Turkey

$9,586.6
85M
Ranking
31/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

135/ 372
Executive partner
BIRN Ltd
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

42%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

25%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

30%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Turkey had a GDP per capita of US$9,587 and a total population of 85.04 million people. There is no reliable information on the Chinese population in Turkey.

Turkey established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1971. Turkey was ranked 149th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and listed as Not Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 32/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    34.1% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    36.1% / 34%
  • Economy
    45.5% / 33.6%
  • Society
    2.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    47.5% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    47.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    42.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    57.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          3.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          11 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          15 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          15 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          5 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          23 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          13 countries chose this answer

          71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

          1. https://www.sabah.com.tr/dunya/turk-gazeteci-heyeti-cine-ziyaret-gerceklestirdi-4699610
          2. https://www.habererk.com/gundem/cin-gazetecileri-dogu-turkistana-goturdu-atv-muhabirinden-skandal-ifadeler-ne-kadar-hata-yaptigimizi-gorduk-h85830.html
          3. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cetur/tur/xwdt/t214580.htm
          4. https://www.ytb.gov.tr/haberler/cin-halk-cumhuriyeti-gazeteciler-heyetinden-ytbye-ziyaret

          Supplementary Notes

          China organised a few trips for Turkish journalists, especially related to its policies towards its Uyghur minority, but also regarding China’s economy and development model. Journalists are mainly from Turkish pro-government media and based on their visits the journalists published reports on how well China treats its Uyghur minority. In addition to this, Chinese media representatives often visit Turkish authorities and Turkish media houses.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            4.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            37 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            16 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            2 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                5.
                Exposure

                In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

                Yes

                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                24 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                22 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                18 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                10 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                1. https://www.criturk.com/radyo-canli-yayin/
                2. https://ajanslotus.com/
                3. https://newsaf.cgtn.com/news/2021-10-12/Turkish-lira-touches-record-low-level-against-dollar-14hFFQWRu7u/index.html
                4. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/458306

                Supplementary Notes

                Xinhua News Agency publishes news and reports in the Turkish language as a website branded as Lotus News. In addition to this, CRJ Turkish radio station broadcasts in every Turkish city in the Turkish language. Finally, CGTN, international English language Chinese state-run TV channel, covers Turkey with a bureau in the country.

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  6.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  2 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  44 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  19 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  14 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  0 countries chose this answer

                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                    Supplementary Notes

                    Despite earlier Chinese interest in buying or partnering with Turkish media outlets (see for example: Link), there are no media owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                    1. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/chinese-media-giant-eyes-investment-in-turkey/830128

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    7.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    22 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    21 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    6 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    23 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Not Found

                    1. https://www.aydinlik.com.tr/haber/turk-cin-medyasi-arasinda-stratejik-ortaklik-anlasmasi-198656
                    2. http://www.gercekhayat.com.tr/medya/turk-medyasinda-cin-orgutlenmesi/
                    3. https://odatv4.com/kultur-sanat/kirmizi-kediden-cin-atilimi--20081940-167104

                    Supplementary Notes

                    In 2019, Aydinlik media house which is knows for its pro-Chinese coverage signed a protocol with the Beijing Media Network for creating joint reports on Turkey and China. In addition to this, Kirmizi Kedi Publishing House publishes a quarterly magazine called Modern Silk Road which is funded by Chinese state funds.

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      8.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      38 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      13 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      7 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      15 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      8 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                      1. https://farukbildirici.com/hurriyet-parayla-cin-in-propagandasini-yapti/
                      2. https://www.tamgaturk.com/cin-buyukelciligi-havuz-medyasini-fonlamaya-devam-ediyor/35589/
                      3. https://www.trhaber.com/gundem/cin-dogu-turkistan-daki-iskenceleri-reklamla-ortme-cabasinda-h12124.html

                      Supplementary Notes

                      The Chinese Government has often paid for advertisements at Turkish media which are affiliated with the Turkish government. The advertisements usually focus on Chinese economic successes and how PRC treats its Uyghur community. Those advertisements were criticized by the public as well as media experts.

