past, but not in the period from Jan 2020.

                                                      1. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202011/10/WS5faa2452a31024ad0ba932df_2.html

                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                        Hide
                                                        6.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        47 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                            Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                            Hide
                                                            7.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                            69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                              Link The COVID pandemic since Jan 2020 makes this activity impossible, but this kind of exchange is normal in Sino-Vietnamese relations.

                                                              1. http://marx.dlut.edu.cn/info/1072/3617.htm

                                                              Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                              Hide
                                                              8.
                                                              Pressure

                                                              In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not Found

                                                                  Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  9.
                                                                  Pressure

                                                                  In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                                  Skip

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                    Although there is no report in the Internet about a specific case, but Vietnam’s scholars and academics are aware that they may be harassed and punished if they are too critical of China, especially in sensitive issues related to China’s “core interests”. There is self-censorship among Vietnamese academics about this. Thus, although there may be no specific case, the pressure is real and PRC punishment serves as a deterrent.

                                                                      Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      10.
                                                                      Effect

                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                          Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          11.
                                                                          Effect

                                                                          In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                          Skip

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                          77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            The fact is teachers and professors in Vietnam generally avoid the discussion of sensitive political issues in general as well as those related to China. There is little report about this state of affairs perhaps because it is taken for granted.

                                                                              Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                              Hide

                                                                              Economy

                                                                              The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                              1.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              MoreHide
                                                                              2.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                  Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  3.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  4.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                      Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      5.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      6.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                          Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          7.
                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                          My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Numerous incidents of PRC using different pretexts to delay or block temporarily imports of goods, mostly perishable agricultural produces, at border gates. Incidents happened during the COVID pandemic can be said as a response to the pandemic and not an example of China’s coercion: Link But there are numerous incidents that happened before the COVID pandemic: see below links.

                                                                                          1. https://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-doanh/thi-truong/500-xe-container-cho-nong-san-xuat-khau-sang-trung-quoc-tac-o-cua-khau-tan-thanh-578588.html
                                                                                          2. https://vietnamnet.vn/vn/kinh-doanh/thi-truong/trung-quoc-ap-dung-may-soi-nong-san-500-xe-container-thanh-long-tac-o-cua-khau-559954.html

                                                                                            Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            8.
                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                            In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              Because the government of Vietnam discourages businesses from engaging in political issues in general, even more so in sensitive issues related to PRC. So the best answer is NOT AVAILABLE.

                                                                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                NO for the period from Jan 2020 on, but YES in industrial parks open to all foreign investment, not just from the PRC. The VCP Politburo put forward, in 2018 and again in 2019, two major attempts to establish special economic zones to attract investment anticipated to be mainly from the PRC, through the passing of the Special Zones Act. However, both attempts failed due to strong popular protests

                                                                                                1. https://chinadialogue.net/en/business/11154-public-criticism-pressures-vietnam-to-back-down-on-new-economic-zones/
                                                                                                2. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/politics/article/2149785/vietnamese-see-special-economic-zones-assault-china
                                                                                                3. https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/Vietnam-s-economic-zones-derailed-by-anti-China-protests
                                                                                                4. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/722691/pdf

                                                                                                  Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                      Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                      Society

                                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      1. https://www.facebook.com/DoanBaoChau21165/posts/10158505119528965
                                                                                                      2. https://www.facebook.com/groups/npoforum/posts/2705598213092287/
                                                                                                      3. https://www.facebook.com/groups/nhabaocongdan/posts/1619605508429214

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      As I observed, there are very few local groups discussing on their view of Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet or Xinjiang issues. Although, it’s not difficult to find the story about those sovereigns on Internet in Vietnam. However, when it come to “promotion of Peaceful Reunification”, there are only some small groups who care about human right, minority ethnic or culture and territorial disputes show interesting about it.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            1. Strengthening the relationship between the Vietnam Trade Union and All-China Federation of Trade Unions: See first article. 2. Emulation and Commendation Committee visit All-China Federation of Trade Unions: See second article. 3. Vietnam Labor Confederation attended an online international conference hosted by ACFTU: See third article.

                                                                                                            1. https://laodong.vn/cong-doan/cung-co-moi-quan-he-giua-cong-doan-viet-nam-va-tong-cong-hoi-trung-quoc-763314.ldo
                                                                                                            2. http://thiduakhenthuongvn.org.vn/dien-dan/trao-doi-kinh-nghiem-khen-thuong-tai-trung-quoc
                                                                                                            3. https://laodong.vn/cong-doan/tong-ldldvn-du-hoi-nghi-quoc-te-ve-phong-trao-lao-dong-trung-quoc-923399.ldo

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          There are a few entities provide service to watch PRC TV channels

                                                                                                                          1. https://tiengtrunghsk.vn/xem-tv-trung-quoc-tai-viet-nam-tai-sao-khong/
                                                                                                                          2. https://laptruyenhinhhd.com/lap-dat-truyen-hinh-trung-quoc-35/

