Taiwan

$33,011.0
23.5M
Ranking
11/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

182/ 380
Executive partner
Doublethink Lab
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

46%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

69%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

40%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Taiwan had a GDP per capita of US$33,011 and a total population of 23.21 million people, of which 96.45% are Han Chinese.

The government of Taiwan, or Republic of China, retreated from China after the civil war with the Chinese Communist Party in 1949. The People's Republic of China has regarded Taiwan as a breakaway province of China, and claims to have sovereignty over Taiwan. Taiwan was ranked 38th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 94/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    81.8% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    41.7% / 34%
  • Economy
    36.4% / 33.6%
  • Society
    77.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    61.4% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    25.0% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    50.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    36.1% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

5 Taiwanese media and their representatives were listed as members in their articles in 2015. And 4 Taiwanese media were listed as members in their website.

  1. https://worldchinesemedia.com/2015/05/12/56/
  2. https://worldchinesemedia.com

    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    In the website of Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, it mentioned that they have 43 media and cultural institutions as their members. But it could not be identified that if there are Taiwanese member among them. The Belt and Road News Alliance has 3 Taiwanese members:CTI Television Incorporation (CTI)(中天新聞台), TVBS Media Inc. (TVBS)(TVBS無線衛星電視台),CTV(中國電視公司). There are also other BRI related media alliances formed with Taiwanese participation. Belt and Road Media Community has Taiwanese members of: National Geographic(國家地理頻道,香港商福斯傳媒有限公司台灣分公司、美商國家地理頻道有限公司台灣分公司)and Ezenhall Communication Co., Ltd.(意妍堂製作股份有限公司). The Belt and Road International New Media Alliance(一带一路国际新媒体联盟)initiated by Chinese state media People's Daily(人民日报社、人民网), B&R Film and TV Media Union(一帶一路國際城市影視聯盟)and Belt and Road Information Alliance(一帶一路資訊聯盟). And it is confirmed that the latter two alliances have the participation of Taiwanese media.

    1. http://www.videochina.org.cn/media/
    2. https://brnalink.com/members.html

      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      There was a high wave of exchange programs between Taiwan and China since 2008 due to the strong cooperation of between the national and local Taiwan Affairs Offices of PRC and the Taiwanese sectors. After the political transition in 2016, the exchange programs coordinated with public sectors in Taiwan have declined, but there are still much cooperation of Taiwan Affairs Offices and private organizations. There's a decrease in programs in the beginning of COVID-19, but after the epidemic in China was in control, the trend rises again. In May 10th to 12th 2019, the Want Want China Times Media Group held the 2019 Cross-Straits Media Summit in Beijing. The participants met Wang Yang, the chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. He called for the media to work for the realization of "peaceful unification" and "one country two systems", and taunted the Taiwanese government "can't even secure the things in two years" and it's unwise to stake on the support of United States. The Taiwanese participants were from a wide range of all media, therefore, it caused huge controversy. Although the Taiwanese government called for media's self-discipline on assisting the political propaganda for China, there were still 7 Taiwanese media joining “the First Media Summit of Guangdong-HK-Macau Great Bay Area" and listening to the lecture of Huang Kunming, the head of the Propaganda Department of CCP. There were series of cross-straits programs in late 2020 to 2021. The conventional forms are media exchange and joint interview on the local scenery and specialties, and requesting the media to recommend it after they return to Taiwan. There's no open data to clearly show that the programs are all covered by the Chinese hosts, but it is an open secret for the Taiwan Affairs Offices to pay for everything beside the flight and insurance. There were other media exchange and joint interview programs happened in late 2020, such as the interview tour to Ankang on Slikroad, the media tour on Winter Olympics, joint interview program on poverty reduction program in Gansu and Yunnan, the cultural exchange program in Shanxi, youth media exchange program in Gansu, and joint interview program in Jiangsu.

      1. https://hackmd.io/@billy3321/BJepntX3N
      2. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/paper/1290386
      3. https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20180530000095-260301?chdtv
      4. http://www.taiwan.cn/local/dfkx/202011/t20201127_12308530.htm
      5. https://autos.yahoo.com.tw/news/北京市臺聯第四屆兩岸媒體參訪團-助燃冬奧-123932085.html
      6. http://www.gstb.gov.cn/ltkx/202012/t20201201_12308979.html
      7. http://www.yntb.gov.cn/html/2020/shetaixinwen_1222/8010.html
      8. http://tw.people.com.cn/n1/2021/0526/c14657-32113213.html
      9. http://www.taihainet.com/news/twnews/bilateral/2021-06-01/2515684.html
      10. http://www.jsstb.gov.cn/stkx/202106/t20210601_12356274.htm

        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

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        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        The national security institutions in Taiwan has raised that, the Chinese authorities has expanded the training programs of influencers and electronic commerce live broadcasters and use social media as a new channel of propaganda. For instance, Hangzhou City has arranged the program of "A Thousand Taiwanese Young Broadcasters" from August 2020 to 2022. There will be 10 periods, each period will last 5 months, consisting of 24 online courses and recruit 100 people. The participants would learn about short films, live shows, influencer building and live advertising. The Taiwan Affairs Offices of Fujian Province and Xiamen City also held the "Cross-Straits Young Influencers & Broadcasters Contest" along with the activity of "Young Professional Influencers & Broadcasters Camp", to give the participants professional trainings and further career consultation to attract Taiwanese youth. The Chinese state media Taiwan.cn, which focus on Taiwan-related information, held the training courses aiming the Taiwanese youth pursuing career in China as their target in 25th April, 2021. Taiwan.cn also interviewed a Taiwanese influencers pursuing their career in China, likely with the support from the government.

        1. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/202102200211.aspx
        2. http://www.taiwan.cn/xwzx/la/202104/t20210425_12348100.htm
        3. http://www.taiwan.cn/xwzx/la/202102/t20210203_12329635.htm
        4. http://www.xinhuanet.com/tw/2020-11/27/c_1126793504.htm
        5. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/breakingnews/2750959
        6. https://election.ltn.com.tw/2020/news/overview/breakingnews/3014268

          Answered by Pu Lin, and has been reviewed by Lee Penghsuan

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          There are laws regulating the approval of Chinese films and TV shows broadcasting in Taiwan. However, the Taiwanese TV stations have imported many Chinese shows to reduce their production cost. According to the open data of Bureau of Audiovisual and Music Industry Development, Ministry of Culture, there have been 570 cases of Chinese TV shows being approved to broadcast in 2020, and 213 cases in January to May 2021. People can easily gain access to Chinese TV stations with set-top boxes, such as Xiaomi Boxes, and from internet platforms and social media, without the shows being approved by the Taiwanese government. Chinese government also release shows with united front purposes targeting Taiwanese audience (including the Taiwanese-speaking public).

          1. https://www.bamid.gov.tw/informationlist_147.html
          2. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/paper/1415929
          3. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2019-10-21/314850

            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

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            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            Yes

            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            According to Article 73 of Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area, "unless permitted by the competent authorities, any individual, juristic person, organization, or other institution of the Mainland Area, or any company it invests in any third area may not engage in any investment activity in the Taiwan Area." However, Taiwanese media are still able to receive fund from reinvestment of Chinese citizens or legal persons to foreign corporations. Back in 2003, report has revealed that there are Chinese influences investing 17 Taiwanese media through the foreign entity Newslink Investment. And in 2008, Tsai Eng-Ming, the owner of Want Want Group, took over China Times Media Group, and influences the media under it with his own political stance. Recently, media have revealed that the Want Want Group has received a government grant of 477 million RMB. And according to the financial reports of Want Want China from 2007 to 2018, it has received grants from the Chinese government as much as 1.526 trillion RMB. The China Times Media Group has become extremely pro-CCP after Want Want stepping in, and it organized the Cross-Straits Media Summit in Beijing that sparked huge controversy in 2019. It also has its all-round support on the pro-China KMT presidential candidate in the 2020 election. And their journalist also revealed that the Taiwan Affairs Office delivered directives regarding the editing and interview to them on phone.

