United Kingdom

$47,334.4
67.3M
Ranking
27/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

146/ 384
Executive partner
Martin Thorley
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

42%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

60%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

17%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, United Kingdom had a GDP per capita of US$47,334 and a total population of 67.32 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 393,141 people, or 0.7% of the total population according to the most recent census.

The United Kingdom established full diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1972. The United Kingdom was ranked 33rd in Reporters Without Borders' 2021 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2021 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 93/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    61.4% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    57.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    22.7% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    43.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    38.6% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    61.4% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    30.6% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 2 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

There are four UK-based media outlets identified on the World Chinese Media website: Guardian Chinese Network; British Chinese Times; British Overseas Chinese Newspaper; and British Chinese Business Daily. These news outlets, however, are no longer widely read, and the majority of their website links are either broken or are not maintained. There are some small scale publications with websites (such as Chinese Business Gazette, included in links below). More attention is paid to more mainstream PRC English-language media outlets, which are not solely focussed on the UK. Mainstream UK newspapers often comment on articles written in, for example, the Global Times.

  1. https://chinesebg.com/
  2. https://www.ukjs.co.uk/aboutus
  3. http://www.haibao001.com/newsitem/278331484
  4. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/nov/17/little-britain-chinese-media-weigh-in-on-reports-of-spat-between-liz-truss-and-uk-envoy

    Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    The “British Daily Mail General Trust Group United Newspaper Company” is listed as a local respondent for the committee of Belt and Road New Network.

    1. http://en.brnn.com/n3/2019/0425/c415308-9571930.html

      Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      In 2021 the BBC uncovered a network of British vloggers who were either paid to produce content favourable to the PRC, or received privileged access to PRC government events in exchange for their content. ASPI also notes that UK-based social media influencers, alongside influencers from Canada, Germany and Ghana, partook in a ‘A Date with China’ (中国有约) media tour of Xinjiang in May 2021. This tour was organised by the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC). However, there is little evidence of UK significant media organisations or journalists engaging in this behaviour.

      1. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-57780023
      2. https://s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/ad-aspi/2021-12/Borrowing mouths to speak on Xinjiang-2.pdf

        Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        The PRC often subsidizes journalist and media ‘trainings’, however these seem to be largely geographically focussed on countries in the Belt and Road Initiative. The UK is not at the core of the BRI, and does not seem to be the focus of these efforts. However, the PRC has hired UK-based online influencers to amplify favourable narratives.

        1. https://www.businessinsider.com/china-taught-foreign-countries-journalists-how-to-restrict-speech-2018-11?r=US&IR=T
        2. https://freedomhouse.org/report/special-report/2020/beijings-global-megaphone
        3. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2022/jan/22/china-hires-western-tiktokers-to-polish-its-image-during-2022-winter-olympics
        4. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/china-state-tv-channel-cgtn-enlists-uk-student-influencers-dw9v5sbnc

          Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          The major PRC state-backed media outlets all publish in English.

          1. http://en.people.cn/
          2. https://www.globaltimes.cn/index.html
          3. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/
          4. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/china/index.htm
          5. https://www.cgtn.com/
          6. https://english.cctv.com/

            Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

            Hide
            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            Yes

            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Prior to February 2021, China Global Television Network (CGTN) was the primary PRC-owned outlet in the UK. At this time CGTN was expanding its UK operations. However, an investigation by the UK regulatory body Ofcom found that CGTN’s broadcasting licence was held by an entity that had no editorial control over its programming. As such, Ofcom decided to withdraw CGTN’s broadcasting license on the basis that it lacked editorial control, and that this editorial control was likely exercised by the Chinese Communist Party. CGTN was issued with a fine, and no longer has a broadcasting licence, but remains a significant source of PRC-linked media content in the UK.

            1. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/04/world/europe/uk-china-cgtn-license.html
            2. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/articles/celkpjz7dz1o

              Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              The UK-Chinese Times published an insert from the People’s Daily (the official mouthpiece of the CCP) from 2010 to 2018, but this publication is no longer widely in circulation. The Telegraph previously contained a “China Watch” section funded by the state-controlled outlet China Daily. However, The Independent now has an agreement with China Daily to platform China Watch.

              1. https://freedomhouse.org/report/special-report/2020/beijings-global-megaphone
              2. https://www.ft.com/content/f5d00a86-3296-11e8-b5bf-23cb17fd1498
              3. https://www.independent.co.uk/asia/china/china-daily

                Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

                Hide
                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Until April 2020, the UK newspaper the Telegraph contained a ‘China Watch’ section, which was funded by the PRC and written by Chinese state journalists. The Telegraph was reportedly paid £750,000 a year for producing this material. However, following a backlash, this section was removed from the newspaper. The Independent now has an agreement with China Daily to platform China Watch. During the initial COVID-19 outbreak, the PRC flooded social media with paid advertisements containing positive stories about the PRC’s COVID containment policies. These advertisements were targeted at the UK, alongside the US and EU.

                1. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2020/apr/14/daily-telegraph-stops-publishing-section-paid-for-by-china
                2. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2020/04/05/china-floods-facebook-instagram-undeclared-coronavirus-propaganda/
                3. https://www.independent.co.uk/asia/china/china-daily

                  Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

                  Hide
                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Several UK journalists, including John Sudworth from the BBC, were forced to leave China after being denied visas and facing increasing threats of legal action1. Other UK journalists have reportedly had their devices intercepted by PRC officials, and many have faced problems renewing and accessing visas.

                  1. https://fccchina.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/2021-FCCC-final.pdf?x39796

                  Supplementary Notes

                  We consider this question to be in reference to British journalists regardless of location. If it refers to activities in British territory exclusively then we may need to reconsider.

                    Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

                    Hide
                    10.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    51 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    UK outlets by and large do not censor to appease the PRC. The only example of censorship by UK media outlets at the request of the PRC was in 2019, when the British GQ put President Xi on its ‘worst dressed’ list, and then later removed any reference to him following online backlash.

