Venezuela

$2,157.0
28.19M
Ranking
25/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

152/ 388
Executive partner
Fundación Andrés Bello - Centro de Investigación Chino Latinoamericano
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

40%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

8%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

53%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Venezuela had a GDP per capita of US$2,157 and a total population of 28.2 million people.

Venezuela established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1974. Venezuela was ranked 159th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Not Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 14/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    36.4% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    29.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    36.4% / 33.6%
  • Society
    12.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    60.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    18.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    45.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    56.8% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    56.8% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Except for a few Facebook groups and some websites that publish information in Chinese for the Chinese community living in Venezuela, all of which have zero mainstream appeal, no media organizations/platforms were found.

  1. https://www.facebook.com/venchina/
  2. https://worldchinesemedia.com/2015/05/12/56/

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    None where found. If any do exist, they are irrelevant to the country’s media sphere.

    1. https://brnalink.com/members.html

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      the “3” level answer stems not only from the support links but also from my personal exchanges with Venezuelan journalists who have been invited by Beijing to attend media tours and undertake training courses. These types of invitations go back more than a decade.

      1. http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/zw2018/zgysj/201805/t20180522_800130433.html
      2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjbxw/t1682455.shtml

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        the “3” level answer stems not only from the support links but also from my personal exchanges with Venezuelan journalists who have been invited by Beijing to attend media tours and undertake training courses. These types of invitations go back more than a decade.

        1. http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/zw2018/zgysj/201805/t20180522_800130433.html
        2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjbxw/t1682455.shtml

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          while there are no PRC state-media broadcasted in Venezuela through local cable services, CGTN Spanish and Xinhua Spanish are available online for anyone to access. Also, Xinhua Spanish has an office in the country and up to 2018 the regional correspondent of CGTN Spanish was based in Venezuela. I personally know the CGTN correspondent who is now based in Colombia, and she corroborated the information. Also, Telesur, an international news channel sponsored by the Venezuelan government, uses CGTN Spanish footage daily. (Google search “CGTN Telesur” in the news section.)

          1. https://espanol.cgtn.com/
          2. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            no evidence was found of media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                7.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                3 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                22 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                21 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                6 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                23 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                7 countries chose this answer

                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Telesur, an international news channel sponsored by the Venezuelan government, provides daily content from CGTN and/or Xinhua. Likewise, VTV Venezolana de Television, a state-owned TV channel that serves as the mouthpiece of the Venezuelan government, also regularly usus content from PRC state-fund media. Nonetheless, it could not be verified if the content is provided for free, paid, or through some kind of partnership between Chinese state media and Telesur and VTV.

                1. https://videos.telesurtv.net/es/content/270172
                2. https://www.telesurtv.net/news/china-lanza-mision-tripulada-estacion-espacial-20210616-0043.html
                3. https://www.vtv.gob.ve/xinhua-once-anos-despues-mujer-fotografia-emblematica-historia-vida-transformada/

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                  8.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  38 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  8 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  a review of mainstream Venezuelan media, both on their websites and in their print editions, does not show the presence of PRC media or government advertising.

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      No evidence was found of journalists been pressured or coerced by the PRC government and/or related institutions. This is highly unlikely to happen in Venezuela since pressure and coercion are carried out by local authorities. There is no need for PRC to coerce/pressure local voices.

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                          10.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          No evidence was found on the indicator. This is highly unlikely in Venezuela since most media outlets are either controlled or pressured to self-censor by local authorities. There is no need for either the PRC or local authorities and media outlets to censor views critical of the PRC.

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              in Venezuela government affiliated people make commentaries and post content online that cast doubt about human rights abuses in the PRC. It’s worth pointing out that most of these people, while they may have a presence in local media with their own TV shows or dedicated content on platforms like Youtube, they are better labeled as officials or affiliates of the Venezuelan government than media personalities.

                              1. https://web.archive.org/web/20210701165203/https://twitter.com/ConElMazoDando/status/1410029328725839872
                              2. https://twitter.com/Ivan_Zerpa/status/1280977556422844416
                              3. https://twitter.com/Ivan_Zerpa/status/1273823389782687745

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                Academia

                                The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                1.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                25 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Hide
                                2.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                27 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                there is only 1 Confucius Institute in the country but it is very active and influential.