            1. https://law.moj.gov.tw/ENG/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=Q0010001
            2. https://tw.appledaily.com/property/20190422/YTECGJ7QUM7XWY6ASZOYJBNKE4/
            3. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Companies/Chinese-subsidies-for-Foxconn-and-Want-Want-spark-outcry-in-Taiwan
            4. https://hackmd.io/@billy3321/BJepntX3N?type=view
            5. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201907170202.aspx

              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Chen Wen-fan, the deputy head of National Security Bureau revealed in his presentation in the Legislative Yuan on May 2nd 2019 that, certain media, including online and paper media and influencers, would echo with the Chinese propaganda in their contents, way of presentation and tone. NSB also revealed in their activity report that, the Chinese government would provide directives to the "like-minded" media, in order to disseminate controversial information to divide the solidarity of Taiwanese people, and to have other media following up the news. Through the social investigation conducted by civil organizations such as Watchout and other netizens monitoring the TV news, they discovered that the pro-Chinese media would intentionally weaken or shift the focus to create a "parallel universe".

              1. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/chinese-news-48159146
              2. https://musou.watchout.tw/read/P4AACZl6ms7Ef7enkmWa

                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                Hide
                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                According to Art. 34 of Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area, "The content of the advertisement and activity referred to in the preceding paragraph shall not have any of the following:1. Any political propaganda for the Chinese Communist Party.2. Violation of any current Mainland policy or any law or regulation of the Government.3. Being contrary to the public order or good morals." In January 2nd 2018, a CCTV advertising video of the TV show "Trust In China" was broadcasted in Taipei. It was fined as it was never submitted for approval. Although there is stronger regulation on the advertisement from China, especially the government-related ones, it is challenging to regulate the embedded advertising in news coverage by laws. In 2010, Frank Wu, the member of Control Yuan (the investigatory and auditory institute of Taiwanese government), raised a corrective measures against Mainland Affairs Council. In the report, it mentioned that 2 major Taiwanese newspapers United News and China Times has embedded advertisement about multiple Chinese provinces in their news articles, and has contracts with the provincial governments for the deals. (He Qinglian, 2016, Red Infiltration: the Truth About the Global Expansion of Chinese Media, p168) In a 2012 news article, it revealed that Want Want China Times Group cooperated with the governments of Fujian Province and Xiamen City to purchase news coverage and had a concrete plan on propaganda. And in August 2019, an investigation report of Reuters revealed with proof that, China has brought at least 5 Taiwanese media, and use them to push forward their propaganda to the Taiwanese audience. From the documents that the journalist have reviewed, most of the contracts are from the Taiwan Affairs Office. But there are also a few contracts from other government sectors, such as the government of a southern province. There is also frequent exposure of the advertisement of Chinese state media on social media. Since those websites/applications are banned in China, it's clear that the ads are targeted at foreign viewers.

                1. https://law.moj.gov.tw/ENG/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=Q0010001
                2. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2018-01-04/109334
                3. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2012-03-30/23697
                4. https://www.rfi.fr/tw/港澳台/20190809-路透社中國在台收買五家台媒搞紅媒宣傳
                5. https://www.reuters.com/article/taiwan-china-media/rpt-insight-paid-news-china-using-taiwan-media-to-win-hearts-and-minds-on-island-sources-idUKL4N2552YF
                6. https://ec.ltn.com.tw/article/breakingnews/3163961

                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                  Hide
                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  According to the interviews done by Prof. Lo Shih-Hung with the Taiwanese journalists who used to work in China, the Taiwan Affairs Office would monitor their whereabouts with surveillance on their phones, and to create some kinds of mental pressure on them. In the sensitive timing, the national security and police departments would contact the journalists and remind them about the "red lines" of journalism. When sensitive incidents burst out, such as the protests and crackdown in Tibet or Xinjiang (East Turkistan), the phones of some Taiwanese journalists in China were intervened whole day and could not do any interviews at all. During the echo of Jasmine Revolution in China in 2011, 3 Taiwanese journalists in China were detained for questions in Wangfujing shopping street, Beijing. In the master thesis "The Response Strategies against Governmental and Organizational Controls of Taiwanese Journalists Working in China", the author mentioned that, the Taiwanese correspondents need to gain approval of the local and the destination authorities in order to travel for interviews. This makes it difficult for the journalists to cope with accidents. And they would be threatened not granting the media pass every three months. The Chinese authorities would directly pressure the management level of the Taiwanese media to control the news coverage. Meanwhile, the physical safety of journalists is also at risk: they can be under surveillance, followed, "taken for tea", or forced to engage in social activities with government authorities. It doesn't take long for the Taiwanese journalists to learn the unspoken rules and avoid themselves from the interview of sensitive issues. And they would tend to censor themselves as the Taiwanese media might not be able to support their back when their correspondents get into troubles.

                  1. https://www.feja.org.tw/41655
                  2. https://nccur.lib.nccu.edu.tw/bitstream/140.119/58747/1/100801.pdf

                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

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                    10.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    51 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Many Taiwanese media would censor themselves on topics that might be critical to the Chinese government in order to receive contracts of embedded advertisement or for their benefits in China. Some pro-China media were already exposed of their illegal embedded advertisements from the Chinese government sectors. Want Want China, the subsidiary company of Want Wang Group, received high subsidy from the Chinese government. Both TVBS and China Times have been invested by oversea Chinese fund or bought by pro-Chinese business. Even the media with stronger Taiwanese identity, they still need to surrender to the business opportunities on advertisements, capitals and release market and censor themselves. The Taiwanese media have to compromise on the content of the news and programs. For instance, in 2009, the management level of Formosa TV refused to brought and broadcast 10 Conditions of Love, the documentary film of exile Uyghur leader Rebiya Kadeer. In 2012, SET News Channel closed down the popular political commentary show “Talking Show", reportedly due to the pressure from the National Radio and Television Administration in China. In 2009 to 2014, the news coverage of Tiananmen Massacre in SET News has apparently declined. In the 2020 Country Report on Human Rights Practices of US States Department, officials in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) influenced Taiwan media outlets through pressure on the business interests of their parent companies in the PRC. Taiwan journalists reported difficulty publishing content critical of the PRC, alleging that PRC authorities had pressured Taiwan businesses with operations in China to refrain from advertising with Taiwan media outlets which published such material. To punish Taiwan media outlets deemed too critical of PRC policies or actions, the PRC would subject their journalists to heightened scrutiny at Chinese ports of entry or deny them entry to China. PRC actors also targeted the computers and mobile phones of Taiwan journalists for cyberattacks.

                    1. https://whogovernstw.org/2019/05/27/jawnianhuang9/
                    2. https://www.state.gov/reports/2020-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/taiwan/

                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

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                      11.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      2 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      44 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      18 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      When Tsai Eng-Meng, the owner of Want Want Group, interviewed by the Washington Post in January 2012, he expressed his positive feeling toward the Chinese government and stated that he think the reports of Tiananmen massacre can't be true. During the Anti-extradition protest in Hong Kong, many pro-Chinese public figures in Taiwan openly condemned the protesters as "riots", including political commentators and KMT politicians. During the Uyghur forced-labor cotton controversy, many Taiwanese artists with benefits in China have openly showed support to the Xinjiang cotton. Taiwanese commentator Huang Zhixian made a visit to Xinjiang, and posted on social media about how well the Xinjiang farmers are doing, and claimed that the Chinese officials have done whatever they can to solve problem as for the cotton farmers. The form KMT chair Hung Hsiu-chu also echoed with the Chinese rhetoric, claiming that, "if the western countries disseminate false information rather than really pay a visit to Xinjiang to understand the facts; why wouldn't we listen to the defense of the Xinjiang and Chinese authorities? Why other muslim countries don't seem to protest against China's problems?"

                      1. https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/tycoon-prods-taiwan-closer-to-china/2012/01/20/gIQAhswmFQ_story.html
                      2. http://www.taihainet.com/news/twnews/latq/2019-11-21/2329499.html
                      3. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2021-01-07/519958
                      4. https://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=634781
                      5. https://www.ftvnews.com.tw/news/detail/2021329W0063
                      6. https://tw.news.yahoo.com/親中名嘴挺進新疆-黃智賢-中共官員不計-切幫棉花農-解決問題-043300359.html
                      7. https://www.ftvnews.com.tw/news/detail/2021329W0138

                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

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                        Academia

                        The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                        1.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                        More

                        0/ No

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        6 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        31 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        25 countries chose this answer

                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        According to media, the Ministry of Education has a more reserved stand on the cross-Straits industry-academic cooperation. A new act for further development of industry-academic cooperation is passed, but the cross-Straits related issues are still regulated by the Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area. From the open data, the current cooperation between universities and Chinese corporations are under "Taipei City universities cross-border electronic commerce industry-academic cooperation program". In the program, 5 universities with 30 local corporations and 3 cross-border e-commerce platforms Amazon, eBay and Alibaba. According to the open data of Ministry of Education, in the school year of 2019-2020, there were 3,843 universities created sister school relationship with their counterparts in China; the number of transnational dual degree programs are 59; the cases of academic exchanges programs were 103. Therefore, the cooperation between Taiwanese and Chinese universities is still frequent. Most of them are normal cooperation. However, some of the Chinese partners have close relationship with Chinese Communist Party, such as School of Communist Youth League of China, which raises a red flag.