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide
                        9.
                        Pressure

                        In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        57 countries chose this answer

                        4/ Yes

                        24 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                            Hide
                            10.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            51 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            3 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Not Found

                            1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-turkey-idUSKBN1AJ1BV
                            2. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2022-01-14/Turkey-promises-not-to-allow-anti-China-activities-in-Turkey-MOFA-16OukcP0AIo/index.html

                            Supplementary Notes

                            Even though there are no public incidents regarding censorship of media reports on China, Chinese authorities complained about anti-China media activities in Turkey to Turkish officials. The Turkish Foreign Minister promised his Chinese counterpart to eliminate anti-China media reports. Therefore, the censorship usually happens in the auto-censorship model especially at state media and pro-government media.

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                              1. https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/video/dogu-perinceki-kizdiran-ajanlik-sorusu-bunlari-yayinlamazsaniz-siz-namuslu-degilsiniz-1766831
                              2. https://qha.com.tr/haberler/uygur-akademisyenden-cin-sozculugu-tgb-ve-aydinlik-a-tokat-gibi-yanit-videosu/245289/
                              3. https://t24.com.tr/haber/aydinlik-gazetesinin-sincan-eki-uygurlar-ramazan-i-tum-guzellikleriyle-yasiyorlar,950565
                              4. https://www.aydinlik.com.tr/koseyazisi/emperyalist-10-yalan-ve-uygur-gercegi-232705

                              Supplementary Notes

                              Dogu Perincek, the leader of the Homeland Party and a journalist and TV commentator often denies the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC, especially regarding the Uyghurs in Xinjiang. Several reports and columns at Aydinlik media also denied human rights abuses in China’s Uyghur region. These reports suggest that Uyghurs live a prosperous and happy life in China and define human rights abuses and genocide claims as Western propaganda.

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide

                                Academia

                                The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                1.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                25 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Hide
                                2.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                27 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Not Found

                                1. https://www.facebook.com/metuconfucius/posts/459806724188911/
                                2. http://www.confucius.boun.edu.tr/
                                3. https://www.okan.edu.tr/ci/
                                4. https://yeditepe.edu.tr/tr/yeditepe-universitesi-konfucyus-enstitusu-acildi
                                5. https://ci.metu.edu.tr/
                                6. https://m.facebook.com/okankoleji/photos/a.391404237553451.115082.354610647899477/2007522102608315/?type=3

                                Supplementary Notes

                                There are four Confucius Institutes and two Confucius Classrooms in Turkey’s most prestigious universities and schools. Middle East Technical University, Bosporus University, Yeditepe University and Okan University have institutes while Okan College and Jale Tezer College have classrooms.

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  3.
                                  Exposure

                                  My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Not Found

                                  1. http://turkish.cri.cn/882/2009/06/24/1s116243.htm
                                  2. https://www.trthaber.com/haber/turkiye/lisede-cince-dersi-basliyor-86382.html
                                  3. https://www.egitimhane.com/ilk-defa-bir-okulda-cince-dersi-k1023-0.html

                                  Supplementary Notes

                                  There are a few examples of cooperation with Chinese authorities i.e. China’s Embassy to introduce Chinese classes in primary and high school education. However, this did not translate into a mass project since the Turkish educational ministry offers its own programme for foreign languages including the Chinese language.

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                    Hide
                                    4.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        5.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Skip

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          While we have not been able to find any evidence for this, we believe that such financial support probably does exist, hence we have decided to skip this question.

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            6.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            47 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                7.
                                                Exposure

                                                In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                Skip

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  While we have not been able to find any evidence for this, we are fairly certain that such financial support does exist, hence we have decided to skip this question.

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    8.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        9.
                                                        Pressure

                                                        In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                        1. https://www.iha.com.tr/haber-turk-akademisyenler-cinden-sinir-disi-edildi-561036/

                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                        There are a few instances of Turkish academics who were denied entry to the PRC due to their opinions. In 2016, an academic group affiliated with a Turkish nationalist association was denied entry to China while they were planning to visit China’s Uyghur region.