                                1. http://ubv.edu.ve/index.php/courses/instituto-confucio/
                                2. http://www.china.org.cn/world/Off_the_Wire/2016-12/17/content_39932760.htm
                                3. https://america.cgtn.com/2019/10/13/mandarin-classes-in-venezuela-on-the-rise

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                  3.
                                  Exposure

                                  My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  the support links include the study pensum established by Venezuela’s Ministry of Education. It does not include the study of Chinese.

                                  1. http://www.cerpe.org.ve/tl_files/Cerpe/contenido/documentos/Actualidad%20Educativa/Curriculo%20Educacion%20Primaria%20Bolivariana.%202007.pdf
                                  2. https://dawere.com.ve/blog/2019/06/25/programa-de-estudios-de-bachillerato-segun-el-mppe-de-venezuela/

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                    4.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Hide
                                    5.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    In Venezuela there are two think tanks or research centers whose contents are quite close to the official discourse of the PRC. Although no public records of direct funding were accessible, it is extremely likely that both institutions receive support from a PRC affiliated institution. This affirmation stems from the fact that CVECH regularly organizes activities with CCP officials, while CEEDES coordinates content and activities with the Confucius Institute of the Bolivarian University of Venezuela.

                                    1. https://cvechina.wordpress.com/
                                    2. https://www.cedees.com.ve/

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                      6.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      there are only a few low-key documented cases of Venezuelan scholars/specialists participating in such programs. Nonetheless, over the last decade, many Venezuelans have travelled to China to participate in training programs which specifically stem from bilateral agreements.

                                      1. https://cvechina.wordpress.com/2018/08/13/el-cvec-participa-en-the-visiting-program-for-young-sinologists-2018-en-la-ciudad-de-beijing/

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                        7.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        graduate scholarship programs sponsored by the Chinese government are commonplace in Venezuela. Likewise, students and professors from the think tank Centro Venezolano de Estudios sobre China go to China on a regularly basis, either to receive training or to attend academic events, all sponsored by the Chinese government or affiliate institution. Link Humania del Sur. Año 13, Nº 25. Julio-Diciembre, 2018. Neruska Rojas y Jesús Camejo. Apuntes sobre los estudios de China en Venezuela. pp. 103-120

                                        1. http://ve.china-embassy.org/esp/lywj/qian94949/t1839775.htm

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                          8.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          No evidence found.

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                              9.
                                              Pressure

                                              In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              no evidence of this was found.

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                  10.
                                                  Effect

                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  No evidence of this was found. Courses on Asia (politics, culture, history) at Venezuelan universities are very limited, so it’s highly unlikely that PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                      11.
                                                      Effect

                                                      In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      as mentioned in the previous indicator, courses on Asia (politics, culture, history) at Venezuelan universities are very limited, which is why topics on “sensitive political issues,” as defined by the PRC, or not part the curricula.

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                          Economy

                                                          The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                          1.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          despite of troubled relationship between Venezuela and the United States, the United States continues to be the countries main trading partner.

                                                          1. http://wits.worldbank.org/
                                                          2. https://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance/c3070.html

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                            2.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Venezuela’s debt to China is estimated at USD 19,000,000, and the country’s sovereign debt stands at around USD 150,000,000,000.

                                                            1. https://especiales.prodavinci.com/deudaexterna/
                                                            2. https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/how-to-address-venezuela-debt-burden-by-ricardo-hausmann-et-al/spanish?barrier=accesspaylog
                                                            3. https://www.dusselpeters.com/146.pdf

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                              3.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              India is Venezuela’s top customer of Venezuela’s extractive industries.

                                                              1. https://oec.world/en/profile/country/ven

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                4.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                several Chinese state-owned companies have a series of joint ventures with the Venezuelan government. The most important ones are in the oil and telecommunications sectors.

                                                                1. https://dusselpeters.com/CECHIMEX/Revista_Cchmx_1_2019.pdf
                                                                2. https://dusselpeters.com/144.pdf

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  5.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Venezuela is a prospective member of the AIIB, as the country has not yet paid its corresponding economic contribution.