                    1. https://www.buzzfeed.com/markdistefano/gq-worst-dressed-removal

                      Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

                      Hide
                      11.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      2 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      44 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      18 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Although there are some British Twitter commentators who have denied human rights abuses in Xinjiang, there are no widely known celebrities or media commentators who openly express such sentiments. On a modest scale in terms of public recognition, former MP George Galloway has strongly supported the Chinese party-state line on Xinjiang. He is included here as a commentator and celebrity, having previously appeared on Celebrity Big Brother.

                      1. https://www.codastory.com/authoritarian-tech/influencers-xinjiang-denialism/
                      2. https://twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1311909100725456897?s=20&t=cD4RRVQOGIQ_za90JvZawg

                        Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley and Sam Hogg

                        Hide

                        Academia

                        The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                        1.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                        More

                        0/ No

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        6 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        31 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        25 countries chose this answer

                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        There are significant numbers of research partnerships between British universities and PRC-connected entities. These linkages were the subject of a recent investigation by The Times newspaper, which revealed £240 million of Chinese-linked capital given to British universities – either as donations or as part of research collaborations.

                        1. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/british-research-could-help-china-build-superweapons-wzlcrngsj

                          Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                          Hide
                          2.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                          More

                          0/ No

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          14 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          31 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          27 countries chose this answer

                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          By 2019, there were at least 29 Confucius Institutes in the UK according to the Conservative Party Human Rights Commission (CPHRC) report into Confucius Institutes in the UK (and repeated in a report on UK-China ties in higher education by The Policy Institute at King’s College London and the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business and Government at the Harvard Kennedy School). The CPHRC report states that this was at the time “the second largest number in the world after the United States” and that the Confucius Institutes are connected to many major higher education institutions “such as Edinburgh, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Cardiff and University College London”. The report also states that there were, at the time, 148 Confucius classrooms in the UK.

                          1. https://conservativepartyhumanrightscommission.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/CPHRC_Confucius_Institutes_report_FEBRUARY_2019-1.pdf
                          2. https://www.kcl.ac.uk/policy-institute/assets/china-question.pdf

                            Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                            Hide
                            3.
                            Exposure

                            My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            46 countries chose this answer

                            4/ Yes

                            35 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            The House of Commons Library states that “most schools teach one or more of French, German and Spanish, but the Government does not promote the teaching of particular languages”. There is statutory guidance on teaching foreign languages to students aged 7-11 years old, but the language selection is not included in the guidance. Within this loose framework, a number of primary school students will receive Mandarin Chinese language classes, but this is not mandated and may come from other sources, most notably the “Mandarin Chinese for Primary Schools” initiative delivered by the UCL Institute of Education and funded by the HSBC Global Education Programme.

                            1. https://commonslibrary.parliament.uk/research-briefings/cbp-7388/#:~:text=Most%20schools%20teach%20one%20or,as%20Arabic%2C%20Japanese%20and%20Polish
                            2. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculum-in-england-languages-progammes-of-study/national-curriculum-in-england-languages-progammes-of-study

                              Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                              Hide
                              4.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              40 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              17 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              7 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              The UK’s Overseas Development Institute is listed as member of the “Belt and Road Studies Network” on the BRSN website. The Silk Road Think Tank Network lists three UK organisations amongst its members: Chatham House; the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex; and the 48 Group Club. These affiliations appear limited and aren’t prominent on the British side of the partnerships.

                              1. http://www.brsn.net/list/zhikujigou_en/index_4.html
                              2. https://archive.fo/HopGu

                                Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                Hide
                                5.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                21 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                19 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There are limited examples of PRC-connected funding for British think-tanks such as The Embassy of the PRC, Huawei, and China International Capital Corporation giving to Chatham House. Likewise, there are academic research centres and institutions receiving funding from PRC-connected entities, for example PRC funding for the National Graphene Institute at the University of Manchester. There is still a degree of uncertainty around such funding given the lack of transparency in the sector. We record an answer “2”, though it is borderline.

                                1. https://archive.ph/u1GUc
                                2. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2016-07/26/content_26232129.htm
                                3. https://www.ft.com/content/ae6968c4-b5ec-11e4-b58d-00144feab7de
                                4. https://www.prnewswire.co.uk/news-releases/tencent-cloud-collaborates-with-the-university-of-edinburgh-in-research-and-education-through-its-industry-leading-cloud-offerings-819604979.html

                                  Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                  Hide
                                  6.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There are a small number of cases of recruitment via the Thousand Talent program in the UK, though given the number of “recruitment stations” believed to be active in the country, it is highly likely that there are further instances of recruitment. An example of a known case is that of Professor Zhao Hua (赵华) at Brunel University, who is listed as an example in CCP talent recruitment literature. There are limited examples of recruitment of those without, or with very few, prior links to the PRC, most notably the British neuroscientist Professor Keith M. Kendrick. He was “the first foreign full professor who came to Sichuan province through the China 1000 Talent Scheme and the Sichuan 100 Talent Scheme”.

                                  1. https://archive.ph/en0L3#selection-435.73-435.100
                                  2. https://www.aspi.org.au/report/hunting-phoenix
                                  3. https://web.archive.org/web/20120902095140/http://www.access4.eu/China/1024.php

                                    Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                    Hide
                                    7.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                    Skip

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      This is an extremely difficult question to answer convincingly. There are very many links between the academic realms in the two countries, and this involves regular trips both ways. There is a grey area where these trips take place and it would be very difficult to discern the precise reasoning behind the invites to British scholars who visit China for academic reasons.

                                        Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                        Hide
                                        8.
                                        Pressure

                                        In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        There have been multiple cases of PRC student disruption of protests (most commonly protests held by Hong Kongese students). Though it is difficult to distinguish the extent to which the reaction by PRC students is organic or pre-organised via groups such as the CSSA, there are instances where CSSA involvement has been demonstrated. The linked report includes reference to two instances where CSSA involvement was apparent – in Manchester and Leeds.

