Turkmenistan

$7,612.0
6.11M
Ranking
45/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

119/ 388
Executive partner
Tsz Yan Yau
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

36%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

15%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

26%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Turkmenistan had a GDP per capital of US$7,612, and a total population of 6.11 million.

Turkmenistan established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China in 1992. In 2022, Turkmenistan was ranked 177th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Not Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 2/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    20.5% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    20.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    40.0% / 33.6%
  • Society
    10.0% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    27.3% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    54.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    34.1% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    59.1% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

None found

      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      As the report named "Belt and Road International Media Cooperation: Refinement Can Be Better" revealed, Medias from Turkmenistan are part of the Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB) Media Cooperation Forum, one of the Turkmen media even signed joint statement of the Forum. SREB is one half of Belt and Road. As Turkmenistan have amongst the worse ranked media freedoms in the world, the few state-owned medias are authoritative as Turkmen public have no access to any other alternatives. Since Turkmen media (all of them are state controlled) have cooperation with the PRC, it can be interpreted as a state-approved decision to work closer with the PRC in media cooperation. This can reflect Chinese influence towards foreign priority of Turkmenistan, in the sense that Turkmen state wants their public to know the government is working with the PRC. Significant in this sense, not in the sense of PRC actually being able to influence Turkmen media.

      1. http://finance.people.com.cn/n/2014/0703/c1004-25233717-9.html
      2. http://www.scio.gov.cn/m/31773/35507/35510/35524/document/1564897/1564897.htm

        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        Yes

        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        As the report "Congratulatory Letter from President Xi Jinping to the 2016 Belt and Road Media Cooperation Forum" mentioned, Turkmen medias attended forums and media tours to PRC. As Turkmenistan have amongst the worse ranked media freedoms in the world, the few state-owned medias are authoritative as Turkmen public have no access to any other alternatives. Thus ranked 3.

        1. http://www.beltroadforum.com/m/p/697/detail
        2. http://www.rizhao.gov.cn/art/2019/9/19/art_33119_7166765.html

          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Turkmen medias rarely receive trainings from third countries. As well, it appears that these trainings are provided to all five Central Asian states, it is rare occasion for them to get together. The report "Deputy Director Wang Guoqing meets with trainees of news media from neighboring countries in Xinjiang" reveals a meeting/training, this is likely for the purpose of maintaining the discourse on Xinjiang consistent in the region neighbouring it.

          1. http://www.scio.gov.cn/zxbd/nd/2012/Document/1181131/1181131.htm

            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    7.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    22 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    21 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    6 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    23 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    No such attempts have been observed (in contrast with Uzbekistan’s podrobno.uz portal, for example). However, some Turkmen media reprint some news about China from Russian sources and the routes of some of them go to Chinese sources. Like these stories in the two report, "China launches first rocket into space from balloon", "China installs world's highest automatic weather station".

                    1. https://turkmenportal.com/blog/46612/kitai-vpervye-zapustil-v-kosmos-raketu-s-vozdushnogo-shara
                    2. https://orient.tm/ru/post/37305/v-kitae-ustanovili-samuyu-vysokuyu-v-mire-avtomaticheskuyu-meteostanciyu

                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      8.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      38 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      13 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      7 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      15 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      8 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      No such attempts have been observed. Only China-related ads I’ve seen were related to Chinese business, and Turkmen business cooperation with Chinese counterparts.

                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          9.
                          Pressure

                          In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          57 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          24 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Turkmenistan does not allow any free space in media to begin with. Thus, there are already no journalists who can engage in investigative journalism, or journalism in general. So, there are no journalists who work on PRC related issues, thus, no pressure is needed to be exercised.

                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              10.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              51 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              3 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              There is no censoring views critical of the PRC government because there is no independent media outlets. Medias in Turkmenistan are instruments of the state and thus all views on the PRC are in following state policy.

                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  11.
                                  Effect

                                  In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  44 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Could not find any information about Xinjiang in Turkmen news portals/ magazines/ journals except for those that are related to China’s relationship with Turkmenistan. International news are badly covered by Turkmen news web-site if they are not related to Turkmenistan. There is however an observation from the reviewer that a Chinese magazine on Xinjiang was spotted in a hotel in Ashgabat. This magazine is likely to be "kontimost" (land bridge), it's published in Russian and also can be found in other Central Asian countries.

