Ukraine

$4,835.6
43.8M
Ranking
44/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

115/ 372
Executive partner
Expert Forum
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

37%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

33%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

18%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Ukraine had a GDP per capita of US$4,836 and a total population of 43.81 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 6,000 people (not including Chinese who are naturalized as citizens of host countries, or children born locally of Chinese descent).

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1949. After Ukraine gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the two countries forged formal diplomatic relations in 1992. Ukraine was ranked 106th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and partly free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 61/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    25.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    27.8% / 34%
  • Economy
    36.4% / 33.6%
  • Society
    27.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    34.1% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    45.0% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    29.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    45.0% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

A certain Ukraine Chinese Network exists that belongs to World Chinese Media, according to databases, but its presence in the public space is insignificant. Old info from before 2015 may be obsolete because a lot has changed meanwhile in the media landscape: first of all, disappearance of most printed newspapers and a shift in the public's media consumption as a result of various crises, the war and the moving of advertising in online. More recent analysis by Radio Free Europe has not detected a Chinese presence in the media space.

  1. https://www.radiosvoboda.org/amp/information-influence-media-prc-china-ukraine/31073783.html
  2. https://www.worldchinesemedia.com/2015/05/12/56/2/

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    They exists formally, though the info about them is old and in the context of the war with Russia and Beijing's position on it, attitudes in UKR have toughened significantly, including in the media. Pro-Russian media / journalists were silenced, and to a large extent this network overlaps with the pro-China one, as the source quoted below makes clear. The media landscape in 2022 in Ukraine is quite different from 2021, not to mention previous years

    1. http://cn.brnn.com/414904/414908/index.html
    2. https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/information-influence-media-prc-china-ukraine/31073783.html

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://www.radiosvoboda.org/amp/information-influence-media-prc-china-ukraine/31073783.html

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        We are aware of many cases when journalists visited PRC for study trips, however, there is no evidence that these received trainings there

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            Yes

            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

            1. https://www.radiosvoboda.org/amp/information-influence-media-prc-china-ukraine/31073783.html

            Supplementary Notes

            Most of the PRC media do not have a Ukrainian version, however, these have a Russian version which is understood by most Ukrainians

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              6.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              19 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              0 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

              1. https://parlament.ua/ru/article/komu-prinadlezhat-ukrainskie-smi-podrobnyj-analiz/

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                7.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                Skip

                More

                Skipped

                3 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                22 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                21 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                6 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                23 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                7 countries chose this answer

                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Some information exists from a person in the media sector (influencer) that PRC-related entities have posted positive news in Ukrainian media; there is no official or public confirmation of this. Due to the current context in Ukraine, many public persons interviewed have reservations to be quoted

                  Supplementary Notes

                  Only marginal channels, in general online

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    8.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    38 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    13 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    15 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    8 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Not Found

                    1. https://www.radiosvoboda.org/amp/information-influence-media-prc-china-ukraine/31073783.html

                    Supplementary Notes

                    There is a problem with tracking advertising paid by PRC since this is not made public and often one could determine it only by the very positive content

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      We are not aware of any such cases

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          10.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                            Supplementary Notes

                            There were several channels (ZIK, 112 Ukraine, NewsOne) which were more positive on China but there is no information that media in Ukraine censored views critical of the PRC

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              This is not an issue of interest in Ukraine normally, with the multiple crises in the last years. However, we are not aware of such cases taking place

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide

                                  Academia

                                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                  1.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Huawei has set up Seeds for the future program since 2016. Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, National University of Kyiv, Kyiv Mohyla Academy, Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv National University of Technologies and Design are all included

                                  1. https://forea.kpi.ua/en/seeds-for-the-digital-future-of-ukraine-from-the-students-of-kpi/
                                  2. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/data/

                                  Supplementary Notes

                                  An alliance of Ukrainian and Chinese Universities including 49 Ukrainian and 92 Chinese higher educational institutions has been created for closer cooperation in the field of education

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                    Hide
                                    2.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                    1. https://east-center.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/DRI-report-2021.pdf

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    Six Confucius Institutes and two Chinese classrooms in Ukraine

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      3.
                                      Exposure