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                    In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                        In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                            Military

                                                                                                                                            The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              Public evidence is unavailable. High-ranking and middle-ranking Vietnamese officials have received scholarships from PRC entities for their children to study in PRC universities. My information is private.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        MoreHide
                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://vtv.vn/chinh-tri/viet-nam-trung-quoc-day-manh-hop-tac-phong-chong-toi-pham-20210219194656086.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.securityweek.com/china-linked-cycldek-hackers-target-vietnamese-government-military

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vietnam joined PRC police force in “joint” patrols in the joint fishing area in the Tonkin Gulf, established in the Maritime Border Treaty of 2000, and in some areas along the land border, but the patrols are coordinated rather than joint in the sense we commonly think of it in the US. So, this answer could be considered "no" depending on the interpretation of "joint patrols"

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://vietnamnews.vn/politics-laws/835899/vietnamese-chinese-coast-guards-conduct-joint-patrol-in-tonkin-gulf.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://thediplomat.com/2018/10/china-vietnam-joint-patrols-in-the-spotlight/

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.bbc.com/vietnamese/vietnam-38508518

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There is no specific case in the last 18 months

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes in general although no specific case in the period from Jan 2020. For example, Vietnam did deport Uyghurs to PRC in the past and attracted criticisms from some Western observers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/vietnam-04212014191111.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.refworld.org/docid/5971a86013.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Vietnam does not use Huawei, ZTE, or other PRC enterprises for 5G. Vietnam uses Ericsson, Nokia, and Samsung equipment for its 5G networks, and deliberately but de facto excludes Huawei from its 5G. See below link. However, it does use a PRC enterprise for 4G. See second link. Viettel Moves Away from Huawei’s 5G Technology,” Hanoi Times, August 26, 2019 Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://hanoitimes.vn/viettel-moves-away-from-huaweis-5g-technology-42438.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://vietnamnet.vn/vn/cong-nghe/vien-thong/nha-mang-viettel-phu-nhan-cao-buoc-su-dung-thiet-bi-mang-4g-trung-quoc-521599.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Expert is 100% confident Vietnam does not use 5G. Confidence indicator is for 4G and the question overall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This has not occurred in the last 18 months

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No municipal authorities have signed contracts directly with PRC companies, but some large private companies have used Chinese technology to build their “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.sohu.com/a/417880704_114731

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PRC-connected venture capital investment directly: see first four links Indirectly: Tencent owns 20% stake in SEA Group, which owns Shopee, the largest e-commerce platform in Vietnam; Alibaba is a major investor in Lazada, the second largest e-commerce platform in Vietnam. See last three links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://vietnamfinance.vn/duong-vao-vng-cua-tencent-trung-quoc-20170628172259165.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://chanhtuoi.com/zalo-la-cua-nuoc-nao-zalo-co-phai-cua-trung-quoc-p2719.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.brandsvietnam.com/14666-Nguoi-khong-lo-bi-an-dung-sau-cac-thuong-vu-dau-tu-vao-thuong-mai-dien-tu-Viet-Nam
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://vneconomy.vn/vng-cong-bo-danh-tinh-8-co-dong-ngoai.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5. https://vir.com.vn/shopee-pulling-ahead-in-e-commerce-blitz-84027.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6. https://en.pingwest.com/a/4088
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7. https://techwireasia.com/2021/02/alibaba-and-shopee-heading-for-e-commerce-faceoff-in-vietnam/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I work focus on energy sector and I follow carefully the Chinese oversea investment to coal fired projects in Vietnam. China is one of 3 big countries invest in coal project in Vietnam beside Korea and Japan. While Korea and Japan announced to stop funding for coal power oversea due to pressure of government commit on net zero emission. China is expected to be the biggest investors on coal project in Vietnam. Therefore, there are some MoU on finance mobilization between investors and Chinese partners have been made. The Article above show that Cong Thanh Group was sign MoU with Central South Electricity Design Institute of PRC on capital arrangement for Cong Thanh coal-fired power project with the participation of local provincial leaders. Cong Thanh Group is not state own company but they got support from local authorities of Thanh Hoa province to sign this MoU, where the project located.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://baothanhhoa.vn/kinh-te/ky-ket-thu-xep-von-cho-du-an-nang-luong-sach-nhiet-dien-than-1x600mw-cong-thanh/136321.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ho Chi Minh city is the biggest cities in Vietnam and has collaborative relationship with Shanghai and Shenyang. Da Nang city – famous tourist city in Vietnam, this city has sister-city ties with Kunming and Macau city, Shandong province