                        1. https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20171111000329-260108?chdtv
                        2. https://tw.appledaily.com/life/20201223/EAV2EK7DFNHWTAGF3QPIEOZWXA/
                        3. https://www.17cross.org.tw/KM/news_more?id=a89fe9c1cef74968bcc3c511c5de90c5
                        4. https://udb.moe.edu.tw/DetailReportList/學生類/SirdJointDualTransnationalDegree108/Index
                        5. https://www.ettoday.net/news/20190509/1440872.htm

                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                          Hide
                          2.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          0/ No

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          14 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          31 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          27 countries chose this answer

                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          The official language in Taiwan is Mandarin Chinese. There is no need of Confucius Institutes or Classrooms.

                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                              Hide
                              3.
                              Exposure

                              My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              1 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              46 countries chose this answer

                              4/ Yes

                              35 countries chose this answer

                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              The official language in Taiwan is Mandarin Chinese with traditional Chinese characters. Therefore, there's no need to import Chinese teaching materials from China. However, there was an incident of an elementary school in Taipei accidentally used the science materials in their extracurricular activities.

                              1. https://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=749489

                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                                Hide
                                4.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                40 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                17 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                7 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Yuan Ze University is one of the members of University Alliance of the Silk Road.

                                1. http://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/info/1092/1707.htm

                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                                  Hide
                                  5.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                  Skip

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There are pro-Chinese organizations operating in the forms of think tanks and research institutes, such as Cross-Strait Integration Association, Taiwan Competitiveness Forum and Cross-Straits Public Opinion Exchange Foundation. They might be funded by Chinese authorities, but there's no proof on open data.

                                      Answered by Pu Lin, and has been reviewed by Lee Penghsuan

                                      Hide
                                      6.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      On November 27th, the speaker of National Taiwan Affairs Office Zhu Fenglian reported that, there were 72 Taiwanese experts and scholars being selected into Thousand Talents Program. Mainland Affairs Council was aware of the 33 of them on the list, and the investigation task force has discovered 6-7 of them are current working in the educational institutes. Taiwanese scholars have also been selected into Changjiang Scholar Program. Although there is not a full list, but media has reported that several professors who were listed in it. In addition to these programs on the national level, Xiamen City also launched five other programs specially for attracting Taiwanese specialists, which are Fujian Province Bringing in Taiwanese High-Level Personnel (福建省引進台灣高層次人才), Fujian Province Bringing in High-Level Personnel Hundred People Program (福建省引進台灣高層次人才百人計劃), Double Hundred Personnel Program (雙百計畫人才), Taiwan Distinguished Experts (台灣特聘專家), and Taiwan Distinguished Specialists (台灣特聘專才). It's worth noted that, in the so-called "31 Measures" (Measures to promote economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation across the Taiwan Straits) and "26 Measures" (Measures to further promote economic and cultural exchanges and cooperation across the Taiwan Straits), both are highly loosening the limitation of Taiwanese specialists working, settling and holding adjunct positions.

                                      1. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201911270131.aspx
                                      2. https://www.cmmedia.com.tw/home/articles/19664
                                      3. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/paper/1400947
                                      4. https://www.ettoday.net/news/20190625/1475057.htm
                                      5. https://tw.news.yahoo.com/news/大陸國台辦31條惠台措施全文-030333269.html
                                      6. https://udn.com/news/story/7331/4142994

                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                                        Hide
                                        7.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Skip

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          According to the research, the cross-Straits exchange tour has been held for many years and has a comparatively stable structure. It's usually more similar to a tourist group, which contains mostly sight-seeking schedules. The duration is usually 3-10 days. There will be an organization, usually the Taiwan Affairs Office or the Taiwan Merchant Association, to receive the group and provide free reception. The CCP officials will accompany the group or have exchange session with them. Link Link According to private information, the professor of department of political science has brought students to visit Pingtan, Fujian which was free of charge and even had subsidy from the Chinese government.

                                          1. https://www.readr.tw/project/unitedfront
                                          2. https://www.prcrisk.info/2020/02/blog-post.html

                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                                          Hide
                                          8.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Although the Chinese students in Taiwan have attempted to censor, report or damage the expression that doesn't align with their stand, but it is only committed by individuals. In February 2019, the Taiwan Affairs Office sent a message through the University Entrance Committee for Mainland Chinese Students to Fu Jen Catholic University and National Cheng Kung University, requesting them to stop the professors expressing their own ideology and to reduce the quota of recruiting Chinese students. After June 2019, when the Anti-extradition protest was at its highest, many Hong Kong students studying in Taiwan used their ways to show support the movement. However, there were Chinese students who felt offended seeing their expression, and caused multiple violent encounters in Soochow University, Chinese Culture University, Shih Hsin University, National Sun Yat-sen University and I-Shou University.

                                          1. https://tw.appledaily.com/life/20190221/L3YTHBAD5HDYTBXSYEITOIFVA4/
                                          2. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/chinese-news-47318361
                                          3. https://www.ftvnews.com.tw/news/detail/2019919W0009
                                          4. https://hk.aboluowang.com/2019/0926/1347697.html
                                          5. https://www.ntdtv.com.tw/b5/20190926/video/254701.html
                                          6. https://www.thenewslens.com/article/125179

                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                                            Hide
                                            9.
                                            Pressure

                                            In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Many of the scholars, who raise a more critical view toward China, would choose not to visit China for their own safety, as the physical security is less protected in China. Also, Taiwanese people have to apply for the Mainland Travel to travel to China. And the Chinese authorities are likely to barricade the applications of those they dislike during the process without given a specific reason. In contrast, more Taiwanese scholars have confronted the situation of being openly denied visa to or being deported back from Hong Kong since 2013.

                                            1. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/china/2014/05/140530_hk_taiwan_scholar_banned
                                            2. https://www.rti.org.tw/news/view/id/385301

                                              Answered by Pu Lin, and has been reviewed by Lee Penghsuan

                                              Hide
                                              10.
                                              Effect

                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              The Taiwanese education has its own curriculum in the political history in East Asia. Although it's often criticized to be too sinocentric, but it is more aligned with the Kuomintang-ROC historical perspective, which is different from the CCP's version.

                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                                                  Hide
                                                  11.
                                                  Effect

                                                  In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                  77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Due to the authoritarian history of Taiwan, the educators tend to avoid political issues during the classes. However, after allowing the Chinese students to pursue degrees and exchange programs, there have been occasions that the discussion or curriculum being intervened by the Chinese authorities. In 2017, media revealed that several universities in Taiwan have signed the term of agreement, in order to secure the significant income from the tuition fee of Chinese students. They have promised not to touch on the "controversial topics on the cross-Straits political issues", and not to be engaged in activities on "one China one Taiwan", "Two China" or "Taiwan independence". According to Shih-Hsin University, they have received similar requests from 3 universities from China in 2015-2017.

                                                  1. https://www.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/observations/suspension-or-fadeout-student-exchanges-china-taiwan
                                                  2. https://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=229422
                                                  3. https://time.com/4697784/tainwan-universities-mainland-china-academic-freedom/

                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pu Lin

                                                    Hide

                                                    Economy

                                                    The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                    1.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                    Yes

                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    0/ No

                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    In 2020, China (including Hong Kong) is the biggest export (43.9%) and import (22.6%) market on Taiwan.

                                                    1. https://www.ey.gov.tw/state/6A206590076F7EF/8b5032af-1a67-4c02-bd16-8791aa459cd2

                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                      Hide
                                                      2.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      According to the press release of Financial Supervisory Commission, from January to May 2021, the foreign investment institutes, oversea nationals and foreign natural persons, have remitted 12.83 billion USD, and the Chinese investment has remitted 4 million USD. Therefore, the financial investments of Chinese capitals are comparative less - unless they come in the name of foreign investment, but it will be difficult to track.

                                                      1. https://www.fsc.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=96&parentpath=0,2&mcustomize=news_view.jsp&dataserno=202106040003&dtable=News

                                                        Answered by Chiang Min-yen, and has been reviewed by Lee Penghsuan

                                                        Hide
                                                        3.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        According to the data from the Platform of Big Data on Global Trade by Taiwan External Trade Development Council, the total value of mineral products exporting to China in 2019 (the latest) was 1.42 billion USD. It is no. 38 at the ranking and is not the top customer.