                                      My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/5029-17/print1331482006276224#Text

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      Chinese (mandarin) is not on the approved list for the education system

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        4.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                        Skip

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        The official webpages do not list any Ukrainian think tank or research center as part of PRC-affiliated networks. However, certain centers, such as the Association of Sinologists of Ukraine behave themselves as they would be part of this, which is completely loyal to China's interests in Ukraine. There is also the V.I. Vernadsky Taurida National University but this is not under the control of Ukraine because it is in territory occupied by Russia for more that eight years (Crimeea), so the accuracy of information cannot be verified at source and the same institution appears in international databases as belonging to different countries

                                        1. http://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/About_UASR/Members.htm

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          5.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                          1. https://east-center.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/DRI-report-2021.pdf

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          Wang Jing, the head of Chinese government-affiliated Skyrizon, created and funded several organisations in Ukraine, which were active in 2015–2019. These are the Ukrainian Silk Road Association “Silk Link,” which positioned itself as a “B2B2G platform for business and political cooperation between Ukraine, China and European countries,” the “Tianxia Link” Center for Contemporary China, which aimed at deepening relations between Ukraine and China, the Ukrainian House in Beijing, and Xinwei Ukraine. Both suspended their activity after the failure of Skyrizon to get control over Motor Sich

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            6.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            47 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Олександр Денисов from Національна академія наук Україн (Natsional'na akademiya nauk Ukrayiny) was on the list of Thousand Talents Program 2012

                                            1. https://blog.liga.net/user/vzadorskiy/article/39739
                                            2. https://alumni.hit.edu.cn/site/xy_hit/xy/cnt/?id=2432

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            The lists of the participants were not made public after 2018. According to Ukrainian experts, there are many talents from Ukraine who have been recruited through various programs, especially university programs in the area of engineering. Also, companies such as Huawei is organizing its "seed for future" program. However, experts note that in the last years the interest of China in Ukraine's talents significantly decreased and remaine mainly in the area of military R&D

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              7.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Skip

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Following interview with inside expert the incident described in the indicator exists but there is no public available evidence

                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                Takes place mostly through universities

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                  Hide
                                                  8.
                                                  Pressure

                                                  In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  In Ukraine there has never been much public discussion about this, but this is unlikely to happen on large scale

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      9.
                                                      Pressure

                                                      In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Although experts note that visa bans for critical research could have happened, there is no evidence of this

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          10.
                                                          Effect

                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          No evidence for this and there are no many such academic programs anyway

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              11.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not much context for such discussions in class exists in Ukraine, and no such cases were reported.

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide

                                                                  Economy

                                                                  The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                  1.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                  1. http://customs.gov.ua/en/

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  Overall volume of trade was $18.99bn - 13,4% of all trade of Ukraine. Export to China $8.01 bn and import $10.98 bn

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    2.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://www.project-syndicate.org/onpoint/ukraine-debt-deferment-restructuring-by-anna-gelpern-et-al-2022-04

                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                    Most of the debt belongs to IFI and in Eurobonds

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      3.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Ukraine's top trading partner is the EU, but a breakdown by countries puts China on top as no. 1

                                                                      1. https://uiamp.org.ua/kitay-uzhe-tretiy-god-vystupaet-naibolee-krupnym-torgovym-partnyorom-ukrainy

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      Ukraine exported raw materials amounting to almost $14 billion in 2021. Out of this, the exports to China were about $3 billion. Therefore, most of the raw materials do not go to China but still, a significant part goes to China if considered per country

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        4.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        PRC owns certain assets in Ukraine's infrastructure, however they are not critical or strategic. Aside from the Mykolaiv port PRC also owns some large cereals companies, other agrobusiness firms etc. However, none of these are critical at this point, they cannot buy land (but just lease it) and found their assets trapped in the war zones of Eastern Ukraine. If PRC would have controlled Motor Sych factory, which was a transactions discussed for a number of years, then this would have been a company with significant industrial profile, but the deal was not approved by the Ukrainian government. This is a sign of the limited Chinese influence in 2022 in spite of the high volume of purely commercial trade in 2021.