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.mofahcm.gov.vn/vi/hoptac_qt/nr041014110554/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.danang.gov.vn/gioi-thieu/danh-muc?id=43&page=1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Vietnam and China have a complicated relationship. Although, in fact that, there are some trouble related to territorial disputes, security concerns, and geopolitical competition. Vietnam still need to balance and keep goodwill diplomatic with China. In general, Vietnam and China have close relationship and have a deeply rooted diplomatic history. In January 1950, the PRC became the first country to formally recognize the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The two sides formalized neighborly relations under the principles of “friendly Sino-Vietnam relations for peace, stability and prosperity.” For many years until now, China has been Vietnam's largest trading partner. There are a lot of trips taking by politicians from both countries: 1. On the morning of July 8, Chairwoman of the National Assembly Nguyen Thi Kim Ngan led a high-ranking delegation for an official visit to the PRC from July 8 to 12 at the invitation. by the Chief Commissioner of the National People's Congress (Ren Dai) of China Li Zhanshu. This trip may be funded by PRC because it stated that a high-rank politicant of PRC invited Vietnamese Chairwoman of National Assembly to take a visit to PRCSee the first link. 2. The link below showed the list of trips that the former Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung take to China: see the second link. 3. The most recently new is that Minister of National Defense of PRC took a trip to visit government/politicians in Vietnam: see the third link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://baochinhphu.vn/Tin-noi-bat/Chu-tich-Quoc-hoi-tham-chinh-thuc-Trung-Quoc/370156.vgp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://nguyentandung.chinhphu.vn/Home/chuyen-tham-trung-quoc-chinh-thuc.vgp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://nld.com.vn/thoi-su/bo-truong-phan-van-giang-don-bo-quoc-phong-trung-quoc-tham-viet-nam-20210425174557345.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Representative of the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences attended the 11th China and ASEAN Think Tank Strategic Dialogue Forum and worked with the Guangxi Institute of Social Sciences, China. See the first link. Representative of Vietnam Institute for Economic and Policy Research participate China – ASEAN Think Tank Forum (Hainan). See the second link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://gass.edu.vn/SitePages/News_Detail.aspx?categoryId=68&itemId=44635
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. http://vepr.org.vn/dai-dien-vepr-tham-du-dien-dan-mang-luoi-think-tank-trung-quoc-hai-nam-asean-lan-thu-ba-tai-trung-quoc.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The term of “campaign” in Vietnam is considered as “sensitive” actions and will not have positive view in general.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I don’t have enough evidence to answer this question

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Nhóm Nghị sỹ hữu nghị Việt-Trung Reports in the Internet about this group are not available in the period after Jan 2020, although the group still exists.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://baodantoc.vn/thuc-day-hop-tac-giua-quoc-hoi-hai-nuoc-viet-nam-trung-quoc-40186.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              China signed an agreement in 2017 at the visit of Vietnam’s leader Nguyen Phu Trong to China, according to which China would train government officials for Vietnam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://hcma4.hcma.vn/tintuc/Pages/tin-tuc-su-kien.aspx?CateID=342&ItemID=10420
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://vtv.vn/trong-nuoc/tang-cuong-hop-tac-dao-tao-can-bo-viet-nam-trung-quoc-20170919183926371.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No report available in the Internet for the period from Jan 2020. But pressure by Chinese diplomats is a “normal” in Sino-Vietnamese relations, and PRC diplomats have done so in informal ways in the past. Most Vietnamese politicians have internalized this norm, and applied self-censorship when it comes to sensitive issues related to PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://thediplomat.com/2016/01/is-china-interfering-in-vietnams-politics-with-its-south-china-sea-moves/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1355/9789814762878-027/html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No specific report available for the period from Jan 2020, but Vietnam’s leaders often refrain from addressing sensitive issues like this one. The norm is, however, Vietnam’s representative must stick to their One China Policy, which entails blocking Taiwan’s participation in international organization when China demands so. Link Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/vietnam-believes-in-one-china-policy-envoy/article29881834.ece
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1074915.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No specific report available in the Internet, but this is consistent with Vietnam’s China policy. Except for matters related to the territorial and maritime disputes in the South China Sea, Vietnam will publicly support the PRC when there is little international opposition to it. When there is substantial international opposition, Vietnam tends to stay silent.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://e.vnexpress.net/news/news/vietnam-rejects-china-s-sovereignty-claims-over-vietnamese-territories-4081006.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://jamestown.org/program/the-22-vs-50-diplomatic-split-between-the-west-and-china-over-xinjiang-and-human-rights/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Although Vietnam supports China’s sovereignty over Tibet as consistent with its “One China” policy, Vietnam remains silent about PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population. Hanoi considers this a domestic affairs of the PRC, which it does not want to interfere with. If pressed, however, Vietnam would support PRC stance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://vtv.vn/chinh-tri/viet-nam-ton-trong-va-ung-ho-cac-quy-che-lien-quan-cua-hong-kong-trung-quoc-20200702172341641.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Alexander Vuving, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
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