                                                        1. https://itrade.taiwantrade.com/market/index#

                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                          Hide
                                                          4.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          According to Art.8 in Measures Governing Investment Permit to the People of Mainland Area, the investment by Chinese citizens or organizations on monopoly; political, social and cultural sensitive or impactful on national security; unfavorable to economic development or financial stability, would be prohibited. Since Taiwan is not a main target on Belt and Road Initiative, and the infrastructures are quite intact, there is not much chance for the Chinese government to control the critical infrastructures or sensitive sectors. However, it is possible that the Chinese corporations getting involved with the critical industries through legal loopholes. The case of Tatung, a well-known brand which has managed many sensitive information security bids of government, is an obvious case to see the illegal interference of Chinese investment.

                                                          1. https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=Q0040015
                                                          2. https://www.storm.mg/article/426316?mode=whole
                                                          3. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2020-10-13/478765

                                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                            Hide
                                                            5.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            In 2016, Chang Sheng-ford, then minister of finance, expressed that Taiwan would not join the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. Jin Liqun, the president of AIIB, claimed that Taiwan had to applied through the Chinese ministry of finance to join AIIB.

                                                            1. https://www.voacantonese.com/a/rb-dc-taiwan-says-it-will-not-join-neijing-led-aiib/3281202.html

                                                              Answered by Chiang Min-yen, and has been reviewed by Lee Penghsuan

                                                              Hide
                                                              6.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              There is no Taiwanese member of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  7.
                                                                  Pressure

                                                                  My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  There were two sudden embargoes on Taiwanese products to China in the beginning of 2021. One was the ban on pork and its processed food, which was said to be related with the lift on import of U.S. pork containing ractopamine. Another was the ban on pineapples with the excuse of pests. Although the embargoes didn't cause fatal shock to the industries, it still caused short-term unrest on market and public opinion.

                                                                  1. https://udn.com/news/story/7339/5284738

                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    8.
                                                                    Pressure

                                                                    In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                    Yes

                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Due to the status of Taiwan, it's common to see the unintentional speeches or behaviors of corporations, organizations or individuals considered anti-China and be boycotted online. One of the famous instance was the video game Devotion being taken down from Steam since the Chinese netizens found out that one of the designs in the game was teasing the Chinese President Xi Jinping. In the end of 2020, the Taiwanese corporation Asus got into controversy when its Japan branch have a co-marketing event with Hololive, the livestream platform that was considered anti-China before. The Chinese netizens pressed pressure on the social media of the Asus China branch. Another waves of criticism aroused in Taiwan when the social media admin of the China branch claimed themselves as a Chinese corporation. The Taiwanese company Gigabyte Tech also faced boycott when they claimed on their website to be “not manufactured in China with low cost and quality" and was named and shamed by the Communist Youth League. Gigabyte apologized for the misspeech and released a statement to support One China stand and against all separatist behavior and speech.

                                                                    1. https://www.storm.mg/article/3539694
                                                                    2. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/afe/202012170389.aspx
                                                                    3. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2021-05-11/571465

                                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      9.
                                                                      Effect

                                                                      My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Taiwan and China have signed the Cross-Straits Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA) in June 29, 2009, and it has come into force on September 2009. The forthcoming Cross-Strait Service Trade Agreement (CSSTA) was signed on June 2013, but was stopped by the Sunflower Movement in 2014. The Cross-Straits Goods Trade Agreement has been negotiated for 12 times from 2011 to 2015 but has not reached to a conclusion. Also, the computer industry and the related services are included in the early harvest list of ECFA.

                                                                      1. https://www.ecfa.org.tw/Event.aspx?nid=26
                                                                      2. https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?PCODE=Q0070022

                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        10.
                                                                        Effect

                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        47 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        The parliament introduced the two-stage free economic pilot zones in 2014. However, the bill of Special Act for Free Economic Pilot Zones hasn't passed in the parliament, and the reserved favorable treatments never be in effect. In April 2019, the Special Act was edited and introduced again in the parliament.

                                                                        1. https://misq.ly.gov.tw/MISQ//IQuery/misq5000QueryBillDetail.action?billNo=1030508070200500
                                                                        2. https://misq.ly.gov.tw/MISQ/IQuery/misq5000QueryBillDetail.action?billNo=1080315070200600
                                                                        3. https://www.thenewslens.com/article/120234

                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          11.
                                                                          Effect

                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          76 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Taiwan does not have infrastructure built in debt of China.

                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                              Hide

                                                                              Society

                                                                              The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                              1.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Taiwan has many pro-unification groups actively advocating on a broad ideology spectrum. At one side, China has been claiming Taiwan an inseparable part of China, and has worked hard to infiltrate Taiwan in all means for a long time. At the other side, the legacy of Republic of China retreat to Taiwan and the authoritarian rule afterward, has left many Taiwanese who were grown under the authoritarianism the identity as Chinese people, and the ideology of ultimate unification. In a statement released by the website of China Council for the Promotion of the Peaceful National Unification, some pro-unification groups are listed, such as Taiwan Area Victims of Political Persecution Mutual Aid Association (台灣地區政治受難人互助會), Labor Party (勞動黨), Unification Alliance Party (統一聯盟黨), The China Tide Association (夏潮聯合會), China Foundation (中華基金會), Gu Jingliang Cultural Foundation (辜金良文化基金會), Renjian Publishers (人間出版社), Cross-Strait Peace & Development Union (中華兩岸和平發展聯合會), Labor Rights Association (勞動人權協會) and Forum for Peaceful Development of Cross-Strait Relations (兩岸和平發展論壇).

                                                                              1. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/202005/t20200521_12276552.html

                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                2.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                On the website of United World Chinese Organization, there is a China Taiwan Branch and its members General Lin Rui-min and Dr. Fan Guang-ling.

                                                                                1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  3.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  ACFTU holds Straits Workers’ Forum under the annual Straits Forum.

                                                                                  1. http://acftu.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2020/0925/c67502-31874757.html
                                                                                  2. https://udn.com/news/story/6929/3878431

                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    4.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Since there are many similarities between the traditional festivals in Taiwan and China, so there are less groups holding activities on traditional holidays. However, many united front work related groups would coordinate with the local organizations and hold activities with clear united front work themes in Taiwan. For instance, in April 13 2019, Association for China's Peaceful Unification planned to hold the Peaceful Unification, Integration and Development Forum in Taichung, Taiwan. In November 2019, All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese, an organization overseen by the United Front Work Department, held shows on tour in different Taiwanese cities governed by the KMT mayors. In January 2021, there were elementary students in Taiwan participated in the Cross-Straits Teenager Good Family Traditions Writing Competition held by Pingtan government, which is the base of united front propaganda to Taiwan.

                                                                                    1. https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20190412000653-260107?chdtv
                                                                                    2. https://englishnews.ftv.com.tw/read.aspx?sno=D887D467765EE1EB4FD6C10F0060556D
                                                                                    3. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/breakingnews/2961536
                                                                                    4. http://www.chinaql.org/n1/2019/1113/c419665-31453533.html
                                                                                    5. https://www.epochtimes.com/b5/21/3/19/n12822486.htm

                                                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      5.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      The All-China Journalists Association held a online panel on cross-Straits journalism exchange with Chinese Press Institute (Taiwanese organization) to discuss the social responsibility of convergence media during the pandemic. Media from China and Taiwan took part in the discussion, including the People's Daily in China and United News in Taiwan. All-China Women Federation, All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots and Taiwan Chinese Women Federation co-hosted a tour to China in May 2019. During the national election in the following year, Ho Jianhua, the president of Taiwan Chinese Women Federation, was charged of receiving illegal contribution from China and bribery. Also, on Straits Forum, one of the most important events for the united front work to Taiwan, there are specific panels for different communities, such as women, youth and disabled forums. Most of them are held by the professional association such as All-China Women Federation and China Disabled Persons Federation.

                                                                                      1. https://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20201211005452-260405?chdtv
                                                                                      2. http://www.tailian.org.cn/qgtl/201905/t20190527_12168462.htm
                                                                                      3. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/paper/1371474
                                                                                      4. http://big5.taiwan.cn/hxlt/11j_60696/ltbb/202010/t20201008_12300288.htm
                                                                                      5. https://archive.ph/PsC0b

                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        6.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Individuals and institutes in China has donated to Taiwan when mass disaster happened. For instance, during the Hualien earthquake in 2018, Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits, Fujian Province and Guangxi Autonomous Region donated 1 million RMB each. The schools in Taiwan have also received donations from corporations with Chinese background, and it has caused controversy.