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          10.
                                                          Effect

                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              11.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not Found

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide

                                                                  Economy

                                                                  The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                  1.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                  1. https://wits.worldbank.org/CountrySnapshot/en/TUR
                                                                  2. https://www.worldstopexports.com/turkeys-top-import-partners/

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    2.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://www.tcmb.gov.tr/wps/wcm/connect/tr/tcmb+tr/main+menu/istatistikler/odemeler+dengesi+ve+ilgili+istatistikler/kisa+vadeli+dis+borc+istatistiklerii/

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      3.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://www.imib.org.tr/tr/raporlar/ihracat-istatistikleri
                                                                      2. https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/ekonomi/maden-ihracatinda-5-9-milyar-dolarla-cumhuriyet-tarihinin-rekoru-kirildi/2464761

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      China is the number one customer of Turkey’s extractive industries including natural stones and minerals. Turkey exports 5.9 billion US dollars extractive materials and China alone buys 28 per cent of it.

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        4.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://www.bloomberght.com/haberler/haber/1825679-cinden-turkiyeye-dev-yatirim
                                                                        2. https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2021/ekonomi/ucuncu-koprude-satis-bilmecesi-suruyor-cinli-grup-cekildi-6607486/
                                                                        3. https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/dunya/dunyadaki-komur-projelerinin-tek-alicisi-cin/2199351
                                                                        4. https://www.iklimhaber.org/yeni-calisma-tum-dunyada-yeni-komur-projelerinin-tek-alicisi-cin/
                                                                        5. https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ekonomi/cinliler-1-2-milyar-dolarlik-termik-santral-ihalesi-aldi-20679533

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        PRC-related entities own several ports including a 1 billion US dollar investment in the Kumport project, coal mines and coal-fired power plants in Turkey including a 1.2 billion US dollar investment in Adana Turfanbeyli Coal Plant. China Merchants Group also got the tender for the management of Istanbul’s third bridge and northern motorway project for nearly 700 million US dollars but later in 2021 the company declared its plans to leave the project.

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          5.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. https://tr.euronews.com/2016/01/17/turkiye-nin-ortagi-oldugu-asya-altyapi-yatirim-bankasi-resmen-faaliyete-basladi
                                                                          2. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          Turkey is one of the members of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Turkey invested 2,6 billion US dollars and it is the 11th biggest stakeholder of the bank.

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            6.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. https://www.bricaistanbul.com/overview/brica-members/
                                                                            2. http://www.tobb.org.tr/Sayfalar/Detay.php?rid=25240&lst=MansetListesi

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            Turkey’s largest business association, the Turkish Industry and Business Association (TÜSİAD) is a member of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance (BRICA). The Union of Chambers and Commodity Exchanges of Turkey is a member of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce and its president Rifar Hisarciklioglu is the honorary president of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce.

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              7.
                                                                              Pressure

                                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  8.
                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                  In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      9.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                      1. https://ticaret.gov.tr/dis-iliskiler/serbest-ticaret-anlasmalari/genel

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        10.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                        1. https://beyazgazete.com/haber/2020/12/2/cin-den-turkiye-hamlesi-dev-yatirimla-geliyorlar-5862494.html
                                                                                        2. https://www.sabah.com.tr/ekonomi/2020/12/02/cinliler-160-fabrikalik-arsa-istiyor
                                                                                        3. http://yenierdekgazetesi.com/haber/balikesire_cinden_dev_yat-6540.html
                                                                                        4. https://www.webtekno.com/vivo-turkiye-uretimlerine-basliyor-h109311.html

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        China has invested in several organised industrial sites in Turkey. Most recently, China’s tech giant Vivo has invested 25 million US dollars in Gebze Organized Industrial Site. Several local and national authorities including government ministers attended the opening ceremonies. Chinese companies and government plan to use Turkish industrial sites for reaching European markets more easily. In 2010, the Chinese government announced that it may invest 5 billion US dollars in Turkish industrial sites. China has also demanded several specific special organized industrial site for its own use only from Turkish government and local authorities for 160 Chinese factories in Kocaeli, Turkey’s industrial centre.

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          11.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                              Society

                                                                                              The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                              1.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                              1. http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2019/0427/c36-1312.html
                                                                                                              2. https://www.tgk.org.tr/tgkdan-uluslararasi-atak/
                                                                                                              3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fO2nxwuhnxw

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              The National Art Museum of China and 21 art museums or major fine arts institutions from 18 countries including Turkey jointly founded the Silk Road International Alliance of Art Museums and Galleries. In addition to this, the Turkish Journalists’ Confederation and All-China Journalists Association signed a protocol for deepening cooperation in media relations between the two countries. Furthermore, Turkish and Chinese female artists organised several meetings funded by Turkish and Chinese municipalities.