                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide

                                      Academia

                                      The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                      1.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      0/ No

                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      As an isolated, land-locked dictatorship, Turkmenistan has few foreign partners. The PRC is actively engaging in all sectors, including academia. According to the report named "A researcher from the Turkmen Research Center of Lanzhou University was invited by the Turkmen government to participate in a large-scale international forum on Turkmen culture there is a center for Turkmenistan studies at the Lanzhou University, the only dedicated study of Turkmenistan overseas. The center has a lot of engagement with the Turkmen Ministry of Education, they are always invited to events in Ashgabat, working in joint research with Turkmen sinologists etc, as shown in the reports, "Notice of the Department of International Cooperation of the Ministry of Science and Technology on Organizing a Visit to Turkmenistan to Participate in the "First China-Turkmenistan Science Innovation Forum". Also, in industrial sectors, many PRC entities also work with Turkmen universities and research institutions. For example, as you can see in the report ""The Ministry of Science and Technology and the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan signed a memorandum of understanding on scientific and technological innovation cooperation", the PRC Ministry of Science and Technology has cooperation agreement with the Turkmen Academy of Sciences. They host joint research and events. In agriculture, according to the report "Beijing Botanical Garden and Turkmen Agricultural University sign a memorandum of cooperation online", the Beijing Zoo has a cooperation agreement with the Turkmen Agricultural University to conduct research in science of plants, gardening, etc. Reviewer notes that other foreign actors, such as Europeans and the Malaysian Petronas, are also working in Ashgabat giving away equipment and so on. We however insist on a 4 here because the extend of PRC academia outreach is larger in scope and in quantity.

                                      1. http://tkmst.lzu.edu.cn/detail.php?aid=12991
                                      2. http://www.most.gov.cn/kjbgz/202109/t20210907_176743.html
                                      3. https://kjt.hubei.gov.cn/kjdt/tzgg/201911/t20191102_326232.shtml
                                      4. http://wb.beijing.gov.cn/home/yhcs/qtcs/zxdt/202012/t20201214_2164292.html

                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        2.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        0/ No

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        There are no official Confucius Institutes/ Classrooms in Turkmenistan, but according to the report "Chinese fever is emerging in many countries in Central Asia, and Confucius Institutes are blooming everywhere"there are at least 3 universities offering Chinese language programs, including one directly affiliated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Reviewer observed that some Chinese teachers in Ashgabat were sent by Hanban despite no official CI. No external link proof.

                                        1. https://www.chinanews.com.cn/hwjy/2013/09-18/5298370.shtml

                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          3.
                                          Exposure

                                          My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          As the report "Turkmenistan schools and universities to offer Chinese classes" pointed out, Turkmen government is cited to have since 2015 opened Chinese and Japanese for 5th graders. Chinese Embassy in Ashgabat confirmed visiting Chinese teachers sent by Hanban.

                                          1. https://world.huanqiu.com/article/9CaKrnJPAv7
                                          2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/chn/pds/wjdt/zwbd/t1472706.htm
                                          3. http://tm.china-embassy.gov.cn/chn/sgdt/202005/t20200527_9490201.htm

                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            4.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                5.
                                                Exposure

                                                In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Unlikely that Turkmen scholars can receive independent funding from PRC

                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    6.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    The programs that exist in Turkmenistan are PRC programs to train Turkmen energy engineers and bring them back to work in CNPC operations in Turkmenistan. Not part of talent recruitment programs in the sense of getting foreign talent to get access to foreign technology.

                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        7.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        As you can see in the report "Turkmenistan education seminar ended successfully", there are some programs towards the intellectual community but not many when comparing regional experiences. Also this community is unlikely to be influential in Turkmenistan given local context.

                                                        1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cetm/chn/sbwl/t1678066.htm
                                                        2. https://www.synu.edu.cn/2013/0228/c2849a29778/pagem.htm

                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          8.
                                                          Pressure

                                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          There are likely no Chinese students studying in Turkmenistan as the country has strict rules prohibiting foreigners to live in Turkmenistan. A 2014 article, "Professor Minavar Abibra of the Department of Uyghur Language and Literature was awarded the Makhtoum Kuri Feilager Award by the President of Turkmenistan" says that the PRC only has one expert on the Turkmen language.

                                                          1. https://news.muc.edu.cn/info/1011/5680.htm

                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            9.
                                                            Pressure

                                                            In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Turkmenistan does not allow any spaces for freedom of speech to begin with. Thus, there are already no scholars who can engage in critical analysis in general.

                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide
                                                                10.
                                                                Effect

                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    11.
                                                                    Effect

                                                                    In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    This is likely the case but less because of consideration of the PRC but instead, it is likely done under consideration of Turkmen state policy in general towards PRC.