                                                                                        1. https://www.storm.mg/article/397188
                                                                                        2. https://www.thenewslens.com/article/118695

                                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          7.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Six organizations on IPTV, OTT and copyright issues have released two lists on models of illegal set-top boxes for the reference of their partner suppliers to self-discipline. There are four categories on the lists, including the models that are not approved by National Communications Commission, those that are under copyright lawsuits, those that are suspected to violate copyright and those that violate the child and youth welfare. Among the models, there are Chinese-connected brands such as Ubox, QBOX, and Mi Box.

                                                                                          1. https://cnews.com.tw/140190905a02/
                                                                                          2. https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/news_detail.aspx?site_content_sn=8&sn_f=42586

                                                                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            8.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            There is no clear evidence of a trend that the Taiwanese cultural products are portraying China in a positive way. However, many Taiwanese artists have the need and pressure to work in China. Even when they participate in the Taiwanese TV or movie production, they can still be censored and pressured by Chinese authority and public. Also, since Taiwan and China use almost the same language, people can easily watch Chinese cultural production through TV stations purchasing Chinese TV shows or through online platforms.

                                                                                            1. https://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20180108000627-260102?chdtv

                                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              9.
                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Many Taiwanese artists have shifted to the bigger Chinese market for further development, and have to confront the pressure and censorship from the Chinese authorities and public opinion very often. It was reported by media that, the Chinese authority notified verbally to the online video platforms and production companies that, if there are Taiwanese or Hong Kong personnel haven't show patriotism towards China and are not irreplaceable, they should not be recruited. There are also some incidents of Taiwanese artists and celebrities echoing with or participate in the Chinese propaganda. There were singers singing Chinese patriotic songs on the show of PRC national day on CCTV. And many Taiwanese artists and celebrities posted "I love China" or "celebrating the birthday of the Motherland" or repost the accounts of Chinese authorities on social media. Some Taiwanese artists recorded promotion trailers of the united front work TV shows on CCTV. Also, during the controversy of the forced labor issues of Xinjiang cotton, there were Taiwanese artists showed support to Xinjiang cotton and terminated their advertising contracts with the corporations which stop using Xinjiang cotton.

                                                                                              1. https://www.upmedia.mg/news_info.php?SerialNo=86411
                                                                                              2. https://www.storm.mg/article/3074830
                                                                                              3. https://star.setn.com/news/824336
                                                                                              4. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/breakingnews/3479109
                                                                                              5. https://stars.udn.com/star/story/10089/5344960

                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                After Kuomintang stepped down from the government, the current Tsai administration has a cooler relationship with China. And since KMT won the majority of cities in the local election in 2018, the Chinese government has continue its differentiation between KMT and DPP administrations, and has turned the focus to the local politics. After the 2018 local election, most KMT mayors have showed support to the 1992 Consensus, and the KMT headquarter founded Cross-Straits Cities and Counties Exchange Center in charge of the planning and implementation of exchanges between the KMT-governed cities and China. The 15 KMT mayors also released statement supporting the bill of Special Act on Free Trade Economic Zone proposed by KMT legislators. Recently, many KMT mayors openly called for central government's approval to lift the ban on cities purchasing Chinese COVID vaccinations.

                                                                                                1. https://www.rfi.fr/tw/港澳台/20190111-國民黨結合執政15縣市成立兩岸城鄉交流中心
                                                                                                2. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/breakingnews/2738722
                                                                                                3. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2019-05-29/252962
                                                                                                4. https://news.tvbs.com.tw/politics/1244448
                                                                                                5. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/aipl/202105270157.aspx

                                                                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  According to the public poll conducted by Taiwan Indicators Survey Research, the percentage of Taiwanese people with positive views toward China is 39%, and 40.1% with negative views. Also 6.9% of Taiwanese people have positive views toward Chinese Communist Party, and 82.5% of them have negative views.

                                                                                                  1. https://www.storm.mg/new7/article/3038330

                                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen

                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                    Military

                                                                                                    The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Taiwan doesn't import military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipments from China since China is a military hostile country towards Taiwan.

                                                                                                    1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                    2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Taiwan doesn't export military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to China since China is a military hostile country towards Taiwan.

                                                                                                      1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                      2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Taiwan doesn't co-develop or co-produce military or law-enforcement equipment with China, since China is a military hostile country to Taiwan.

                                                                                                        1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                        2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Taiwan would not allow China to set military basing as China is a military hostile country to Taiwan.

                                                                                                          1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                          2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Taiwan would not allow PLA entering the country as China is a military hostile country to Taiwan.

                                                                                                            1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                            2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                            China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Taiwan would not allow PLA deployment since China is a military hostile country to Taiwan.

                                                                                                              1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                              2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Taiwan would not recognize the military education in China, since China is a military hostile country to Taiwan.

                                                                                                                1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                                2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Taiwan would not send military to China for training since China is a military hostile country to Taiwan.

                                                                                                                  1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                                  2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    There have been cases of retired generals, or retire military personnel participated in confidential work, to receive benefits from China after retirement, and to develop organization and recruit current military personnel. The cases include: former wing commander Tu Yung-hsin attempted to recruit Taiwanese military officers to work for China and collaborate with the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in the event of a war, and was sentence to 4 years in October 2020. 4 retired personnel from Military Intelligence Bureau develop organization and gather national intelligence for China for benefits on commerce, money and free reception, and were prosecuted in February 2021.

                                                                                                                    1. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2019/12/26/2003728219
                                                                                                                    2. https://udn.com/news/story/7321/4935128
                                                                                                                    3. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/202102205003.aspx

                                                                                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Many retired generals went to China and exchange with Chinese authority and PLA after retirement, including Hau Pei-tsun, the former Chief of the General Staff and Minister of Defense, and the retired general and current legislator Wu Sz-huai. There is also Alumni Association of the Huangpu Military Academy in China, recruiting Huangpu alumnus in Taiwan (most of them were high-rank military officials) and holding forums and exchanges to China. In the 2nd Huangpu Forum in Beijing, a Taiwanese retired general claimed that, there's no need to separate ROC and PRC armies anymore since all of them are Chinese soldiers.

                                                                                                                      1. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/chinese-news-40537231
                                                                                                                      2. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2019-11-17/327831
                                                                                                                      3. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/focus/paper/499155

                                                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Taiwan would not cooperate with PLA on military exchange exercises since China is a military hostile country to Taiwan.

                                                                                                                        1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-defence-idUSKBN2BB16V
                                                                                                                        2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-34729538

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        China has viewed Taiwan as its breakaway province since KMT lost the civil war and fled to the island in 1949. And it has ramped up military activities in recent months, seeking to assert its sovereignty. The BBC article gives an overall description of the conflict between China and Taiwan.

                                                                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                          Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                          The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Taiwan and China have signed the Cross-strait Joint Fight against Crime and Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement in 2009.

                                                                                                                          1. https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?PCODE=Q0070013

                                                                                                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            The crimes on terrorism are in the Art. 4 of Cross-strait Joint Fight against Crime and Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement.

                                                                                                                            1. https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?PCODE=Q0070013

                                                                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              The pro-China Chinese Unification Promotion Party has a clear Bamboo Union background from the founder Chang An-le (White Wolf). They have records using violence in protests, and threaten the people with different opinions. According to media, Bamboo Union and Four Seas Gang, the two biggest gangs in Taiwan, were involved in an incident which gangsters bypassed and threatened the protesters. They were also involved in the violent protest at the airport when the Hong Kong activist Joshua Wong visited Taiwan.

                                                                                                                              1. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/focus/paper/1139138

                                                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                There have been many cases of industrial espionage from China in Taiwan, due to the similarity in languages and the low traveling cost. The significant and recent cases were: In 2017, 2 resigning engineers illegally duplicated the 28nm process documents and attempted to bring them to their new positions in HLMC Shanghai and China Resources Microelectronics Ltd. Also, the German corporation Basf has discovered that 1 of their then staff and 5 ex-staff has tried to sell their business secret to their Chinese competitor Jianghua Microelectronics. They had gained US$1.3 million by the time they were caught.