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                1. https://tr.euronews.com/2019/07/24/cumhurbaskani-erdoganin-uygurlar-mutlu-ifadesinin-ceviri-hatasi-oldugu-iddiasi
                                                                                                                                2. https://tr.euronews.com/2019/07/02/cin-devlet-televizyonu-erdogan-sincanlilar-refah-icinde-mutlu-dedi

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                The Turkish government has tried to establish good relations with China but it has always avoided echoing Chinese propaganda narratives. During Turkish President Erdogan’s last visit to China in 2019, Chinese media claimed that President Erdogan said that Uyghurs live happily in China but president’s office later denied this and added that President Erdogan did not say such a thing but Chinese media used a wrong translation.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.gmfus.org/news/relations-china-0

                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                  China has become an important economic partner for Tukey over the last decades. However, China’s revisionist policies, historical issues between Turkey and China and most importantly China’s policies towards Turkic Uyghur population created a negative China image amongst Turkish people.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                    Military

                                                                                                                                    The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.sipri.org/databases/national-reports/Turkey
                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2022-03/fs_2203_at_2021.pdf

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2022-03/fs_2203_at_2021.pdf
                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.sipri.org/databases/national-reports/Turkey

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.diken.com.tr/erdogandan-cine-savunma-sanayiinde-isbirligi-cagrisi/

                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                        Despite earlier statements from the Turkish government, no joint projects were organized between Turkey and China in military and law enforcement equipment production.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/haber/turk-askeri-artik-cinde-egitim-alacak-50897
                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.trmilitary.org/viewtopic.php?t=4336

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      Traditionally, Turkey has sent its officers to the US and other Western allies for education at military academies. However, since 2014, the Turkish Armed Forces have been sending their officers to China for military education. For this purpose, Chinese language instructors were hired by Turkish military high schools and academies.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://t24.com.tr/haber/turkiye-cin-ortak-tatbikati,110237

                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                    Only one military exercise was organised by China and Turkey. In 2010, PLA and Turkish Armed Forces held a joint commando exercise in China.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                      Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                      The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.reuters.com/article/womens-day-uighur-turkey-int-idUSKBN2B01E2
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.france24.com/en/asia-pacific/20201228-china-announces-ratification-of-extradition-treaty-with-turkey
                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://thediplomat.com/2021/01/uyghurs-wary-of-turkeys-pending-extradition-deal-with-china/
                                                                                                                                                                      4. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3115592/china-ratifies-turkey-extradition-deal-push-combat-terrorism

                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                      On 26 December 2020, the Turkish and Chinese governments ratified a treaty creating a route to extradite individuals from Turkey to the People’s Republic of China. The treaty was initially signed in 2017, and, after three years, it comes into force as another measure purportedly to prevent terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.diken.com.tr/turkiye-ile-cin-arasinda-terorizmin-finansmani-anlasmasi/

                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                        Turkey and China signed an agreement in December, 2021 on terrorism financing and money laundering. According to the agreement, Turkish and Chinese authorities will share intelligence.

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.chip.com.tr/haber/cin-den-turkiye-ye-hacker-saldirisi_13971.html
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://siberbulten.com/sektorel/trky/cinli-hacker-grubunun-turk-devlet-kurumlarina-saldirdigi-ortaya-cikti/
                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/teknoloji/turkiyeye-cirkin-saldiri-12073764
                                                                                                                                                                                  4. https://www.dw.com/tr/yemeksepeti-hackerlar%C4%B1-konu%C5%9Ftu-20-milyondan-fazla-ki%C5%9Finin-verileri-elimizde/a-59893203

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Chinese hackers several times targeted websites of the Turkish Embassy in China, Turkish Foreign Ministry, other ministries, private enterprises and Turkish Uyghur groups and individuals. The reason for most of the attacks are related to China’s treatment of its Uyghur population which has close cultural, linguistic and religious links with Turkey.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.airporthaber.com/havacilik-haberleri/iga-xray-cihazlari-icin-anlasma-imzaladi.html
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.voanews.com/a/security-scanners-across-europe-tied-to-china-government-military/6404710.html