                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide

                                                                        Economy

                                                                        The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                        1.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        According to "Country (region) guide for foreign investment and cooperation", the answer is Yes (for the past 10 years)

                                                                        1. http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/dl/gbdqzn/upload/tukumansitan.pdf

                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          2.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                          Skip

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          77 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          But actually we don’t know the real numbers, Turkmenistan stopped publishing those and international organizations like WB and IMF also do not have access to this information.

                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              3.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              gas export from Turkmenistan to PRC has experienced consistent growth since starting operation in 2012, at 21.3 bcm, 51.4% of total Chinese gas import. The figure gradually climbed to 31.7 bcm in 2017, 37.3 bcm in 2020 and 34 bcm in 2021. While the situation in 2018 and 2021 is revealed in “BP statistical review of world energy“ 2018 and 2021 edition, the report "China Imports 34 bcm of Turkmen Natural Gas in 2021" shows the circumstance of 2021/2022.

                                                                              1. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2018-full-report.pdf
                                                                              2. https://www.bp.com/content/dam/bp/business-sites/en/global/corporate/pdfs/energy-economics/statistical-review/bp-stats-review-2021-full-report.pdf
                                                                              3. https://business.com.tm/post/8075/china-imports-34-bcm-of-turkmen-natural-gas-in-2021

                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                4.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Yes, as shown in the report "Central Asia-China Gas Pipeline, Turkmenistan to China" and the document "Country (region) guide for foreign investment and cooperation Turkmenistan", sensitive and only lucrative sector of Turkmenistan, gas.

                                                                                1. http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/dl/gbdqzn/upload/tukumansitan.pdf
                                                                                2. https://www.hydrocarbons-technology.com/projects/centralasiachinagasp/

                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  5.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      6.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          7.
                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                          My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          As the report "What Drives Chinese Arms Sales in Central Asia? The Chinese military technology industry is becoming a serious leader in Central Asia." shows, PRC put Turkmenistan on a military export blacklist as a retaliation of the country putting up higher prices of gas in 2018, Turkmenistan put up prices in fear of US sanction on the PRC. I wrote a bit on this here

                                                                                          1. https://thediplomat.com/2019/09/what-drives-chinese-arms-sales-in-central-asia/

                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            8.
                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                            In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            No actors speak against state policies in Turkmenistan.

                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                No FTAs per se, but there's an agreement to trade Turkmen natural gas for Chinese-made military equipment, as shown in the report "In-depth: How China becomes third-largest supplier of weapons worldwide?".

                                                                                                1. http://english.chinamil.com.cn/view/2018-02/27/content_7953754.htm

                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      According to the report "Turkmenistan says China gas pipeline debt paid off", Turkmen President proudly claims that he has been paying debts to PRC on time.

                                                                                                      1. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/rest-of-world/turkmenistan-says-china-gas-pipeline-debt-paid-off/articleshow/83459369.cms

                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                        Society

                                                                                                        The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Given Turkmen policies prohibiting foreigners to live in Turkmenistan, unlikely that these groups can administratively have a presence in Turkmenistan. There is a China Central Asia Friendship Association but members are based in PRC and they occasionally jointly host events with PRC embassies in the region, including in Turkmenistan, but it shouldn’t count as an organization working in Turkmenistan.

                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Chinese expat is a small group in Turkmenistan, only Embassy staff and those who work for the 10 Chinese companies working in Turkmenistan.

                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    No UFWD groups in Turkmenistan. Though the Chinese embassy organize some events with the small group who work for Chinese companies.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Again, no UFWD and small expat community.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            As the report "China polishes its image in Central Asia through the soft power of language" reveals, embassy donates to some local NGOs.

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/odr/china-central-asia-soft-power-language/

                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  No mention of China at all

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Given the understanding that Turkmenistan is an extremely closed-off society, its citizens are given information provided by the state. As the state have been having good relations with China in the past 10 years, a good image of China is consistently presented. Based on this, it is likely that majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government, however where is no research that can possibly be done on this on Turkmenistan.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://thediplomat.com/2019/09/what-drives-chinese-arms-sales-in-central-asia/

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    At least not been publicly disclosed. But you can see in the report named "China intends to become an investment partner in Turkmenistan shipbuilding industry" that Turkmenistan has some warship/ submarine capacity and Chinese companies have been interested to work with the ship-building sector in Turkmenistan.