                                        1. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2019/oct/18/hong-kong-protesters-uk-pro-beijing-intimidation

                                          Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                          Hide
                                          9.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Though there are not significant numbers of cases where academics have been censured for their research in the manner described here, when it has taken place it has been serious. The most obvious example is Dr Jo Smith Finley, a scholar at Newcastle University who was sanctioned by the PRC government because of her research on Xinjiang. “The sanctions include a ban on entering China, Hong Kong and Macau, the freezing of property in China and the prohibition of doing business with Chinese citizens and institutions.”

                                          1. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-tyne-56545200

                                            Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                            Hide
                                            10.
                                            Effect

                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ Yes

                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            The Foreign Affairs Committee published a report in 2019, discussing “autocracies’ influence on academic freedom in the UK” with significant reference to the PRC. The report identified efforts to influence curricula but didn’t identify involvement as outlined in the question above. There are questions over compromise in other respects (the possibility of self-censorship where institutions are dependent on Chinese student tuition fees, for example) but they do not amount to involvement as described here. This is a question where further evidence may become apparent in future studies – from the Confucius classroom scheme, for example.

                                            1. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201919/cmselect/cmfaff/109/109.pdf

                                              Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                              Hide
                                              11.
                                              Effect

                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Self-censorship typically occurs in the most private realm and so it would be extremely difficult to prove it without an admission by the individual involved. A recent report found 40% of academics specialising in China admitting to self censoring when teaching students from China. A thoughtful discussion of self-censorship in British universities around the topic of China is available the Higher Education Policy Institute’s report into UK universities and China.

                                              1. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/uk-scholars-more-likely-self-censor-when-teaching-chinese-students
                                              2. https://www.hepi.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/UK-Universities-and-China_HEPI-Report-132_FINAL.pdf

                                                Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                Hide

                                                Economy

                                                The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                1.
                                                Exposure

                                                The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                0/ No

                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                UK Trade Info considers China to be the UK’s third most important trading partner by combined exports and imports value. By imports alone, the PRC is now the UK’s largest partner.

                                                1. https://www.uktradeinfo.com/trade-data/overseas/2021/uk-overseas-trade-in-goods-statistics-may-2021/
                                                2. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/business/2022/02/11/chinese-exports-britain-surge-record-635bn/

                                                  Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                  Hide
                                                  2.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  While there remains some lack of clarity around precise figures, HM Treasury data suggests that PRC entities do not own more than 50% of the UK’s sovereign debt.

                                                  1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/785550/debt_management_report_2019-20_final_web.pdf

                                                    Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                    Hide
                                                    3.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    0/ No

                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    20 countries chose this answer

                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    UK extractive industries are dominated by oil and gas. Of these, China is second (behind the Netherlands) in terms of oil exports but doesn’t feature prominently in gas.

                                                    1. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/extractive-industries-transparency-initiative-payments-report-2018/extractive-industries-in-the-uk
                                                    2. https://questions-statements.parliament.uk/written-questions/detail/2021-12-03/HL4681

                                                      Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                      Hide
                                                      4.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      This is a borderline answer but we conclude that “No” is the most appropriate answer at present. State-owned China General Nuclear (CGN) will be a junior partner (with French EDF) in the Hinkley Point C Nuclear Power megaproject. If a CGN-led Bradwell nuclear power station is built then that would constitute a “Yes” in this instance, but this outcome appears increasingly unlikely. The UK’s busiest port, Felixstowe in Suffolk, is owned by Hutchison Port Holdings, a subsidiary of Hong Kong-based CK Hutchison, run by Chinese-born magnate and billionaire Li Ka-shing. Also of note in terms of water supply, China Investment Corporation owns a 9% stake in Thames Water, which provides and manages the water supply for 15 million people in and around London. None of these examples meet the criteria set in the question.

                                                      1. http://en.cgnpc.com.cn/encgn/c100083/2015-10/21/content_8ded47dfc8674339be826ce20114d836.shtml
                                                      2. https://news.sky.com/story/investing-in-britain-what-does-china-own-10345588

                                                        Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                        Hide
                                                        5.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        The UK was the first major Western country to become a prospective founder member of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.

                                                        1. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-announces-plans-to-join-asian-infrastructure-investment-bank#:~:text=In%20doing%20so%2C%20the%20UK,seek%20to%20join%20the%20AIIB%20.&text=I%20am%20delighted%20to%20announce,significant%20support%20in%20the%20region

                                                          Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                          Hide
                                                          6.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Some of the membership information is not disclosed so this cannot be answered with certainty but of available data at the time of writing, it doesn’t appear there are major UK businesses substantially involved.

                                                              Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                              Hide
                                                              7.
                                                              Pressure

                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Sanctions on British individuals have not been matched by formal sanctions on British products. However, the Chinese Chamber of Commerce has warned that there could be “a consumer backlash against British companies such as Jaguar Land Rover and Burberry” if the UK doesn’t “reverses its hostility to China”.

                                                              1. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/block-us-and-britain-will-suffer-warns-china-jzvkmkwnd

                                                                Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                Hide
                                                                8.
                                                                Pressure

                                                                In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                British fashion group Burberry faced a significant backlash as a member of the Better Cotton Initiative (which suspended its links to Xinjiang). British football club Arsenal faced a backlash in China after player Mesut Özil criticised China’s treatment of Muslims in Xinjiang.

                                                                1. https://www.forbes.com/sites/isabeltogoh/2021/03/26/as-burberry-faces-backlash-in-china-over-xinjiang-cotton-other-luxury-brands-could-face-boycott/
                                                                2. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/dec/16/mesut-ozil-row-chinas-arsenal-fans-burn-shirts-in-anger-at-xinjiang-post

                                                                  Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  9.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  The UK does not have a free trade agreement with the PRC.

                                                                  1. https://www.gov.uk/guidance/uk-trade-agreements-with-non-eu-countries

                                                                    Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    10.
                                                                    Effect

                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    There is no evidence of central or local government relaxing or removing regulatory restrictions to attract investment or economic participation from the PRC explicitly. The UK has established “Freeports” though this is part of a wider development and does not appear to be targeting the PRC over other countries.