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Recently, Chinese private security service companies entered Turkish market eyeing large tenders. Especially, Nuchtech’s scanners, x-ray devices and camera systems are reportedly being used in Turkish airports and ports.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://tr.euronews.com/2021/01/22/dogu-turkistanl-lardan-turkiye-deki-ev-bask-nlar-na-kars-ac-klama-endiseliyiz
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.gazeteduvar.com.tr/turkiyede-uygurlarin-evleri-neden-basiliyor-haber-1510914
                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://tr.euronews.com/2021/02/10/istanbul-da-cin-buyukelciliginin-onundeki-uygur-eylemcilere-gozalt
                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.npr.org/2020/03/13/800118582/i-thought-it-would-be-safe-uighurs-in-turkey-now-fear-china-s-long-arm
                                                                                                                                                                                              5. https://www.duvarenglish.com/turkish-polices-detention-questioning-of-uyghurs-signal-extradition-deal-expert-says-news-55948

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Media reports and international rights groups say that houses of many Uyghurs have been raided, Chinese citizens of Uyghur ethnicity are detained and sent to extradition centres. Furthermore, Uyghur protestors and others who organised public protests in front of Chinese diplomatic missions in Turkey were detained several times based on Chinese Embassy’s requests.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/uighurs-china-turkey-accused-deporting-third-countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.voanews.com/a/east-asia-pacific_analysts-extradition-treaty-between-turkey-china-endangers-uighur-refugees/6200467.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://ahvalnews.com/turkey-uighurs/turkey-repatriating-uighurs-china-third-countries-telegraph
                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/china-turkey-extradition-treaty-implications-uyghurs/
                                                                                                                                                                                                    5. https://www.axios.com/documents-chinas-secret-extradition-request-uighur-turkey-6d5ba886-c22c-47e8-b970-804fae274e2d.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                    6. https://www.france24.com/en/europe/20201231-turkey-dismisses-fears-that-new-deal-will-result-in-mass-deportation-of-uighurs-to-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                    7. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/dec/29/pressure-on-turkey-to-protect-uighurs-as-china-ratifies-extradition-treaty
                                                                                                                                                                                                    8. https://tr.euronews.com/2020/07/27/turkiye-deki-baz-uygur-turklerinin-ucuncu-ulkelere-oradan-da-cin-e-gonderildigi-iddias
                                                                                                                                                                                                    9. https://www.milligazete.com.tr/haber/5055968/flas-iddia-turkiye-uygur-turklerini-sinir-disi-ediyor
                                                                                                                                                                                                    10. https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-turkiye-56661759
                                                                                                                                                                                                    11. https://tr.euronews.com/2021/03/03/iyi-parti-dogu-turkistan-da-yasananlar-n-soyk-r-m-olarak-tan-nmas-icin-tbmm-ye-dilekce-ver
                                                                                                                                                                                                    12. https://www.indyturk.com/node/55671/haber/g%C3%B6%C3%A7-idaresi-m%C3%BCd%C3%BCrl%C3%BC%C4%9F%C3%BC-uygurlar%C4%B1n-iadesi-s%C3%B6z-konusu-de%C4%9Fil

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Despite of the fact that the Turkish government denies that it extradited Uyghurs to China based on a recent extradition treaty signed by Ankara and Beijing media reports and civil society groups suggested that Uyghurs were extradited to China via third countries such as Tajikistan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://netas.com.tr/hakkimizda/
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.scmp.com/tech/china-tech/article/2052271/chinas-zte-takes-over-netas-101m-eyes-expansion-turkey

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In 2017, ZTE Corp, China’s largest-listed telecommunications equipment manufacturer, acquired 48 per cent of Turkish company Netas Telekomünikasyon for up to US$101.28 million in a deal that would expand its operations across key markets covered by Beijing’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.btgunlugu.com/huawei-5g-konusunda-turkiyede-neler-yapiyor/
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turk-telekom-signs-mou-for-5g-deal-with-huawei-171961
                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.huawei.com/en/news/2019/11/turk-telekom-huawei-broke-world-single-user-5g-speed-record
                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://www.lightreading.com/turkcell-and-huawei-complete-the-worlds-leading-800g-trial-on-the-live-carrier-network/d/d-id/757917
                                                                                                                                                                                                        5. https://www.huawei.com/en/news/2019/2/turkcell-5g-oriented-all-cloud-core-network
                                                                                                                                                                                                        6. https://tr.euronews.com/2020/01/29/huawei-turkiye-bizim-icin-merkez-ulke-ve-bolge-lideri-5g