                                                                                                                                                    1. http://tkmst.lzu.edu.cn/detail.php?aid=13929

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      At least not been publicly disclosed. But you can see in the report named "China intends to become an investment partner in Turkmenistan shipbuilding industry" that Turkmenistan has some warship/ submarine capacity and Chinese companies have been interested to work with the ship-building sector in Turkmenistan.

                                                                                                                                                      1. http://tkmst.lzu.edu.cn/detail.php?aid=13929

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Turkmenistan established itself as a permanently neutral State in 1995.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Turkmenistan established itself as a permanently neutral State in 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Turkmenistan established itself as a permanently neutral State in 1995.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        While China has had these agreements long ago with Central Asian countries under the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), as Turkmenistan is not a member, the new "C+C5" (China + 5 Central Asian states) format has brought about many new agreements between the two countries. As the report named "China + Five Central Asian Countries Data Security Cooperation Initiative" reveals, a new agreement between C+C5 , in June 2022, was signed on digital security cooperation, in which data sharing was mentioned as a key cooperation area to jointly combat transnational crime.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1735173616217958774&wfr=spider&for=pc

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          As the report of "Joint Statement of the People's Republic of China and Turkmenistan", in 2006, Turkmenistan signed the "Joint agreement to combat terrorism, separatism and extremism" with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/web/gjhdq_676201/gj_676203/yz_676205/1206_676980/1207_676992/200604/t20060404_8002205.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            "At a security get together in May 2019, the Uzbek government shared its “safe cities” successes with officials from Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan...Turkmenistan in 2017 and Tajikistan in 2018 adopted new policies that nevertheless still remain limited in reach given poor enforcement."

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://thediplomat.com/2019/08/smart-cities-or-surveillance-huawei-in-central-asia/

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              As the report "Turkmenistan approves purchase of communications equipment from Huawei" revealed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://www.news.cn/2021-11/12/c_1128059276.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.cnfin.com/world-xh08/a/20120704/982157.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                As the report "Turkmenistan approves purchase of communications equipment from Huawei" shows, it's likely to enhance Turkmenistan’s authoritarian digital capacity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. http://www.news.cn/2021-11/12/c_1128059276.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  As these reports "Turkmen officials optimistic about Huawei", "Huawei Technologies to provide telecommunications equipment to Turkmenistan part of the project will be opened soon", "Huawei wins $2.5 million equipment order from Turkmenistan's Ministry of Communications" revealed, Huawei has been working in Turkmenistan since 2002, it’s the key provider of both hardware and software to the Turkmen telecommunication sector. Beyond consumer use, according to the report "Huawei Helps Turkmenistan Railway Build Steel Silk Road", Huawei also provides to industrial sector of Turkmenistan, for example to the railway sector.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2014-09/18/c_127002965.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://e.huawei.com/cn/case-studies/cn/2017/201705021506
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. http://tm.mofcom.gov.cn/article/jmxw/200604/20060401981789.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4. https://it.sohu.com/20050510/n225493871.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    As the article on the website "Mapping China's TECH GIANTS" and picture of "Meiya Pico support the Belt And Road to promote international cooperation" show.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://archive.fo/10iVx/a62920c2c56335fe4a5e27fc85b31fef0470dfe3.jpg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/data/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      As the report "Smart Cities or Surveillance? Huawei in Central Asia" says.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://thediplomat.com/2019/08/smart-cities-or-surveillance-huawei-in-central-asia/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        As the report "Smart Cities or Surveillance? Huawei in Central Asia" says.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://thediplomat.com/2019/08/smart-cities-or-surveillance-huawei-in-central-asia/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Turkmenistan uses SWIFT with China but shows positive signs in terms of RMB usage for Credit Transfer Payments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The majority of the international apps are blocked in Turkmenistan. However, people through VPN (usually these are the most popular apps that phone users in Turkmenistan download) nevertheless use them. Although TikTok is gaining popularity among the young Turkmens it is still not in the top 5.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          As the report "China-Central Asia Beidou Cooperation Forum Held in Lanzhou, Gansu" meantions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.workercn.cn/34179/202110/16/211016154511483.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes, as the reports "Xi'an City Holds Video Conference with Sister City of Mare, Turkmenistan" and "Rizhao and Turkmennabat establish sister city relationship" showed. But sister-city ties unlikely to influence Ashgabat-made Turkmen policies and relations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. http://m.rzw.com.cn/pcarticle/145310
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://szfwsb.lanzhou.gov.cn/art/2017/11/16/art_8357_421177.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. http://tm.china-embassy.gov.cn/chn/sbwl/202008/t20200825_9490354.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  unlikely to find concrete evidence that it’s “paid for”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      As a country which claims neutrality status, Turkmenistan has close ties to the PRC and it is reflected through many of these visits which discusses deepening of cooperation, as you may see in the reports below: "Meeting with Turkmenistan Ministry of Textile Industry, Minister of Trade and Consumer Cooperation and President of Food Industry Association in Guangzhou", Vice Minister of Agriculture Niu Dun meets with Deputy Foreign Minister of Turkmenistan Miadyev and his delegation", "Vice Minister Ding Wei Meets with Deputy Minister of Culture of Turkmenistan Shamurradov", "Du Zhanyuan meets with Turkmenistan Minister of Education Agmeradov", "Tan Tieniu Meets with Minister of Education of Turkmenistan", "Xi Jinping Meets with President Shcherdar Berdymukhamedov of Turkmenistan", "Wang Yi Meets with Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Turkmenistan Meledov".