                                                                                                                                1. https://ec.ltn.com.tw/article/paper/1193496
                                                                                                                                2. https://www.rfi.fr/tw/20190107-巴斯夫台灣員工涉嫌為中國企業從事商業間諜活動

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Taiwan receives internet attacks from China very often, especially those on the websites, internet services or database of the public sectors. In August 2020, Investigation Bureau announced that, the Chinese hacker groups have been penetrating the internet services of government institutes and their information services providers. They specifically target the providers receiving government bids as they are usually in charge of the development and maintenance of important information systems. They would serve as the springboard to the government's services to steal the confidential and personal information.

                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.mjib.gov.tw/news/Details/1/624
                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.ithome.com.tw/news/139504

                                                                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    The gangs related with Chinese Unification Promotion Party have taken part in the violent protest against the Hong Kong activist Joshua Wong, and splashing red paint to the Hong Kong singer/ activist Denise Ho. Also, the shooting to the Taiwanese influencer Holger Chen revealed to be done by pro-unification gangs after investigation.

                                                                                                                                    1. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/focus/paper/1139138
                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.businesstoday.com.tw/article/category/80396/post/202011060018/

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      There are many places, no matter private properties or public places, that were installed the China-made CCTV systems. The well-known cases were the Hikvision systems in the underground passages in Taichung City, and in all Haililao Restaurant branches in Taiwan. According to the investigation of National Information and Communication Security Taskforce, many public sectors and their outsource suppliers use Chinese hardwares. The majority of the Chinese hardwares are the drones and video recording devices from Da-Jiang Innovations; internet and video recording devices from TP-Link; and video recording devices from Hikvision.

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201907180155.aspx
                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.dw.com/zh/a-57311032
                                                                                                                                      3. https://nicst.ey.gov.tw/Page/8770AD7511CB8DC9/fd432cc0-8dab-4412-8d60-87fa3fd57105

                                                                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                        In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        According to the media, the Taiwanese and Chinese governments discussed about exchange police forces and set up offices. But it eventually never happens.

                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qs3G0uuqs5Y

                                                                                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          The Taiwanese government never detains citizens at the request of China.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Mainland Affairs Council has clarified that the government will not send the citizens for trials since there is a gap between the judicial development in the two countries. When our own citizens commit crimes abroad, the government would endeavor to bring them back to Taiwan for trials instead of sending them to China.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.ettoday.net/news/20190611/1464470.htm

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                There is regulation on extradition of criminals to China in Cross-strait Joint Fight against Crime and Mutual Legal Assistance Agreement. However, due to the gap in judicial development between China and Taiwan, the Taiwanese government doesn't extradite Taiwanese citizens to China. However, due to the short distance between Taiwan and China, there have been many cases of illegal immigration from China. Many of these people chose to come to Taiwan under the "anti-communist hero"(反共義士) context, and are seeking for better economic condition or more freedoms than they had in China. However, if Mainland Affairs Council doesn't find them with facts of dissident actions in China or immediate danger from the Chinese government, they would be deported back to China. Also, since Taiwan doesn't have Refugee Act at the moment, the Chinese dissidents in Taiwan usually don't have a legal status, and would only be able to stay in Taiwan under the status of "detention alternatives" (收容替代). They might be deported back to China if they're difficult to be handled with or causing too much troubles to the government.

                                                                                                                                                1. https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?PCODE=Q0070013
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.hk01.com/台灣新聞/339516/逃犯條例-司法互助協議被指送中-陸委會-己方人民不遣送
                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/chinese-news-39641355
                                                                                                                                                4. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/chinese-news-56997296
                                                                                                                                                5. https://www.rti.org.tw/news/view/id/2085967

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                  Technology

                                                                                                                                                  The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  According to Directions of Chinese Citizens' Investment on the Second Category of Telecommunication Industry (code 6100) , there are several items of services open for Chinese investment. However, according to the Investment Commission record since 2005, there hasn't been investment in the 6100 telecommunication industry.

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.ncc.gov.tw/chinese/files/14082/255_2164_140827_1_C.PDF
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.moeaic.gov.tw/news.view?do=data&id=1385&lang=ch&type=business_ann
                                                                                                                                                  3. https://buzzorange.com/techorange/2019/03/19/china-in-the-house/

                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                  Although it's not in the field of telecommunication, the has been concern of the public Wifi provider Speedlink Telecom Taiwan being controlled by the Chinese capitals. Although there's yet to be concrete evidence, it's known that Speedlink has close relationship with the Chinese company Comba Telecom Systems Holdings Ltd.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chiang Min-yen and Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    All five telecom service providers are included in the Clean 5G Network of U.S. State Department.

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3976270
                                                                                                                                                    2. https://3c.ltn.com.tw/news/1106

                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                    However, there was a telecom company Global Mobile Corp., which already terminated in 2015, signed a contract with Songshan Lake Science and Technology Industrial Park, China in 2011 to promote the TD-LTE standard. TD-LTE standard is the 4G telecommunication technology China promoted as the successor of its 3G standard TD-SCDMA. It was developed by a coalition of telecom companies consisting half of Chinese corporations, which are China Mobile, Datang Telecom, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia Solutions and Networks, Qualcomm, Samsung, and ST-Ericsson.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Pellaeon Lin, and has been reviewed by Lee Penghsuan

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      In May 2018, Po-Tsung Wong, the speaker of National Communications Commission addressed that, the Legislative Yuan has made a resolution in 2013 to stop the 4G telecom providers to use the products of Chinese internet system. NCC has followed the resolution to amend its Regulations for Administration on Fixed Network Telecommunications Business and Regulations for Administration of Mobile Broadband Businesses. And both of the regulations added that, "the competent government authorities, when rendering an approval or overrule decision on networking infrastructure plan, shall have the decision sought in consultation with relevant governmental agencies for national security concerns." And Taiwan has long implemented the code of conduct of not using the core internet equipments made in China.

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://iekweb2.iek.org.tw/ITISExt/module/iekPersonal/Forward.aspx
                                                                                                                                                      2. https://buzzorange.com/techorange/2019/03/19/china-in-the-house/

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      It has been a concern that the public Wifi provider (in Taiwan Railway, Taiwan Highspeed Rail and Taipei MRT) Speedlink Telecom Taiwan being controlled by the Chinese capitals. It's known that Speedlink has close relationship with the Chinese company Comba Telecom Systems Holdings Ltd. However, after the investigation, there was no Chinese equipments used in the infrastructures.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        According to the monthly Cyber Security Online Report of Executive Yuan on November 2020, the principles of using information and communication devices in public sectors are: 1. The devices for office purpose can't be of Chinese brand, and it can't be installed with personal applications or softwares. 2. The personal devices are not allowed to use for office issues, and can't be connected to the office environment. 3. All departments shall compile and register all information and communication devices of the office that are Chinese-branded. The devices can't be connected to the office environment and have to be eliminated as soon as possible. However, there was a considerable amount of devices purchased and used before, and it is difficult to fully compile and change all of them in a short period of time. It's revealed in the "report on the the use of communication equipment from Chinese brands by government agencies" that many government offices have procured and are still owning many tech devices and equipments from Chinese brands. This could be a result of the lack of due diligence during the procurement process.

                                                                                                                                                        1. https://nicst.ey.gov.tw/Page/8770AD7511CB8DC9/1615e957-9979-42c6-ac94-db6d6c49da5a
                                                                                                                                                        2. https://lci.ly.gov.tw/LyLCEW/agenda1/02/pdf/10/01/15/LCEWA01_100115_00298.pdf
                                                                                                                                                        3. https://tw.appledaily.com/politics/20210126/U5JRX5MMM5B7FD3RCZ2OZ6R4OU/

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          When the Taiwanese government reviewing the bids on information, communication and technology, would avoid the Chinese suppliers or technologies. However, the supplier might violate the contract or unintentionally allowing the Chinese companies get involved with the public bid due to the nature of frequent exchange between Taiwan and China in technology industry. In 2017, the supplier which won the bid of biometric technology related facilities of the immigration, has implemented the Chinese-made devices in the immigration. And it is said that the hardware and firmware of the devices were manufactured by China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, which used to be the No.5 Research Academy of Ministry of Defense, China. In the conference "National ID Card & Personal Identification in the Digital Era" in July 2020 in Academia Sinica, Wu Jieh-min, the research fellow of Institute of Sociology, pointed out that in the bid of the system to roll out and maintain the eID was won by Chunghwa Telecom. However, International Integrated Systems, Inc., the company that Chunghwa reinvested, has record of national security concerns as they outsourced the software of the new residency system to Chinese corporations. Also, IISI undertook contracts of information technology projects in China from 2011 to 2019. Its subsidiary company Unitronic Technology also receives contracts on financial security in multiple banks in China. There was also institutions purchasing gene sequencing devices with BGI. And BGI was revealed to have close relationship with People's Liberation Army in China, and they even send the data of their Taiwanese customers to China National GeneBank.