                                                                    1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/878352/Freeports_Consultation_Extension.pdf

                                                                      Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      11.
                                                                      Effect

                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      There is no evidence that the PRC or PRC connected entity has requisitioned infrastructure or land or failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                          Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                          Hide

                                                                          Society

                                                                          The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                          1.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          There are a number of these groups active in the UK. The question of their significance is a contentious one. The groups aren’t well known among the wider population though that is beginning to change as media coverage increases. As one might expect, they are more visible in Chinese language media. See, for example, this Chinese language interview with a key member of the group in the UK (listed in evidence): “2000年2月,欧洲第一个中国统一促进会——全英华人中国统一促进会宣告成立,单声任会长”

                                                                          1. https://archive.ph/eDPbj

                                                                            Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            2.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            UWCA literature lists three members for the UK.

                                                                            1. https://archive.ph/0Aud7

                                                                              Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              3.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              While there is one significant visit that took place in 2007 between the UK’s Trades Union Congress (TUC) and the PRC’s All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), there is not regular contact, nor could we identify significant contact that has taken place more recently.

                                                                              1. https://www.tuc.org.uk/research-analysis/reports/two-systems-one-challenge

                                                                                Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                4.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                There are instances of united front-linked individuals attending Chinese diaspora related events though they don’t appear to be of great significance. As an example, Shan Sheng (His English name is spelt differently in different sources, his Chinese name is 单声: president of China Re-unification Society in the UK, the British wing of the China Council for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification) can be seen in attendance here at a local UK Henan culture and business meeting.

                                                                                1. https://archive.ph/tCpIX
                                                                                2. https://archive.ph/eDPbj

                                                                                  Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  5.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  There does appear to be activity of this nature, albeit inconsistent and not typically recent. There are people-to-people links that do not qualify, for example the All-China Women’s Federation has met with the UK’s National Alliance of Women’s Organisations which represents a number of groups. There are examples where linkages appear likely but aren’t explicit, for example in the establishment of the “UK Chinese Arts Associations” (英国华人艺术协会).

                                                                                  1. https://web.archive.org/web/20220504144359/https://nawo.org.uk/news-archives/delegation-from-all-china-womens-federation-acwf/
                                                                                  2. https://archive.ph/t7bgX

                                                                                    Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    6.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    This appears possible but we cannot ascertain with certainty that it has happened. In most notable case, British tabloid newspapers reported that the China Taoist Association acted as a front for United Front activity in engagement with British charities FaithInvest and the Alliance of Religions and Conservation. It is not clear if a donation was made directly in this instance. In other groups checked, complete data was not available.

                                                                                    1. https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-10458523/Chinese-spies-infiltrated-charity-set-Prince-Philip-met-Duke-Windsor-Castle.html

                                                                                      Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      7.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Such products are available but we do not believe they are distributed directly by PRC connected-entities freely or at a reduced priced.

                                                                                          Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          8.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          To date, there remains a spectrum of coverage on China from UK production studios (including critical documentary films as in the example) but this is an area to monitor. A relatively recent meeting between leading Chinese and UK Chinese television producers explored deeper collaboration.

                                                                                          1. https://www.bbc.com/mediacentre/proginfo/2021/34/chinas-magic-weapon
                                                                                          2. https://www.thecreativeindustries.co.uk/site-content/industries-tv-film-china-uk-tv-collaboration

                                                                                            Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            9.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            PRC funding of British “influencers” on media platforms like Youtube is well-known, but there is very little in the way of celebrities. We include George Galloway since he has shared many PRC propaganda pieces and has also appeared as a contestant on the UK's Celebrity Big Brother.

                                                                                            1. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/beijing-funds-british-youtubers-to-further-its-propaganda-war-x5gqp5fg0
                                                                                            2. https://twitter.com/georgegalloway/status/1311909100725456897?lang=en-GB

                                                                                              Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              10.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              There are limited examples of local councils referring to the PRC favourably in their coverage of partnerships and deals with PRC entities and polities but these are infrequent and less common at present. The evidence presented here covers Sheffield’s initially positive but ultimately complicated link with Sichuan. We do not believe this constitutes "regularly publish[ing] or shar[ing] propaganda narratives from the PRC".

                                                                                              1. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-south-yorkshire-36846472
                                                                                              2. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-south-yorkshire-48925175#:~:text=Sheffield%20City%20Council%20announced%20the,put%20Sheffield%20on%20the%20map%22

                                                                                                Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Unfavourable views of the PRC in the UK currently stand at historic highs.

                                                                                                1. https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2020/10/06/unfavorable-views-of-china-reach-historic-highs-in-many-countries/

                                                                                                  Answered by Martin Thorley, and has been reviewed by Sam Hogg

                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  28 local councils across the UK, including half of London councils, have purchased and use Hikvision surveillance technology or Zhejiang Dahua Technology. There is no update yet as to whether these councils have made efforts to remove this equipment from their councils. The Metropolitan Police is among 15 police forces found to use Hikvision and Dahua cameras. The Devon and Cornwall Police, and Dorset Police, together use DJI platforms and drones for emergency response along the British coastlines. These were first deployed in 2015. In 2020, there were reports of the MOD using DJI drones in order to secure training grounds at Salisbury Plains against illegal public access. Chinese components have also reportedly found their way into UK defence platforms and systems. Exception PCB manufactures printed circuit boards that are included in the F-35 and is owned by a Chinese parent company. UK MOD has dismissed this as a critical component, stating that these are ‘bare plastic boards’ supplied further up the supply chain. The government purchased two second-hand Chinese 737 airliners to convert into E-7 Wedgetail planes for the UK’s AEW&C capacity. The UK Defence Sub-Committee’s report found that seven companies operate within UK Defence that have been acquired by Chinese companies in recent years.