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/ae/ai/200707/20070704902638.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://www.moa.gov.cn/xw/gjjl/201401/t20140116_3741233.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.mct.gov.cn/whzx/tpxw/201409/t20140930_829572.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. http://www.moe.gov.cn/jyb_xwfb/gzdt_gzdt/moe_1485/201612/t20161216_292246.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5. https://www.cas.cn/sygz/201612/t20161219_4585218.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6. http://czt.gxzf.gov.cn/xwdt/gwy/t3258154.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        As the reports "The first phase of the New Eurasian Continental Bridge Safety Corridor Law Enforcement Cooperation Seminar Opens", "2018 New Eurasian Continental Bridge Safety Corridor Transnational Oil and Gas Pipeline Security Seminar", "The Belt and Road security training workshop completed" and the document "The Worldwide Web of Chinese and Russian Information Controls" show, Turkmenistan has been attending a variety of security-related training programs to the PRC. Including cyber security (which trained both Turkmen Ministry of Internal Affairs and the intelligence service), and a dedicated SREB themed annual program which looks at port security, pipeline security, anti-drug trafficking etc. Given the closed off nature of the Turkmen government it is questionable how these trainings actually translated to impact on the ground. Thus 2.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.jspi.edu.cn/info/1036/7263.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. http://www.lyg.gov.cn/zglygzfmhwz/gcyw/content/29fc90e9-b68e-4e93-a1c1-db6416684812.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. http://legal.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0628/c42510-30094150.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. http://xhv5.xhby.net/mp3/pc/c/201912/20/c726271.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5. https://web.archive.org/web/20201228215655/https://public.opentech.fund/documents/English_Weber_WWW_of_Information_Controls_Final.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Given local context, political campaigns are irrelevant, there is no election

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Given Turkmen policies prohibiting foreigners to live in Turkmenistan, unlikely that these groups can administratively have a presence in Turkmenistan. There is a China Central Asia Friendship Association but members are based in PRC and they occasionally jointly host events with PRC embassies in the region, including in Turkmenistan, but it shouldn’t count as an organization working in Turkmenistan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      It only happens on special occasions, but on the highest level. Example: ex-president Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow in an interview praises Beijing for organizing the Olympic Games, as the report "PRESIDENT GURBANGULY BERDIMUHAMEDOV GAVE INTERVIEW TO REPRESENTATIVES OF THE LEADING EDITIONS AND TV CHANNELS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA" shows. Since Serdar came to power, reviewer comment that he, compared to his father (the ex-president), has so far said little about China and has shown more interest to work with other foreign partners. For example, Serdar hosted Modi as the first head of state to visit Ashgabat since he became president. I would remain the scare at 3 for now, the trend of distancing from China is an extremely new one that was slowly being brewed over US-China conflict, that Ashgabat genuinely worried China might get sanctioned by the West. The decades of reliance on China and building a positive image for China in Turkmenistan will take time to reverse.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://russia.tmembassy.gov.tm/ru/news/92380

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        We don’t know everything, but the obvious fact is that all major sources of income to budget are controlled by the ruling family members. A recent journalist investigation named "Investigation: Turkmen president's nephews own 16 apartments in Dubai" exposed that the president Berdimuhamedow’s relatives through offshore schemes control fertilizer producing plant “Garabogazkarbamid” that exports 80% of its production to China. There were also reports on corruption by CNPC in Turkmenistan, as the report "Jennifer Lopez Turkmenistan Gig Shines Light on Chinese Oil Firm" points out.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://rus.azathabar.com/a/31513014.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324251504578579484286462430