                                                                  1. https://dialogochino.net/es/comercio-y-inversiones-es/39049-explicador-america-latina-y-el-banco-asiatico-de-inversion-en-infraestructura/
                                                                  2. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    6.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    no evidence was found.

                                                                    1. http://www.srcic.com/silk-road-members/?page=3
                                                                    2. https://www.bricaistanbul.com/overview/brica-members/
                                                                    3. https://www.brgcc.hk/

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      7.
                                                                      Pressure

                                                                      My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Aun cuando no ha existido una coerción de China en contra de Venezuela, entre otras razones porque la relación entre los dos Estados ha sido cordial, sí podemos llegar a decir que ha existido cierto tipo de condicionalidad económica impuesta por parte de China al momento de hacer negocios con este país suramericano.

                                                                      1. https://repository.urosario.edu.co/bitstream/handle/10336/11405/CardonaRomero-Ana-2015.pdf?sequence=1
                                                                      2. https://dusselpeters.com/CECHIMEX/CuadernosdelCechimex20131.pdf

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        8.
                                                                        Pressure

                                                                        In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            9.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            No evidence found.

                                                                            1. http://fta.mofcom.gov.cn/english/fta_qianshu.shtml

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              10.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              47 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              11.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              76 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Hide

                                                                              Society

                                                                              The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                              1.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              no evidence of this was found. If groups do exist, they are irrelevant to the political and social discourse in the country.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  2.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  no evidence of this was found. If groups do exist, they are irrelevant to the political and social discourse in the country.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      3.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      no evidence of this was found. This is highly unlikely since labor unions in Venezuela have mainly been critical of the operations of Chinese companies in the country.

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          4.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              5.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      The general programming of Venezuelan TV channels "Venezolana de Television" and "Televen" transmit Chinese soap operas and other TV programs but they are not popular.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          the PRC and PRC related topics are basically nonexistent in local productions.

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              local celebrities rarely publish content related to the PRC.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  multiple Venezuelan government institutions and officials regularly publish and share propaganda narratives from the PRC, including de facto president Maduro.

                                                                                                                  1. https://twitter.com/cancilleriave/status/1410435055466520576
                                                                                                                  2. https://www.elnacional.com/venezuela/politica/maduro-se-solidariza-con-china-y-rechaza-protestas-en-hong-kong/

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      we rather not answer the question since there are no surveys or information on the matter.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                        Military

                                                                                                                        The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.dw.com/es/buque-hospital-chino-llega-a-venezuela/a-45604851
                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.globalresearch.ca/chinas-pla-troops-venezuela/5673593

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            members of the Venezuelan military have received training in PRC but we could not verify if training has been specifically in peacekeeping.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Many high-ranking Venezuelan military officials have been involved in corruption scandals across the years, including many related to Sino Venezuelan joint-ventures and the acquisition of equipment/commercial goods in China, mostly in the form of middlemen or figureheads for front-companies.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://transparencia.org.ve/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Sanciones-Internacionales-TV-.pdf
                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.infobae.com/america/venezuela/2021/01/18/revelan-como-opera-la-red-liderada-por-alex-saab-testaferro-de-nicolas-maduro-para-comercializar-el-petroleo-venezolano/
                                                                                                                                              3. https://elpais.com/internacional/2021-10-18/ee-uu-busca-convertir-a-alex-saab-en-la-garganta-profunda-del-chavismo.html

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Vladimir Padrino Lopez, commander in chief of the Venezuelan Armed forces, is constantly advocating for mor coordination with the PLA, including in the book he published used as the first link.

                                                                                                                                                1. http://www.aviacion.mil.ve/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/La-Escala.pdf
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.infobae.com/america/venezuela/2020/09/27/el-dictador-nicolas-maduro-ordeno-la-creacion-de-un-consejo-cientifico-militar-para-fabricar-armamento/

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                  My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                  Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                  The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  A pesar de que no existe un Tratado de Extradición entre ambos países, sí hay evidencia que permite afirmar que ha existido cierto tipo de intercambios de alto nivel relativos a los temas de justicia entre el Ministerio Público de Venezuela y la Fiscalía Popular Suprema de China. Adicionalmente, se tiene que en el año 2001 se firmó un Memorando de Cooperación entre los Tribunales Supremos de ambos países.