                                                                                                  1. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/british-using-chinese-cctv-linked-to-repression-of-uighurs-jzlkpjxhw
                                                                                                  2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-tech-china-idUSKBN2AI0QJ
                                                                                                  3. https://enterprise-insights.dji.com/user-stories/uk-police-up-their-game-against-harsh-weather-with-matrice-300-rtk
                                                                                                  4. https://insidedio.blog.gov.uk/2020/08/03/eye-in-the-sky-drones-at-salisbury-plain/
                                                                                                  5. https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/4700/documents/47986/default/

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    The UK maintains an arms embargo against China and adheres to dual-use technology export controls for China. However, technology transfer for military end-use has been reported, particularly through academic cooperation or Chinese predatory investment in strategic technologies. The UK parliament found that technology developed by a UK semiconductor technology company that was acquired by a Chinese parent company could have ended up in a Chinese naval railgun. Academic collaboration with UK universities and Chinese counterparts or through Chinese funding has covered areas including metals and alloys, aerospace physics and hypersonic technology, ceramics, peizoelectrics and rare earths, drones and radars, shipbuilding, data science, AI and facial recognition and robotics.

                                                                                                    1. https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/4700/documents/47986/default/
                                                                                                    2. https://www.civitas.org.uk/content/files/ChinaReport.pdf

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      There is no evidence of co-development in the manner described in the question.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          There is no evidence the PRC has expressed intentions to to establish a base in the UK.

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              The PLA has not participated in these activities in the UK.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  PLA military are not deployed in the UK

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      There is no evidence members of the UK military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          There is no evidence that members of the UK military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              We don't believe there are high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers that meet the conditions set in the question.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  At present, there are no high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocating for more coordination with the PLA.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Such cooperation does not appear to take place. The PRC Defence Attache to the UK has in 2020 called for the UK and China to start cooperation in these areas.

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceuk/eng/HotTopics/jianjunjie/t1801270.htm

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        The UK does not have an extradition treaty with China. The UK signed a Treaty between the UK and PRC on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters in Beijing on 2 December 2013. The Treaty entered into force in the UK on 15 January 2016. Previously, the UK had a legal mutual assistance treaty with Hong Kong as well, but in 2020 China’s foreign ministry announced in July 2020 that it would suspend the treaty.

                                                                                                                                        1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/496845/TS_10.2016_China_MLA_Cm_9199_WEB_Accessible.pdf
                                                                                                                                        2. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1042580/Treaty_List_2021.pdf
                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-hongkong-security-china-mofa-idUKKCN24T0V3

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          As part of the UK-China High Level Security Dialogue in 2016, the UK and China agreed to exchange information in the future on counter-terrorism and terrorism financing, but in the 2017 Second high-level UK-China security Dialogue there was no mention of this having gone ahead.

                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/china-uk-high-level-security-dialogue-official-statement/china-uk-high-level-security-dialogue-communique#counter-terrorism
                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/second-high-level-uk-china-security-dialogue-february-2017

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Several Chinese triad gangs are active in the UK. An EU report from 2011 found that groups such as 14K Triad, Sun Yee On, Red Sun, United Bamboo and Big Circle are active in Britain, with the greatest concentration of activity in London’s Chinatown, but with operations across larger cities in the UK such as Glasgow, Birmingham, and Cardiff. In 2019, the Times reported that Chinese snakehead gangs were feeding the resurgence of Chinese organised crime in the UK, involved particularly in people smuggling and drug dealing. There have been further reports of triad activity in 2013, such as a brawl between members of two factions of Chinese triads fought in the streets of Manchester’s Chinatown. An academic article from 2016 examines the UK’s policing of Chinese organised crime in the UK based on research from 2010 and 2014-2015. This research argues that the threat from locally based Chinese triads in the UK closely linked to Hong Kong has diminished and instead mainland Chinese networks which operate across the UK with links to mainland China have become predominant in the UK triad society. Secondly, the research argues that these triads in the UK are also changing the type of criminal activity they are involved in, such as production and export of firearms and new drugs to the UK, to smuggling counterfeit goods. The latest reporting on Chinese triad activity in the UK was from 2019, when the bodies of 30 people were found in the lorry crossing into the UK.

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/note/join/2011/453191/IPOL-LIBE_NT%282011%29453191_EN.pdf
                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/lorry-deaths-chinese-snakehead-gangs-fuel-organised-crime-in-uk-k0q97x007
                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/greater-manchester-news/men-sentenced-over-part-in-manchester-1211408
                                                                                                                                            4. https://researchonline.ljmu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10655/1/%E2%80%98Forget it%2C Jake. It%E2%80%99s Chinatown%271.pdf
                                                                                                                                            5. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232912412_From_Triads_to_snakeheads_organised_crime_and_illegal_migration_within_Britain's_Chinese_community
                                                                                                                                            6. https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/horrifying-rise-mother-snakeheads-behind-20721217

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              MI5 has stated that China has conducted industrial espionage and intellectual property theft in the UK. Concern by Parliament, the Government and intelligence agencies suggests the Chinese primarily seek to gain access to UK commercial information and innovation through collaboration with research institutes and academia, as well as through predatory investment strategies by Chinese companies investing in or acquiring UK companies particularly in tier three companies.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.reuters.com/world/uk/britains-mi5-spy-chief-says-beware-russian-chinese-agents-2021-07-13/
                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.reuters.com/world/uk/uk-politicians-be-warned-chinese-spying-threat-sun-2022-01-13/
                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.politico.eu/article/uk-seeks-to-build-great-wall-against-chinese-and-russian-espionage/
                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.forces.net/news/experts-warn-mps-about-security-risks-china-defence-supply-chain
                                                                                                                                              5. https://thediplomat.com/2022/01/uk-intelligence-agency-targets-chinas-united-front/

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                The UK’s Foreign Office network was breached in 2003 by Chinese-linked hackers. In 2022 another breach of the FCDO occurred but it is not clear whether this was linked to China. In 2020, there was a reported increase in opportunistic but state-led Chinese cyber attacks on UK companies including technical companies focussing on patient data as well as a major social care company. The attacks reportedly aim to steal information that could be of benefit to the Chinese government. In 2022. The Times and Sunday Times were also hit by a cyber attack, thought to be linked to China. This included the emails and documents of some employees and journalists. In 2021, there were also reports that British MPs (in particular those more critical of China and the CCP) had been the target of at least one successful cyber intrusion and have had a MSS cyber attack launched against them.