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/focus/paper/1159236
                                                                                                                                                          2. https://musou.watchout.tw/read/QmS1kptdMXpAUnEIicIE
                                                                                                                                                          3. http://www.newcllab.tw/news_view-5
                                                                                                                                                          4. https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/health-china-bgi-dna/

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            All 22 cities and counties in Taiwan have developed their own smart city systems. However, there is no China-related cooperation or procurement.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                The financial institutions in Taiwan use the SWIFT system instead of CIPS.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    The Chinese venture capital was included in the third wave of opening up for Chinese investment in service industry in 2010. The Taiwanese government doesn't have clear statistics on the Chinese venture capitals investing in Taiwan. Here are a few cases: Ordine Capital, which is a Chinese venture capital founded by Taiwanese in China, has invested in Taiwan User-Friendly Sensor and Tech and Snapask. Alibaba Entrereneurs Fund, which is under Alibaba Group, has specifically undergoing investment plans on Taiwanese and Hong Kong startups. 38 of Taiwanese startups were invested.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://tw.news.yahoo.com/第三波陸資開放-納入創投-213000073.html
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.ondinecap.com
                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.ent-fund.org/tc/portfolio/tw

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      There have been many cross-Straits forums of commerce and technology after 2000, that have attracted many corporations to join. And during the technology industry related Forum for Cross-Strait Information Industry and Technology Standards, it has signed 17 MOUs, general cooperation agreements and common standard documents. During the Cross-Straits CEO Summit in past year, 34 MOUs were signed in 2015, 36 in 2018, and 47 in 2019.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.sinocon.org.tw/achievement/?G=3
                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://www.ceosummit.org.tw/summit/index.php?K=101&LANG=SCH
                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://ctee.com.tw/news/china/169915.html
                                                                                                                                                                      4. https://ieknet.iek.org.tw/ieknews/news_more.aspx?actiontype=ieknews&indu_idno=0

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        According to the Digital 2020 Report of We Are Social, the most-used social media platforms of Taiwanese users are YouTube, Facebook, line, Facebook Messenger and Instagram. And these corporations don't have obvious investment or control from China.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/https://www.breaktime.com.tw/archives/6293

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Although there is no government institution cooperate with China to support the Beidou System, but it's unbanned to sell devices with Beidou, such as iPhone 12. Also, some suppliers (such as Samsung) don't support the Beidou System in Taiwan in some of their devices.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.edntaiwan.com/20201016nt61-iphone-12-support-beidou-satellite/
                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.samsung.com/tw/smartphones/galaxy-note10/specs/

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Pellaeon Lin

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                            Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                            The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            According to Art.5-1 of Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area, any authorities or institution at each local government level of the Taiwan Area shall not negotiate or execute any agreement in any form with any individual, juristic person, organization, or other authorities or institution of the Mainland Area unless authorized by the Mainland Affairs Council, Executive Yuan. The term "agreement" means any written document involving the exercise of governmental powers or any matter of political issues, and executed between the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area.(Art. 4-2) According to Art. 33-1, unless permitted by each competent authorities concerned, no individual, juristic person, organization, or other institution of Taiwan can engage in almost all kinds of cooperative activities with the political parties, the military, the administration or of any political nature. And in Art. 33-2, any authorities, institutions or legislative organs at any local government level of Taiwan shall not form any coalition with any local authorities of China, unless it's approved by the related departments of the central government. Therefore, all contracts signed between the local governments in Taiwan and the government or state-owned corporations in China have to be non-political and seek approval from the Ministry of Interior. The legal contract and cooperation are mostly limited in tourism and export of products. The recent contracts signed between Taiwanese local governments and China are: MOU of development in tourism between Penghu and Shanghai, and the contracts and MOUs signed during the tour of former Kaohsiung mayor Han Kuo-yu to Hong Kong and China in March 2019. It's worth noted that, although the representatives on the signing ceremonies are usually the city mayors, but the actual entities in the contracts are usually the farmers' and fishermen's associations, corporations, organizations and foundations. From the beginning of 2019, there were also rumors of local Chinese governments signing agreements with the Taiwanese local representatives in order to rope them in. But the Mainland Affairs Council announced that the heads of villages or neighborhood has no public power to sign any contract, and the behavior is against the Art.33-1 of Act Governing Relations between the People of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area, which will be fined NT$500 thousand the highest.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.mac.gov.tw/News_Content.aspx?n=BBE4598927D42942&sms=C230CDCD5903512F&s=55DD4A8BF544FE0B
                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://law.moj.gov.tw/ENG/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=Q0010001
                                                                                                                                                                            3. http://www.taiwan.cn/local/dfkx/201905/t20190517_12165807.htm
                                                                                                                                                                            4. https://cissearch.kcc.gov.tw/Upload/Attachment/ProjectReport/92/636df6e7-6eee-47e1-a08f-377d7b642805.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                            5. https://news.pts.org.tw/article/428841

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

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                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Hsinchu City in Taiwan has sister city tie with Binhai New Area, Tianjin Municipality and Huizhou City, Guangdong Province. Dongyin Island, Matsu has sister island tie with Xiyang Island, Xiapu, Ningde City, Fujian Province. Nantou County, through its famous tourist spotlight Sun Moon Lake, has "sister lake" relationship with West Lake in Zhejiang, Tianmu Lake in Jiangsu, Jingyue Lake in Jilin, Dajin Lake in Fujian, Jinyin Lake in Hubei, Taiping Lake in Anhui and Changshou Lake in Chungqing.

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://dep-civil.hccg.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=126&parentpath=0,7,123
                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20190511002384-260409?chdtv
                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.taidaily.com/?p=338930

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

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                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                It is common for local politicians being invited to the "united front groups", which means trips that are free of charge once they land on China. The major united front event Straits Forum has been providing free reception to the Taiwanese participants since it was founded in 2009. Many local leaders of villages and communities has recruited by the Taiwan Affairs Office system after the implementation of the “26 incentives", to join different kinds of free reception tourist groups, or even be recruited to the positions of community building in Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Zone. Under the "one generation one frontline" policy, the Taiwanese community leaders are offered many resources. They can easily participate in all kinds of visit groups, and can also bring their community to travel to China in a very low price. In the research of IORG, it is common that the economic incentives provided by China can affect individuals who own a neutral political stand.

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/paper/1206654
                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.twreporter.org/a/2020-election-chief-of-village-party-united-front-china
                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://iorg.tw/r/d3

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  There have been frequent political exchanges between Taiwan and China these years. And almost all exchange groups are coordinated by the national or local Taiwan Affairs Office. Therefore, no matter what level the exchange group is, it is easy to meet the officials or be received by them. According to the Measures of civil service workers and personnel with specific positions in Taiwan to enter Mainland China, the personnel with specific civil or political duties have to seek approval from the Ministry of Interior before their trip. According to the latest data of 2016 from National Immigration Agency, the city and county mayors have traveled to China 33 time; political officers have traveled 130 times; officials with classified positions has traveled 50 times and the resigned political officers have traveled 124 times.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://servicestation.immigration.gov.tw/media/5009/我國公務員赴陸管制之法制及實務研究.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Since there's a distinct gap in judicial independence and other legal development between Taiwan and China, there is no law enforcement or judicial trainings from China.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://tpi.judicial.gov.tw/tw/dl-39882-5b70ce08b0ef480bbef6b734a9fcfd17.html

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      According to Art. 7 in Political Donations Act, citizens, juridical persons, associations or other institutions in or mainly composed of the members of the citizens, juridical persons, associations or other institutions of the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong and Macao, are not allowed to make political donations in Taiwan. The recent cases against the laws are: 1. In 2019, a retired army officer for accepting illegal political contributions from Hong Kong. Retired lieutenant general Luo Wen-shan was sentenced to two and a half years in prison, for taking illicit political donations between 2008 and 2012. The court said part of the contribution was used to buy newspaper ads favoring then-presidential candidate Ma Ying-jeou. 2. Zhang Xiuye and Chou Ching-chun, the members of pro-unification group Patriot Alliance Association were charged for accepting political contributions of more than 1 million NTD from China in 2019 and 2018.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://law.moj.gov.tw/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=D0020049
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://englishnews.ftv.com.tw/read.aspx?sno=D9D5A18D3661A663CC5C7E2D7A192E1F
                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://tw.appledaily.com/local/20210518/UY2KXN4XOBHLRIYEBLS7JXV5FY/