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Turkey’s state-owned telecom company, Turk Telekom and Huawei are cooperating to build the nation’s 5G network as well as the country’s largest private telecommunication company Turkcell. Huawei defines Turkey as a central and regional leader country for its 5G and other operations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://kisadalga.net/haber/detay/teknoloji-sirketi-xiaomi-30-milyon-dolarlik-yatirimla-turkiyede-uretime-basliyor_2117
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/sirkethaberleri/teknoloji/huawei-ve-orbit-enerji-yerli-lityum-pil-uretimi-icin-birlikte-calisacak/671304
                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=119118856875353
                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. https://www.huawei.com/tr/news/tr/2021/huawei-turkiye-ar-ge-merkezine-10-yilda-520-milyon-tl-yatirim-yapildi
                                                                                                                                                                                                          5. https://www.huawei.com/tr/news/tr/2021/huawei-den-turkiye-ye-yeni-yatirim-bulut-servislerini-baslatti

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In addition to 5G, Huawei also cooperates with local companies regarding wifi and cloud services. Huawei also has the biggest R&D centre in the world in Turkey outside of China. Huawei also signed a contract with Turkey’s Orbit Energy Company for producing batteries. In addition to Huawei, Xiaomi opened a mobile phone factory in Istanbul valued at 30 million US dollars.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.voanews.com/a/security-scanners-across-europe-tied-to-china-government-military/6404710.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.airporthaber.com/havacilik-haberleri/iga-xray-cihazlari-icin-anlasma-imzaladi.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Recently, Chinese private security service and technology companies entered the Turkish market eyeing large tenders. Especially, Nuchtech’s scanners, x-ray devices and camera systems are reportedly being used in Turkish airports and ports.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    We have checked the available public information on smart cities, which turns up no evidence of PRC-entity involvement, but it seems likely that such involvement exists nevertheless.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://journo.com.tr/turkiye-mobil-uygulama-2021-veriler

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TikTok is Turkey’s second most popular social media platform based on usage – 14 hours monthly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C3%BCrkiye%27deki_%C5%9Fehirlerin_karde%C5%9F_%C5%9Fehirleri_listesi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.ibb.istanbul/icerik/kardes-sehirler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://marmara.gov.tr/kardes-sehirler-cinde-bulustu/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Turkish cities and towns have many sister cities in China - Ankara and Beijing; Istanbul and Shanghai. Furthermore, Turkish cities and unions of municipalities visited China in state sponsored events. However, having sister cities did not produce a significant deeper cooperation between Turkish and Chinese cities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            While no evidence could be found to confirm that such trips have taken place, it seems likely that they have, but that the information regarding who financed them has not been made public.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.iletisim.gov.tr/turkce/stratejik_iletisim_calismalari/detaylar/cumhurbaskanligi-iletisim-baskanligi-cinde-turkiye-paneli-duzenledi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.mfa.gov.tr/no_-12_-sayin-bakanimizin-cin-halk-cumhuriyeti-ni-ziyareti-hk.tr.mfa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://twitter.com/adalet_bakanlik/status/1062628642923130880
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.hsk.gov.tr/cin-halk-cumhuriyeti-2018-yili-turk-h-kimler-semineri