                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-60309335
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.wired.co.uk/article/china-coronavirus-hacking-uk-us
                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/the-times-and-sunday-times-hack-linked-to-china-mmlp0cg9h
                                                                                                                                                4. https://www.smh.com.au/world/europe/china-cyberattack-on-british-mps-exposed-20210720-p58bgy.html

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  We cannot identify proof of this having taken place.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      28 local councils across the UK, including half of London councils, have purchased and use Hikvision surveillance technology or Zhejiang Dahua Technology. There is no update yet as to whether these councils have made efforts to remove this equipment from their councils. The Metropolitan Police is among 15 police forces found to use Hikvision and Dahua cameras. The Devon and Cornwall Police, and Dorset Police, together use DJI platforms and drones for emergency response along the British coastlines. These were first deployed in 2015. In 2020, there were reports of the MOD using DJI drones in order to secure training grounds at Salisbury Plains against illegal public access.

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/british-using-chinese-cctv-linked-to-repression-of-uighurs-jzlkpjxhw
                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-tech-china-idUSKBN2AI0QJ
                                                                                                                                                      3. https://insidedio.blog.gov.uk/2020/08/03/eye-in-the-sky-drones-at-salisbury-plain/

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        There is no evidence of this having taken place.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            There is no evidence of this having taken place in the manner the questions sets out.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                We are not aware of any instances where this has taken place recently.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    There is no evidence this has taken place recently.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        These entities do not supply telecom services in the UK.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            UK providers have been ordered to remove all Huawei 5G equipment from their networks by 20271. These restrictions also apply to Huawei’s broadband networks1. Recently, it was revealed that the Prime Minister’s new communications director lobbied on behalf of Huawei to stop the ban2, but evidently this had no effect on the government’s decision.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-53403793 %0d2
                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2022/feb/07/guto-harri-reportedly-lobbied-no-10-chief-of-staff-to-stop-ban-on-huawei

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              The UK imposed restrictions on the use of PRC-linked broadband equipment. Operators are in the process of transitioning away from purchasing new Huawei equipment for fibre networks.

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-53403793

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                There is no clear evidence of PRC-connected entities supplying equipment to the UK national government, military or security services as described in the question. However, it is important to note that there is evidence of PRC influence in the UK defence industry supply chains. A Parliamentary report on this matter states “privately held companies are more common in the lower tiers of the defence supply chain and that information on their ownership is not so readily accessible, making it more difficult to clearly define whether they are subject to foreign involvement”1. The report lists several defence companies that have been acquired by Chinese-owned firms since 2010, but also asserts that steps are being taken to prevent PRC involvement in supplying equipment and services to the government.

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm5801/cmselect/cmdfence/699/69905.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Over half of local councils in London were found to be using PRC-made surveillance equipment. At least 28 councils were using video surveillance technologies made by Hikvision, the vendor to the Xinjiang police. Seven councils used technology from the PRC’s second largest surveillance equipment company, Zhejiang Dahua Technology Co Ltd. This equipment is used in the UK to monitor public spaces.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-tech-china-idUSKBN2AI0QJ

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    While Bournemouth council in Dorset appeared to be close to signing a deal with Alibaba to provide ‘smart services’, this was cancelled at the last minute over surveillance fears. UK councils were later issued guidance to avoid overseas smart technology suppliers, and analysts estimate that there are only a handful of risky smart city contracts in the UK. In the same vein, the UK has also attempted to export its own smart city infrastructure to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.ft.com/content/46d35d62-0307-41d8-96a8-de9b52bf0ec3
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-offers-to-build-smart-future-cities-together-with-china-at-china-smart-cities-international-expo

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      In the UK both the China Construction Bank Corporation London Branch and the Bank of China London Branch use CIPS.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.cips.com.cn/

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Previously, the UK actively sought PRC investment for its emerging technology companies, as well as in other sectors. In 2015, the UK joined the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and sought PRC investment in the manufacturing, nuclear energy and telecommunications sectors. By 2017, the UK received almost 60 percent of PRC foreign direct investment in the EU. Notably, in 2021 Tencent took a stake in Britain’s neobank Monzo. However, more recently the UK government has taken legislative action to limit PRC investment in the UK technology sector, in particular targeting PRC state-backed investment. Despite this, Tencent recently made a number of investments and acquisitions in the UK, including in a nuclear fusion technology company, a start-up focussed on the genomic study of rare diseases, and an open banking start-up.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://qz.com/2005972/what-the-uk-can-teach-the-world-about-engaging-with-china/
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://rhg.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/MERICS-Rhodium-Group_COFDI-Update-2020-2.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.reuters.com/markets/europe/chinas-tencent-builds-stake-uk-digital-bank-monzo-2021-12-31/
                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://beijingtobritain.substack.com/p/ukraine-and-taiwan-johnson-on-weibo?s=r

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          In 2017, the UK and China launched a memorandum of understanding for science, technology and innovation. Officials agreed this strategy would support “partnerships between academics, researchers and businesses” and extend upon “the ongoing China Research and Innovation Partnership Fund which has supported over 460 joint projects”. The priority areas for this project were stated to be “priority areas for collaboration in a variety of areas, including life sciences, food security, renewable energy and environmental technologies”.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/665199/uk-china-strategy-science-technology-innovation-cooperation.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/joint-uk-china-strategy-for-science-technology-and-innovation-cooperation-sets-new-horizons-for-closer-international-collaborations

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            The top five social media/messaging apps in the UK are: (1) YouTube; (2) Facebook; (3) WhatsApp; (4) Facebook Messenger; (5) Instagram. YouTube is owned by Google, and the remaining apps are owned by Meta. Although no PRC-connected entities are Google shareholders, it is worth noting that Google’s parent company Alphabet continues to invest and launch new products in China. Facebook similarly does not have any PRC-connected shareholders or developers.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.statista.com/statistics/284506/united-kingdom-social-network-penetration/
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://supchina.com/2020/06/18/google-parent-company-alphabet-is-back-in-china-because-it-never-left/