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              As the report "Han Zheng Holds Video Meeting with Turkmen Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister and Turkmen Chairman of China-Turkmenistan Cooperation Committee Turkmen Meledov" and "Dai Houliang attended the fifth meeting of the China-Turkey Intergovernmental Cooperation Committee" mentioned, Turkmenistan has 4 government-to-government cooperation committees (合作委员会) with the PRC, in the area of security, economics and trade, energy and culture(see the report named "The two chairmen of the Humanities Cooperation Sub-Committee of the China-Turkmenistan Cooperation Committee held a video meeting" below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://tm.china-embassy.gov.cn/chn/sbwl/202111/t20211109_10446131.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. http://www.gov.cn/guowuyuan/2022-03/30/content_5682525.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cgmel/chn/zyxw/t1186341.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.cnpc.com.cn/cnpc/jtxw/202111/964661fa111040f290fabeb9a3b81954.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The International Liaison Department (ILD) is the main PRC representative meeting the political parties in Turkmenistan, as these reports "How Inter-Party Exchanges in Central Asia Promote the Belt and Road Initiative" and the report "Representatives of the three parties of Turkmenistan attended the special presentation meeting on the spirit of the Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th CPC Central Committee" showed. Their meetings are frequent and did not stop during pandemic. The Chinese Ambassador in Ashgabat also meet with these heads of political parties regularly. The current Chinese Ambassador in Ashgabat was also head of the ILD Eurasia desk. The political parties that ILD meets with in Turkmenistan do not contribute meaningfully in local politics, thus rated insignificant.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cetm/chn/sbwl/t1911776.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://tm.china-embassy.gov.cn/chn/sbwl/202111/t20211120_10450911.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cetm//chn/sbwl/t1621460.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4. http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2016-06/16/c_129068549.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  As the report "The opening ceremony of the Belt and Road Eurasian Rule of Law Seminar was held in our school" and the report "Turkmenistan Held the Closing ceremony of training course for young diplomats" showed, Turkmenistan is grouped with Central Asian states and other countries in the Eurasia region within the training programs provided by PRC. While few training programs were directly solely for Turkmenistan, we rated 4 in this case because of dictatorial nature of the Turkmen government and PRC playing a role in strengthening it. Though it is observed by reviewer that few officials in Ashgabat seemed to know anything about these trainings that took place in China, so their effectiveness of influencing governance is questionable. However, sticking with 4 because Turkmens have few choices of foreign training, limited only to Russia and Turkey. The fact that Turkmens find themselves grouped with other Central Asian states also show PRC preference to create Central Asian regionalism.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.shzu.edu.cn/2015/0928/c2a71410/page.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.shupl.edu.cn/2020/0915/c1168a81811/page.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. http://tkmst.lzu.edu.cn/detail.php?aid=12534

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not observed

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Did not speak in the meeting at all

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Neutral

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    At diplomatic establishment with the PRC in 1992, Turkmenistan pledges that Taiwan is an inseparable territorial of the PRC, and that the PRC is the only legal government of China. Turkmenistan has been consistently following this policy, though less vocal about it compared to other countries due to its non-alignment principle.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1992/gwyb199201.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      As the report "Who are the 37 countries that support China's position on Xinjiang? The list is coming" reveals, amongst 37 countries that signed the letter to United Nation Human Rights Council supporting PRC’s policy in Xinjiang in 2019. In 2021, Turkmenistan continue to support PRC when met with PRC officials. According to the report "Turkmenistan stressed at the Human Rights Council that issues related to Hong Kong and Xinjiang are China's internal affairs and supports the position of the Chinese government", in 2021 United Nation Human Rights Council Turkmenistan voiced out supporting PRC policy in Xinjiang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://finance.sina.com.cn/roll/2019-07-13/doc-ihytcerm3445980.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2021-07/15/c_1127656221.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. http://news.xnnews.com.cn/gjxw2/202107/t20210715_2359035.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Turkmenistan in the 2000s voiced a lot of support for the PRC. But less so in recently years likely due to diminished international attention and global shift attention to Xinjiang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cesg/chn/xnyfgk/t418048.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          As the report "Turkmenistan stressed at the Human Rights Council that issues related to Hong Kong and Xinjiang are China's internal affairs and supports the position of the Chinese government" said, Turkmenistan supported PRC on Hong Kong issues in 2021 United Nation Human Rights Council.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://news.xnnews.com.cn/gjxw2/202107/t20210715_2359035.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
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