                                                                                                                                                  1. http://spanish.peopledaily.com.cn/n3/2016/0322/c31620-9033745.html
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.academia.edu/7624453/ACUERD_SUSCRITOS_ENTRE_LA_REPUBLICA_BOLIVARIANA_DE_VENEZUELA_Y_LA_REPUBLICA_POPULAR_CHINA_REGISTRADOS_POR_LA_EMBAJADA_EN_BEIJING_AL_25_DE_MARZO_2010

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      cooperation has been on the military side and at a government level, no evidence o specific cooperation of law enforcement authorities.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        no evidence was found.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            no evidence was found.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                This is highly unlikely if not close to impossible due to the close relationship between the Venezuelan and the PRC governments.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    no evidence was found of triads operating in Venezuela.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                            My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        there are no telecommunications providers (cellphone coverage and internet services). Nonetheless, ZTE and Huawei provide telecommunications infrastructure equipment and support services.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.telesurtv.net/news/maduro-inversiones-huawei-eeuu-20190524-0001.html
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.finanzasdigital.com/2021/02/la-infraestructura-nacional-de-telecomunicaciones-en-la-sociedad-de-la-informacion/

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Huawei and ZTE are the main equipment providers of CANTV, Venezuela’s state-owned telecommunications provider, also one of the main providers of cellphone coverage in the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.computerworld.es/tecnologia/nicolas-maduro-anuncia-inversiones-en-huawei-para-el-desarrollo-del-4g-en-venezuela
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.finanzasdigital.com/2021/02/la-infraestructura-nacional-de-telecomunicaciones-en-la-sociedad-de-la-informacion/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Huawei and ZTE are the main equipment providers of CANTV, Venezuela’s state-owned telecommunications provider, also one of the main providers of cellphone coverage in the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.computerworld.es/tecnologia/nicolas-maduro-anuncia-inversiones-en-huawei-para-el-desarrollo-del-4g-en-venezuela
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.finanzasdigital.com/2021/02/la-infraestructura-nacional-de-telecomunicaciones-en-la-sociedad-de-la-informacion/

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              the Venezuelan government has signed multiple agreements throughout the years with the PRC government and Chinese providers to acquire telecommunications, surveillance, and military equipment.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://elpitazo.net/politica/maduro-pago-1-080-millones-a-empresa-china-por-un-sistema-de-monitoreo/
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2020/06/19/noticia-armada-venezuela-unidades-drones-mavic.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                the central government has signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart surveillance” systems, but no city has done so independently.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    the Venezuelan government has shown interest in the matter, but nothing has happened on this matter so far.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.argusmedia.com/en/news/1941803-caracas-exploring-chinese-russian-payment-systems

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      no evidence of this was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          technological cooperation between the PRC and Venezuela has been at the government level. While some local companies have taken part on technological exchanges, it has all been through government-to-government agreements.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              the main social media/messaging apps used in the country are facebook, twitter, Instagram, youtube, and whatsapp

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://bgcreativos.com/uso-del-internet/redes-sociales-en-venezuela/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                no evidence was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Es importante destacar que entre los años 2000 y 2006, se firmaron hasta ocho Acuerdos, Memorandos de Entendimiento y/o Cartas de Intención, entre una serie de gobiernos subnacionales de Venezuela y Provincias Chinas. Esta información se encuentre en el link número 1 de esta respuesta. Sin embargo, es difícil descifrar cuales de ellos aún se encuentran vigentes y cuales no. En segundo lugar, cabe destacar la visita del Gobernador del Estado Miranda de Venezuela, Héctor Rodríguez a China en el año 2018. De acuerdo con las declaraciones oficiales se firmaron una serie de acuerdos entre esta provincia venezolana y una serie de empresas de la Provincia de Guandong en China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.academia.edu/7624453/ACUERD_SUSCRITOS_ENTRE_LA_REPUBLICA_BOLIVARIANA_DE_VENEZUELA_Y_LA_REPUBLICA_POPULAR_CHINA_REGISTRADOS_POR_LA_EMBAJADA_EN_BEIJING_AL_25_DE_MARZO_2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://www.miranda.gob.ve/index.php/miranda-acordo-negocios-por-132-millones-de-petros-con-paises-euroasiaticos/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. http://www.miranda.gob.ve/index.php/empresarios-chinos-visitaran-empresas-mirandinas/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Trips by government and military officials from Venezuela to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities have been commonplace for over a decade.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://efectococuyo.com/politica/diosdado-cabello-viaja-a-china-donde-se-reune-con-funcionarios-del-partido-comunista/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://form.chinaindex.citw.io/edit.php?t=country_5&id=25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. http://www.tsj.gob.ve/-/presidente-del-tsj-inicia-visita-oficial-a-china-para-afianzar-lazos-de-cooperacion-judicial