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Many Turkish state and government officials visited the PRC for meetings with PRC officials and institutes. Several joint panels, trainings and conferences were also organised.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.hsk.gov.tr/cin-halk-cumhuriyeti-2018-yili-turk-h-kimler-semineri
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://diabgm.adalet.gov.tr/Home/SayfaDetay/bakanligimiz-ile-cin-halk-cumhuriyeti-adalet-bakanligi-arasinda-isbirligine-dair-mutabakat-zapti-imzalandi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.gazeteduvar.com.tr/gundem/2018/09/21/hakimler-ve-savcilar-cine-gidip-cince-ogrenecek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4. https://www.pa.edu.tr/turkiye-polis-akademisi-ve-cin-ulusal-polis-universitesi-arasinda-isbirligi-anlasmasi-imza-toreni-haberler.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In recent years, China offered several trainings and language courses for Turkish judiciary and law enforcement officials. During the trainings, police cadets, academics and administrators from police academy and police departments as well as Turkish judges and prosecutors received trainings on Chinese judicial and governance systems as well as Chinese language and culture.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In Turkey, campaign donations and donations to political parties are regulated by strict laws and there are no reports of PRC-origin donations that go to politicians or political parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://tccb.gov.tr/haberler/410/34000/cumhurbaskani-erdogan-turkiye-cin-is-forumuna-katildi.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.cumhuriyet.com.tr/dunya/disisleri-bakani-mevlut-cavusoglu-cine-gidiyor-1899350
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/dunya/cavusoglu-nun-ziyareti-cin-basininda/1178631
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/erdogan-ekonomide-yol-haritasini-anlatti-cin-de-boyle-buyudu-41952854

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Turkish politicians and government employees have publicly expressed their positive views about China on many occasions. These include Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his ministers. Positive statements from Turkish leaders made headlines in Turkish and Chinese media. Most recently, Turkish President Erdogan and his government stressed that Turkey will use the Chinese economic model for its own development and ending the economic crisis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.tbmm.gov.tr/DostlukGruplari/GenelBilgi?ulkeId=185
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/dunya/tbmm-baskani-yildirim-turkiye-cin-iliskileri-yildan-yila-gelisiyor/1330523

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence: Turkey and China have had parliamentary friendship groups for some time. The last parliamentary friendship group was established following the general elections in 2018. The group is chaired by Ahmet Arslan, a lawmaker from the ruling Justice and Development Party and consists of MPs from other political parties. The Speaker of the Turkish Parliament also received the parliamentary group several times and commented positively on Turkey-China relations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2021/gundem/daire-baskani-rapor-alip-akpli-vekille-cini-gezmis-6497330/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://www.sanliurfa.gov.tr/sanliurfa-cinde-tanitildi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://vatanpartisi.org.tr/genel-merkez/yerel-orgutler/vatan-partisi-yurtdisi-temsilcilikleri-19687
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. https://vatanpartisi.org.tr/genel-merkez/haberler/cin-komunist-partisi-nden-vatan-partisi-ne-ziyaret-25719
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5. http://oncugenclik.org.tr/vatan-partisi-cin-ziyaretini-tamamladi/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6. https://www.mfa.gov.tr/ocak2022.tr.mfa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7. https://twitter.com/avhamzadag/status/1198524418512838656?s=20&t=he6Z5h7gKCVFJVgnVG1zkg
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cetur//tur/xwdt/t985298.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Meetings with the representatives of the PRC are being held very often both in Turkey and China and bureaucrats and civil society representatives often attend these meetings. In addition to these, one far-right political party entitled Homeland Party has its office in China for improving their relations with the PRC. China’s Embassy in Ankara also said in a statement that the cooperation between Turkish political parties and Chinese Communist Party were improved significantly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://diab.mfa.gov.tr/akademimizin-cin-halk-cumhuriyeti-ziyareti.tr.mfa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/hakim-ve-savcilara-cin-ve-rusyada-dil-egitimi/1227246
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.pa.edu.tr/turkiye-polis-akademisi-ve-cin-ulusal-polis-universitesi-arasinda-isbirligi-anlasmasi-imza-toreni-haberler.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A few trainings on Chinese governance and language were organised for judges, prosecutors, academics, students and administrators at Turkish police academy and for Turkish diplomats in China. These trainings were organised under the cooperation agreements signed by Turkish and Chinese governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-turkiye-56422635
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.amerikaninsesi.com/a/yetmisiki-milyon-doz-cin-asisi-aksener-nedeniyle-mi-gelmedi/5880317.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://jamestown.org/program/the-22-vs-50-diplomatic-split-between-the-west-and-china-over-xinjiang-and-human-rights/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://tr.euronews.com/2019/03/01/cin-den-turkiye-ye-uygur-turkleri-tehdidi-ekonomik-iliskileri-tehlikeye-atarsiniz