                                                                        1. https://www.wikiwand.com/zh-tw/%E4%B8%AD%E7%B2%AE%E9%9B%86%E5%9B%A2
                                                                        2. https://thepeoplesmap.net

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        China does not own any strategic critical infrastructure

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          5.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            6.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrfsUeOY7iw
                                                                            2. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=3

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce is member of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce. At the same time, about 1100 Chinese companies opened their representations in Ukraine

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              7.
                                                                              Pressure

                                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                              1. https://www.rferl.org/a/china-vaccines-ukraine-xinjiang/31382099.html

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              China threatened to cut supplies of the vaccines and restrict trade if Ukraine does not withdraw its signature from the declaration on human rights in the Xinjiang - however this was not public and China did not impose trade restrictions since Ukraine withdrew its signature

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                8.
                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                1. https://www.rferl.org/a/china-vaccines-ukraine-xinjiang/31382099.html

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                As above, the reason for harassing Ukraine was the statement related to HR in Xinjiang

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  9.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                  1. https://www.trade.gov/country-commercial-guides/ukraine-trade-agreements

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    10.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                    1. https://ces.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Chinese-economic-footprint-in-Ukraine-1.pdf

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      11.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                      1. https://ces.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Chinese-economic-footprint-in-Ukraine-1.pdf

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                        Society

                                                                                        The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                        1.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        There may be such organizations in Ukraine but no public info exists at this point. In general such issues are not top priority on the public agenda in 2022, given the situation

                                                                                        1. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/202005/t20200529_12278420.html

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          2.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                          1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html#

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            3.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                            1. https://www.fpsu.org.ua/napryamki-diyalnosti/informatsijna-robota/16565-podiya-na-stseni-mtskm-profspilok-ukrajini-odin-poyas-odin-shlyakh.html

                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                            There is no information of any visits or cooepration with ACFTU taking place. However, there are ceratain cultural events at the organized by Ukrainian Federation of Trade Unions which promote China. For instance, in Nove,ber 2019 the Federation hosted a Chinese orchestra with a concert "One Belt - One Road".

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              There is no evidence of UFWD personnel in Ukraine

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                  1. https://ukranews.com/news/507445-kytay-gotov-prynymat-bolshe-ukraynskykh-zhurnalystov-v-ramkakh-obmennykh-vyzytov

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  There is a cooperation at many levels in journalistic and cultural sphere. For instance, All-China Journalist Association has a program of annual exchanges with National Union of Journalists of Ukraine, including visits to China for Ukrainian journalists and to Ukraine for chinese journalists

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                    1. https://www.ukrinform.ua/rubric-economy/3011733-derzavnij-zernovij-korporacii-peredali-z-kitau-zasobi-individualnogo-zahistu.html
                                                                                                    2. https://www.rferl.org/a/ukraine-coronavirus-oligarchs-medicine/30492082.html

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    Jack Ma financed the purchase of 1 million coronavirus testing kits for Ukraine at a cost of $80 million at the beginning of COVID pandemic

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      We are not aware of any such case

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          China is a very rare topic for discussion in Ukraine. There opinions about China which prevail are mostly negative or neutral

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              China is a very rare topic for public attention in Ukraine

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                  1. https://expertforum.ro/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/China-Watch-Chinese-communities-in-Romania-Bulgaria-and-Ukraine.pdf.pdf

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  Sometimes politicians promote Chinese narratives including positive comments about the need to adopt Chinese model of governance

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                    1. http://neweurope.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/12/Diplomatia2022_eng_web.pdf

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    In Ukraine there is no opinion poll measuring the views of Ukrainians towards PRC government. However, when asked to evaluate the importance of deepening cooperation with the countries, PRC is placed 12 with 76,4% (behind Poland, Germany, Canada, UK, USA, France, Turkey, Georgia, Lithuania, Sweden, Italy). But when asked whom should Ukraine support in the case of a conflict between US and China, 52,6% said US and only 10,6% said China

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                      Military

                                                                                                                      The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                      1. https://hromadske.ua/ru/posts/kitaj-byl-krupnejshim-torgovym-partnerom-ukrainy-v-2020-godu-rossiya-tretya
                                                                                                                      2. https://ces.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Chinese-economic-footprint-in-Ukraine-1.pdf