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence of meaningful collaboration.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Hannah Bailey, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  During the Golden Era, Manchester was targeted by then-Chancellor George Osborne as a place to direct Chinese investment, as part of his wider campaign to bring Chinese investment into the Northern Powerhouse. The launch of the Manchester China Forum was part of this and facilitated £6bn in the region. Notable projects include the Far East Consortium investment into the £1bn Northern Gateway project and the £1bn Airport City development involving Beijing Construction and Engineering Group as a major equity partner. During his 2015 speech in Chengdu, Osborne brought with him Richard Leese, the leader of Manchester, Sean Anstee, the leader of Trafford, Joe Anderson, the Mayor of Liverpool, Julie Dore, the leader of Sheffield, Michael Jones from Cheshire, Judith Blake from Leeds, Nick Forbes from Newcastle. All were council leaders.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/chancellor-speech-in-chengdu-china-on-building-a-northern-powerhouse
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.investinmanchester.com/about-us/the-manchester-china-forum

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    A paper from 2016 for the Government Office for Science found 52 formal twinning partnerships between Chinese and British cities. Cardiff is twinned with Xiamen, Manchester is twinned with Wuhan, Leeds is twinned with Hangzhou, and Wirral is twinned with Taicang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/545779/gs-16-14-future-of-cities-twinning-contact-britain-china.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Some MPs have been on such trips. In 2014, Sir Geoffrey Clifton Brown travelled to China and met members of an environment think tank, China Telecom Corporation Limited and visited two major universities. In April 2018, Conservative MP Richard Graham visited Hong Kong “to support the bilateral relationship and business development between UK and Hong Kong, and to gain understanding of Hong Kong's political, social and economic development.” The trip was donated by the Hong Kong Government and paid for in part by the International Liaison Department of the Chinese Communist Party (IDCPC).

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.wiltsglosstandard.co.uk/news/11262895.cotswold-mp-defends-trip-to-china-paid-for-by-chinese-communists/
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.theyworkforyou.com/regmem/?d=2018-04-30#24921

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Prior to the Coronavirus pandemic, the APPG on China ran annual visits to China which brought along MPs to meet Chinese officials. In 2014, the APPGC visited Xinjiang, and MPs included Caroline Dinenage MP, Brian Donohoe MP, Mark Garnier MP, Stephen McCabe MP, Roger Godsiff MP and Richard Graham MP. They met “with the Director of the Standing Committee of the Xinjiang People’s Congress and had an extensive discussion with members of the congress on the general situation in Xinjiang, relations between Han Chinese and ethnic minorities, and the freedoms of religion for members of different faith groups. Following this meeting members also saw the Vice Chairman and key members of the Xinjiang Islamic Association, before travelling to meet Deputy Director General Chen Zongrong at the State Administration for Religious Affairs, and Vice Minister Wang Chao at the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs.” There were three more visits between 2015 and 2016. In 2015, Andrea Jenkyns MP, Robert Jenrick MP, Conor Burns MP, Jamie Reed MP, Daniel Zeichner MP, and Roger Godsiff MP travelled to Beijing. In 2016, a delegation of MPs including Graham Brady MP, Henry Smith MP, Karl McCartney MP, Jonathan Reynolds MP, Jeff Smith MP, Joan Ryan MP, Roberta Blackman Woods MP, Michelle Donelan MP, Andrew Stephenson MP, and Sharon Hodgson MP travelled to Hong Kong and met senior officials including Chief Secretary Carrie Lam.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://appcg.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014-2015-Annual-Report.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://appcg.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015-2016-Annual-Report.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://appcg.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015-2016-Annual-Report.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          We note that Meiya Pico (廈門市美亞柏科信息股份有限公司) from Xiamen, PRC, claims to have provided training on digital forensics in the UK. We can't identify with total confidence who received this training on the British side so we have answered "No" but we note this here in case further evidence is available for the next round of questions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/marker-2192
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://web.archive.org/web/20201228215655/https://public.opentech.fund/documents/English_Weber_WWW_of_Information_Controls_Final.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            The recent MI5 alert to Parliament stated that Christine Lee, a political donor, was acting “on behalf of the United Front Work Department (UFWD) of the Chinese Communist party”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2022/jan/13/chinese-national-trying-to-improperly-influence-politicians-says-mi5

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Labour MP Barry Gardiner received donations worth £500,000 from Chinese-British solicitor Christine Lee. Gardiner also employed Lee’s son in his office. In an interference alert, MI5 said Lee "had been undertaken in covert coordination with the United Front Work Department [of the CCP], with funding provided by foreign nationals located in China and Hong Kong". MI5 revealed Lee was creating “links" for the Chinese Communist Party with current and aspiring MPs. Liberal Democrat Leader Ed Davey also received funding from Lee.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.standard.co.uk/news/uk/barry-gardiner-chinese-lee-sky-news-jeremy-corbyn-b976632.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-59984380
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/britain-is-finally-waking-up-to-china-s-influence-operations

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. We don't believe this has occurred publicly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Throughout the Golden Era, the Prime Minister and various Cabinet officials have made positive remarks. During a speech at the Shanghai Stock Exchange, then-Chancellor George Osborne said ‘Let’s stick together to make Britain China’s best partner in the West.” During a speech to mark President Xi’s state visit, then Prime Minister David Cameron said “China and Britain are both global powers with a global outlook. We share an interest in a stable and ordered world, in which countries play by the rules and work together to address threats to our security and to our prosperity.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/the-great-british-kowtow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/joint-press-conference-david-cameron-and-president-xi-jinping

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Former Chief Secretary to the Treasury between 2010 and 2015 Danny Alexander MP is now Vice-President of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Huawei hired Peer and former BP Boss Lord Browne to be its UK Chairman. Sir Simon Fraser, former head of the Foreign Office, founded lobbying firm Flint Global and took on Huawei. Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s former Strategic Advisor Eddie Lister “helped broker China’s purchase of its new embassy in London on behalf of the UK government — while being paid both by the property firm representing Beijing and the developer that sold the site for £255m.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.gov.uk/government/people/danny-alexander
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/revealed-how-huawei-conquered-britain-fqss396g0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/revealed-johnsons-aide-edward-lister-linked-to-both-sides-in-chinese-embassy-deal-tswqbpz62