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Turkey did not sign the letter to UNHCR regarding Uyghurs and human rights violations until 2021 but instead it issued its own letter. China uses growing economic relations as a pressure tool stating that Turkey’s possible Uyghur decision may jeopardise economic relations. During the pandemic, China was also accused of using its vaccine strategy for pressuring Turkey regarding its policies towards Uyghurs who have close cultural and linguistic ties with Anatolian Turks. China also hosted several Turkish official delegations for visiting Uyghur regions for changing their stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://serbestiyet.com/haberler/ozel-haber-12-turkiye-cumhuriyeti-vatandasi-cinde-tutsak-70747/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://balkaninsight.com/2021/01/27/chinas-uyghur-crimes-a-test-of-turkish-leaders-foreign-policy-claims/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://tr.euronews.com/2021/03/02/istanbul-da-eylem-yapan-uygurlar-k-z-kardesim-turkiye-de-egitim-ald-g-icin-boluculukle-suc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4. https://www.amnesty.org.tr/icerik/birbirlerinden-koparilan-uygur-ailelerinin-kabusu

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Turkey has one of the largest Uyghur diaspora groups in the world and many of them obtained Turkish citizenship during their stay in Turkey. According to media reports, dozens of Turkish nationals of Uyghur ethnicity have been arrested, tortured and transferred to concentration camps. In addition to that, the Chinese government also uses relatives of Turkish nationals as hostages to stop Turkish Uyghur citizens and activists from campaigning in Turkey and abroad.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.roc-taiwan.org/tr_tr/post/3085.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Turkey did not have any negative stance against Taiwan’s membership of the WHO. Representative of the Taiwan mission to Turkey, asked for Turkey’s help regarding the issue and published several opinion pieces in Turkish media.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cetur/tur/xwdt/t1375123.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Turkey has been silent regarding China’s territorial claims such as on the South China Sea. However, China uses Turkey’s own stance on international maritime law due to long lasting issues with Greece. Chinese Ambassador several times stated that China like Turkey does not recognise the authority of the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/joint-statement-on-the-human-rights-situation-in-the-xinjiang
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.globsec.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/China-in-the-Broader-black-sea-region-ver7-nonprint.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://tr.euronews.com/2020/07/27/turkiye-deki-baz-uygur-turklerinin-ucuncu-ulkelere-oradan-da-cin-e-gonderildigi-iddias
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. https://tr.euronews.com/2019/08/13/turkiye-deki-uygurlarda-cin-e-sinir-disi-edilme-korkusu-artiyor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5. https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-turkiye-55474893
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6. https://www.dw.com/tr/t%C3%BCrkiye-%C3%A7inin-uygurlara-bask%C4%B1s%C4%B1na-neden-sessiz-kal%C4%B1yor/a-51549785
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7. https://jamestown.org/program/the-22-vs-50-diplomatic-split-between-the-west-and-china-over-xinjiang-and-human-rights/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8. https://thediplomat.com/2020/08/china-buys-turkeys-silence-on-uyghur-oppression/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9. https://www.voanews.com/a/europe_turkish-opposition-challenge-erdogan-over-uighur-silence/6201354.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10. https://dogruhaber.com.tr/haber/718388-dunya-uygur-kongresinden-turkiyeye-cagri/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11. https://www.karar.com/dunya-haberleri/uygur-turklerinden-turkiyeye-cagri-2022-cin-olimpiyatlarini-boykot-edin-1622093

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Turkey’s stance on China’s treatment of its Uyghur population is actually a very mixed one. Turkey has joined the recent joint statement of 43 countries at the UN which condemns human rights violations in the Uyghur region. Turkey had earlier remained silent and tried to maintain a separate stance in order to not anger its public opinion, its own Uyghur diaspora and Chinese government. Turkey also signed an agreement with China for extradition of Chinese nationals which targets Uyghur community members. Even though Turkish government denies any extradition of Uyghurs, media and civil society reports show that Turkey extradites Uyghurs to China via third countries. Turkey also remains not very vocal about Uyghur issue despite demands from its own public, opposition groups, international organisations and Turkey’s Uyghur diaspora.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
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