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      Ukraine did not import military products (at least before the current war)

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                        1. https://chinaobservers.eu/why-ukraine-is-reassessing-its-defense-cooperation-with-china/

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        Ukraine supplied a wide range of military components for aircrafts (engines), navy ships, etc. It is estimated that before the war, the overall annual amount of exports was abut $90 million

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                          1. https://chinaobservers.eu/why-ukraine-is-reassessing-its-defense-cooperation-with-china/

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          Ukraine and China do not have join production, although such plans existed in the past. However, China is building certain military products based on technical documentation from Ukraine

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            expert interview

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                It would also annoy Russia expert interview

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    It would also annoy Russia expert interview

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        expert interview

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            expert interview

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                We are not aware of any such case

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    We are not aware of any such case

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        expert interview

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                            Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                            The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://minjust.gov.ua/m/4906

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              According to official information, there is no such agreement that would qualify. Old data from before the invasion of Crimea in 2014 are obsolete because the security situation is completely different today

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://minjust.gov.ua/m/4906

                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                              The List of international agreements of Ukraine does not include such an agreement

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                A case of infants trafficking involving Chinese nationals was reported in 2020, but it is likely that local gangs were organizing the whole thing while the Chinese nationals were trying to use the opportunity, without being part of the Chinese mafia as such. What is more, Ukraine has a quite liberal law on surrogate mothers, with 2500 children per year born as a result of such arrangements, some international (see article in link). In the confusion of the war many misunderstandings can occur in such cases

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.occrp.org/en/daily/12226-ukrainian-police-in-baby-mill-bust
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.wionews.com/world/two-chinese-nationals-arrested-for-allegedly-attempting-to-smuggle-infants-from-ukraine-462828
                                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.economist.com/europe/2022/09/08/the-war-has-thrown-ukraines-surrogacy-industry-into-crisis

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2022/apr/01/china-accused-of-launching-cyber-attacks-on-ukraine-before-russian-invasion

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  Investigation claims that more than 600 websites, including Ukraine’s defence ministry, were subjected to thousands of hacking attempts coordinated by the Chinese government prior to Russian war against Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    We are not aware of such cases

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        At least one such case does exist, so the system seems to be in use

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://ain.capital/2021/05/19/what-is-wrong-with-hikvision/

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not practically possible

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.voanews.com/a/east-asia-pacific_teen-fiancee-flee-netherlands-avoid-extradition-back-china/6208514.html

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              A citizen of PRC has been detained in Ukraine, at the request of PRC authorities, for his online comments over clashes between China and India. But the person was allowed to leave to the Netherlands. So, it is not entirely clear if this case falls under the indicator described

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                We are not aware of such cases

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    There are at least two known cases of risk of being extradited to PRC, but this did not happen in reality

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.commsupdate.com/articles/2016/12/08/lifecell-signs-5g-cooperation-agreement-with-ericsson-huawei/
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.commsupdate.com/articles/2018/11/08/iot-time-m2minternet-of-things-weekly-digest/
                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://east-center.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/DRI-report-2021.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        About 80–90 per cent of information and telecommunication equipment of Ukrainian mobile operators is manufactured by Chinese companies Huawei and ZTE, which also service and replace it

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          expert interview

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.commsupdate.com/articles/2018/03/27/ukrtelecom-expanding-coverage-with-zte-credit/

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                          The Chinese companies participate in various state projects such as "safe cities" in Kyiv and Kharkiv and wi-fi for Kyiv Metro. The indicator is only an assessment; it is difficult to quantify with precision

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/f1-Ukraine

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Cameras in public spaces were installed years ago and they continued to function until short before the war. Reportedly some of these had facial recognition, but this is hard to confirm. It is not clear what happened to them after the Russian invasion in Feb 2022.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/marker-2452

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.city.kharkov.ua/ru/news/kharkiv-spilno-z-kompanieyu-huawei-rozrobit-kontseptsiyu-rozumnogo-mista-42091.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Kharkiv City Council and Huawei signed and memorandum on "Smart City" for Kharkiv

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://asiatimes.com/2022/03/china-media-goads-russia-to-use-cips-over-swift/

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  "At present, CIPS has 75 direct participants and 1,205 indirect participants. In Europe, the system’s direct participants are in London, Frankfurt, Zurich, Paris, Luxembourg, Hungary and Russia"

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    expert interview

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No info exists that such things may happen

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://ain.ua/ru/2021/02/15/rejting-socsetej-v-seti-kievstar/

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            TikTok in in top5 social netwroks in Ukraine (after facebook, youtube, instagram and twitter). Is thi what you mean under this indicator?