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. We don't believe there are any instances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The All Party Parliamentary Group on China “was established in 1997 to widen the parliamentary contribution to the UK-China bilateral relationship.” To this end, it is not linked entirely with the PRC but is on good terms with PRC officials, hosting many roundtables and events on the Parliamentary Estate (mostly virtual now) and including visits to China. Though one could make a case for either answer here, ultimately the APPG isn't an official bilateral organisation (as in, for example, the German case). We answer "No" accordingly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://appcg.org.uk/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://appcg.org.uk/hello-year-of-the-rat-appcg-celebrates-chinese-new-year/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://twitter.com/appcg/status/1060151808709066752

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The APPG China has introduced many British legislators to PRC representatives. Since the pandemic, the Chinese Embassy in London has held virtual events with British legislators present, most recently for the leaving party for former Ambassador Liu Xiaoming – guests included Lord Heseltine, former Deputy Prime Minister of the UK, David Lidington, former Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Jeremy Hunt, former Foreign Secretary, Sir Oliver Letwin, former Minister for Government Policy in the Cabinet Office, Mark Sedwill, former UK Cabinet Secretary and Head of the Civil Service and National Security Adviser, Sir Vince Cable, former Leader of the Liberal Democrats, Lord Powell, Lord Sassoon, Lord Howell, Lord Bates, Lord Green, Lord O'Neill, Lord Wilson, Lord Davidson, Lord McNally, Lord Dobbs, Lord Giddens, Lord Desai, Lord Soley, Richard Graham MP, Chairman of APPCG, Mark Logan MP, Mark Hendrick MP, Lisa Cameron MP, Philip Dunne MP, Liam Byrne MP, Barry Gardiner MP.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://twitter.com/appcg/status/1060151808709066752
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://archive.vn/IIMuW

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. We don't believe there are any cases.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              British citizen Peter Humphrey was imprisoned in what was considered "a politically driven case". Donald Clarke's research demonstrates that the sentence delivered was beyond the realms of what would be expected for a case of this nature in normal conditions. For reference, the PRC has denied or attempted to deny UK citizens entry to Hong Kong on numerous occasions, such as Hong Kong Watch founder Benedict Rogers in 2017, or the Foreign Affairs Committee MPs in 2014.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/18/china-gsk-peter-humphrey-prostate-problems-confession-claim
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://scholarship.law.gwu.edu/faculty_publications/1137/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-beds-bucks-herts-38212539
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-41586529

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. We don't believe this has taken place recently.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. We don't believe this has happened recently but acknowledge this requires further research.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We haven't found evidence of this but find it difficult to provide a definitive answer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The official position of the UK government backs UNCLOS from a position of supposed neutrality. The UK has also sailed a carrier strike group through the South China Sea. The UK Government’s position on the South China Sea is “We do not take a position on competing sovereignty claims. Our commitment is to international law, particularly to UNCLOS and to freedom of navigation and overflight. We call on all parties to refrain from activity likely to raise tensions, including land reclamation, construction and militarisation, and we urge all parties to exercise restraint and behave responsibly in accordance with their international obligations. Our commitment to upholding UNCLOS is a global matter, and we will continue to raise concerns with other nations where their interpretation of UNCLOS differs from ours. We are committed to working closely with allies and partners to uphold the primacy of UNCLOS in the South China sea.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://hansard.parliament.uk/commons/2020-09-03/debates/99D50BD9-8C8A-4835-9C70-6E9A38585BC4/SouthChinaSeaFreedomOfNavigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-58015367

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      As of April 2021, the UK’s Parliament unanimously holds the position that a genocide is taking place in Xinjiang against the Uyghur and other minorities. Additionally, Parliament considered the findings of the Uyghur Tribunal that a genocide is taking place, and voted unanimously for the Government to live up to its 2007 ICJ obligations to explore the risk of genocide in the Xinjiang region. Note that this is Parliament, not the Government’s, position.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/apr/22/uk-mps-declare-china-is-committing-genocide-against-uyghurs-in-xinjiang
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://hansard.parliament.uk/Commons/2022-01-20/debates/22242466-901D-4CCA-995F-552292371002/UyghurTribunalJudgment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        We feel this questions is too loose. The question asks what stance "the country" has shown. The UK has demonstrated a wide range of stances from very many actors. There is an official line of the UK government that it recognises Tibet as part of the PRC but at the same time there is fierce criticism of the PRC on Tibet in Parliament. The stances are myriad and contradictory. Link Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Various Foreign Secretaries have been extremely critical of the National Security Law. In its most recent Six-monthly Report, the Foreign Office again raised concerned about the National Security Law. Foreign Secretary Liz Truss shared the report on Twitter. It quoted former Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab, who on 2 January 2021 said “The mass arrest of politicians and activists in Hong Kong is a grievous attack on Hong Kong’s rights and freedoms as protected under the Joint Declaration. These arrests demonstrate that the Hong Kong and Chinese authorities deliberately misled the world about the true purpose of the National Security Law, which is being used to crush dissent and opposing political views. The UK will not turn our backs on the people of Hong Kong and will continue to offer British Nationals (Overseas) the right to live and work in the UK.” Three days later, Raab issued a statement alongside the Foreign Ministers of Australia and Canada, and the US Secretary of State. It read “The National Security Law is a clear breach of the Sino-British Joint Declaration and undermines the ‘One Country, Two Systems’ framework. It has curtailed the rights and freedoms of the people of Hong Kong. It is clear that the National Security Law is being used to eliminate dissent and opposing political views.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://twitter.com/trussliz/status/1470707342165614594?lang=en
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://twitter.com/trussliz/status/1472830880691412993
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1040471/49th-Six-monthly-Report-on-Hong-Kong.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Sam Hogg, and has been reviewed by Martin Thorley

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