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Venezuelan politicians visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks on a regular basis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://web.archive.org/web/20201031194943/https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/esp/wjb/zzjg/ldmzs/gjlb/v3538/3540/t1704399.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://mppre.gob.ve/2020/12/11/embajador-plasencia-reunion-cooperacion-partido-comunista-china/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. http://mppre.gob.ve/2020/01/16/canciller-arreaza-reunion-china-partido-comunista/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              This is prohibited by Venezuelan law, and no evidence was found on illegal funding.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cases of bribes, back-door dealings, and corruption that have benefitted local politicians and military officials abound in the China Venezuela relationship.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://elpais.com/internacional/2018/11/27/actualidad/1543315819_586995.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://transparencia.org.ve/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Negocios-Chinos-Transparencia-Venezuela-agosto-2020.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            back in 2013, Venezuela and China signed several military and security agreements that are still in effect. Famous among them was the case of 中国电子进出口有限公司, that was recently sanctioned by the US government for supplying the Maduro regime with security and surveillance equipment and training to control dissidence in the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://web.archive.org/web/20220125215234/http://www.minci.gob.ve/venezuela-y-china-reafirman-alianza-estrategica-con-28-acuerdos/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://web.archive.org/web/20210227053311/http://www.flacso.org/sites/default/files/I%20Boletin%20China-AL%20y%20el%20Caribe.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1194

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              there is no such group or committee established, nonetheless, as the support links indicate, there have been talks about establishing an interparliamentary friendship group.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://ve.china-embassy.org/esp/zwgx/t1872075.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. http://www.mppre.gob.ve/2021/04/27/venezuela-china-evaluan-conformacion-grupo-amistad-interparlamentario/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                high level meetings between Venezuela’s national legislature have officially met with representatives of the PRC on multiple occasions dating back over a decade.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://web.archive.org/web/20210724043316/http://china.embajada.gob.ve/noticias-mision/embajador-de-china-en-venezuela-agradecio-encuentro-con-el-presidente-de-la-anc-para-estrechar-lazos/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://www.mppre.gob.ve/2021/04/27/venezuela-china-evaluan-conformacion-grupo-amistad-interparlamentario/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. http://www.mppre.gob.ve/2019/10/14/presidente-anc-venezuela-visita-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  from 2012 onwards, the PRC government partnered with the Government of Venezuela to train Venezuelan public officials in various areas, especially those related to Public Administration issues. In 2015, an agreement was signed for the realization of training sessions for mid- and high-level public officials of the Venezuelan Government. Although the links are from 2014 and 1015 respectively, these training programs are still ongoing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.minci.gob.ve/china-y-venezuela-rubrican-16-nuevos-convenios-de-desarrollo-en-caracas/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.elimpulso.com/2012/05/25/china-donara-dinero-a-venezuela-para-formacion-de-funcionarios-publicos-de-alto-nivel/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    no evidence was found. This is highly unlikely to happen in Venezuela given that government-to-government relations are very close, so there is no need for the PRC to exert pressure on local politicians.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        no evidence was found. This is highly unlikely to happen in Venezuela given that government-to-government relations are very close, so there is no need for the PRC to exert pressure on local politicians.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            no evidence of the indicator was found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. http://ve.china-embassy.org/esp/sgxx/t1363723.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://thediplomat.com/2016/07/who-supports-china-in-the-south-china-sea-and-why/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  no official statements on Tibet by the Venezuelan government have been recorded over the last years.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      MoreHide
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