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No info exists that such things may happen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://expertforum.ro/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/China-Watch-Chinese-communities-in-Romania-Bulgaria-and-Ukraine.pdf.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Many regional authorties signed cooperation agreements with authortitiesin PRC and chinese companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    According to experts, there are at least 91 agreemets between Ukrainian and PRC entities which envisage, in one way o another, sister-city ties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://expertforum.ro/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/China-Watch-Chinese-communities-in-Romania-Bulgaria-and-Ukraine.pdf.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.geopolitica.info/china-ukraine/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Also in interview with expert

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.geopolitica.info/china-ukraine/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A number of Ukrainian politicians attended (July 6, 2021) a forum organised by the Chinese Communist Party in Beijing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence of such activity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://delo.ua/econonomyandpoliticsinukraine/vybory-2019-kto-finansiruet-fondy-kandidatov-i-351501/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Interview with expert

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There was not public or non-public information about this

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence of such activity Interview with expert

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No public or non-public information about this

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://russian.news.cn/2021-07/01/c_1310037765.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://hromadske.ua/ru/posts/nacbank-otmenyaet-ogranichenie-kursa-prodazhi-valyuty-i-umenshaet-limit-na-snyatie-nalichnyh-deneg-za-granicej

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ukrainian head of the governing party' faction in the parliament mentioned that his party and CCP have a lot in common and that Ukraine should use the positive experience of economic development of China. Also, high-level politicians participated in the presentation organized by the Chinese embassy of the Xi book

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://expertforum.ro/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/China-Watch-Chinese-communities-in-Romania-Bulgaria-and-Ukraine.pdf.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There were several cases when former diplomats would join Chinese companies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            It is mostly about buying Chinese hardware which is them operated by local security services

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://expertforum.ro/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/China-Watch-Chinese-communities-in-Romania-Bulgaria-and-Ukraine.pdf.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On October 15, 2020, Ukraine’s State Service for Special Communications and Information Protection signed a memorandum of understanding with Huawei on cooperation in the areas of cybersecurity and cyber defense. According to the joint press release, the proposed cooperation aimed to strengthen Ukraine’s state defense against cyber threats, create a channel for information exchange, and provide advanced training for personnel in cybersecurity and communications

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://expertforum.ro/wp-content/uploads/2021/10/China-Watch-Chinese-communities-in-Romania-Bulgaria-and-Ukraine.pdf.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. http://w1.c1.rada.gov.ua/pls/mpz2/organizations.dep_group_members?grp=29

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              According to the source, the Ukraine-China friendship group is the largest friendship group in the parliament: 175 MPs out of 421. Morever, parties created an interaction group OBOR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://ukranews.com/en/news/787147-servant-of-the-people-political-party-has-common-principles-with-the-communist-party-of-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. www.da.mfa.gov.ua

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://apnews.com/article/united-nations-china-europe-ukraine-health-a0a5ae8f735b92e39c623e453529cbb9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegy/eng/zgyw/t1104104.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202102/1214609.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://en.interfax.com.ua/news/general/720822.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Mostly under previous governments, but also recently in the pro-Russian regions / political groups

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence of such cases

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://apps.who.int/gb/or/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No such evidence exists

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ukraine never spoke publicly about this

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/fed-u-s-ukraine-cuts-deals-china-shuts-about-uyghurs-n1275192

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Ukrainian government has not change its one-China policy, latest affirmed in 2008. However with the things so much in flux it is difficult to confirm the current political stance of the present government

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ukraine has remained silent on the subject

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Media
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Academia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Economy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Society
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Military
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Law Enforcement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Domestic Politics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Foreign Policy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Open
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cards