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        In the Presidential and legislator election in 2020, China attempted to intervene the election in Taiwan by all means. But there are very few cases that are able to be tracked their cash flow back to the united front departments in China. He Jianhua, the member of Unification Promotion Party was prosecuted for received funds and resources related to the organizations under United Front Department, such as All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots and Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits, to deliver united front work and develop her own organization. During her own campaign in the legislator election, she received 30 thousand RMB from China, and involved in disinformation and protests aligned with Chinese propaganda from their orders. In the end of 2019, The Changsha Taiwan Merchant Association held the campaign rally for the KMT presidential candidate Han Kou-yu in the name of year-end party, and sought reimbursement from Changsha Taiwan Affairs Office for 3 million RMB. The association also applied for 500 thousand RMB to reimburse the Taiwanese businessmen returning Taiwan voting for Han.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.cfr.org/in-brief/how-china-interfering-taiwans-election
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/paper/1417559
                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/ch/news/4071818
                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://www.mirrormedia.mg/story/20200511inv008/

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no group directly subordinate to United Front Work Department in Taiwan. However, all political parties that are not aligned to pro-unification and other pro-China position, have been criticized as anti-Chinese and against the One-China Principle.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              The politicians that are more supportive of unification with China would have a more positive view toward China. They usually praise China on its efficiency and economic growth, and compare them to Taiwan's. Although these politicians might not be the absolute majority, but they still have significant influence on public opinion. In the 100th anniversary of Chinese Communist Party, the KMT politicians, such as Lien Chan, Hung Hsiu-chu and Soong Chu-yu, Wu Cherng-dean, the Chair of pro-unification New Party, and Non-Partisan Solidarity Union, have all released statements to congratulate.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/politics/paper/1457999

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              The term "majority" is quite ambiguous in the indicator. It usually refers to the quantity of over 50%. But in this case, it seems to be more in a "many" context.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                It is usually implicit for the current or retired politicians and government employees to receive benefits from China, unless they are reported or busted under investigation. However, there are some cases of politicians under suspicion of receiving indirect benefits from the Chinese government. For instance, the indigenous legislator Kao Chin Su-Mei (Ciwas Ali) was revealed to constantly invited to China as a representative of the Taiwanese indigenous groups, and has received various funds, such as funds for exchange programs for indigenous children and the donations for the natural disasters in 2009 directly to the NGO she hosts. In 2016, 32 high-rank military officers participated in the commemoration of the 150th birthday of Sun Yat-Sen, listened to the speech of Chinese President Xi Jinping, and stand up to pay honor when singing the Chinese national anthem. Although the term "politicians" might not necessary consist of retired military officers or bureaucrats, but these people sometimes would overlap to the politics (ie. the retired lieutenant general Wu Sz-huai went to the 2016 commemoration and later elected as a legislator in 2020). And whenever such incidents happen, it would cause an uproar in the public opinion.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=818449
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.thenewslens.com/article/121570

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  According to the items of business that allow Chinese citizens to invest in on the website of Investment Commission, Ministry of Economic Affairs, security service is not one of them.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.moeaic.gov.tw/businessPub.view?lang=ch&op_id_one=3&tab=3#horizontalTab

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Chen Yu-jie

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    According to the website of Legislative Yuan, there is no formal sub-organization about China in Legislative Yuan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.ly.gov.tw/Pages/List.aspx?nodeid=44941

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    However, we can only confirm that there's no formal and systematic connection. Many political parties in Taiwan has kept in contact with the personnel and information to certain degree with Chinese government, Chinese Communist Party and their secondary mechanisms in many ways. If we observe the speech and interpellation of the legislators, there are signs of some of them pushing forward the political agenda China wants in Taiwan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The political parties that are closer with China, have been under close contacts with the local to central representatives in China in recent years. Kuomintang as a long-term authoritarian party, still has much influence to the Taiwanese politics after democratization. After the cross-Straits relationship broke the ice, KMT has been in frequent exchanges with the Chinese government. The important and high-level meetings between KMT and CCP were: KMT chair Lien Chan and CCP secretary general Hu Jintao met in 2005; KMT chair Wu Po-hsiung and Hu met in 2008 and 2009; Lien Chan and CCP Secretary General Xi Jinping met in 2013; Wu met with Xi in 2013; KMT chair Eric Chu and Xi met in 2015; Lien and Xi met again in 2015; Taiwan president and KMT chair Ma Ying-jeou and Xi Jinping met in 2015 in Singapore, which was also the first meeting between Taiwanese and Chinese leaders after 1949; KMT chair Hung Hsiu-chu and Xi met in 2016. The New Party, which is a pro-Chinese political party separated from KMT, has been propagating pro-unification claims. In May 2019, the chair Yok Mu-ming led a delegation of 68 people to visit China and propagating the peaceful unification. In September 2020, the chair Wu Cherng-dean led a delegation to participate in Straits Forum. He expressed his will to put the "one country two system Taiwan model" in to realization through negotiations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.storm.mg/new7/article/3452219
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/china/2015/11/151104_background_taiwan_china_leaders_meeting
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://tw.appledaily.com/politics/20190522/IQXXK5I77IZUTVA7AZ5KWFECFY/
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2020-09-20/468081

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Taiwan doesn't receive any training for civil servants from China as it's a country which holds hostility and never give up seeking forced unification with Taiwan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Taiwan has been under threat being occupied by China. According to the research "Commercialization of China’s United Front Strategy: How Beijing Manipulates Cross-Strait Government- Business Relations" by Jieh-min Wu (2017), the research fellow of Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica, there are direct and indirect application of force from China when they want to project their political power on Taiwan. Since the direct pressure usually causes backfire from the Taiwanese public opinion, more indirect methods are used in recent years. The mechanism of indirect pressure is complicated, and it needs to cultivate local confederates to cooperate with Chinese government. The local confederates would build up local collaborative networks to leverage the influence from China and to implement the political goals they desire.(Wu, 2017:689-690) Among the local collaborative networks, politicians can use the messages Chinese authority pressuring Taiwan to put pressure on the government again, meanwhile to gain personal benefits. For example, in the beginning of 2021, Taiwan and Guyana announced to set offices in each other's countries, and Guyana later retrieved the decision due to China's pressure. Kuomintang stressed a lot more on blaming the government being not pragmatic and incorrect on their foreign policies rather than criticizing China's pressure. Also, during the recent pandemic, Taiwan is having challenges purchasing vaccinations due to China's pressure. KMT agitates discontent of the people and their confidence toward the government and the countries being friendly with Taiwan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.ios.sinica.edu.tw/people/personal/wujiehmin/吳介民,2017,以商業模式做統戰:跨海峽政商關係中的在地協力者機制.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.facebook.com/mykmt/posts/10159315741802973

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Due to the frequent exchanges between Taiwan and China, and the complicity of the Chinese prosecution and judicial systems, there are many Taiwanese in China subjecting to the prosecution system or imprisonment. According to the statistics of Mainland Affairs Council until March 2021, China has reported 7078 cases of detention, 2235 cases of unnatural death, and around 1300 people serving prison sentence in China. And the definite cases of detention under political reasons are: In June 2012, engineer Chung Ting-pang disappeared 54 days after he delivered radio materials to Falun Gong practitioners in China. In March 2017, NGO worker Lee Ming-che was detained and sentenced to 5 years for the crime of overthrowing state power. In August 2018, scholar Tsai Chin-shu was detained and sentenced to 4 years in July 2020. In August 2018, scholar Shih Cheng Ping was detained and sentenced to 4 years for espionage in November 2020. In April 2019, scholar Cheng Yu-chin was detained and “confessed" to his crimes on CCTV news program on October 2020. In August 2019, political worker Lee Meng-chu was detained for inciting to overthrow state power, and later was "confessed" on CCTV in October 2020.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.mac.gov.tw/cp.aspx?n=51B78A46DE7D24E1&s=18AD7FEF24CF322F
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20190912004855-260409?chdtv
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://newtalk.tw/news/view/2017-05-19/87168
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://cn.nytimes.com/china/20170921/china-taiwan-law/
                                                                                                                                                                                                              5. https://taiwan.huanqiu.com/article/40Gq3pgSAaY
                                                                                                                                                                                                              6. https://www.mirrormedia.mg/story/20201125edi015/
                                                                                                                                                                                                              7. https://tv.cctv.com/2020/10/12/VIDEg9IXQf71jzwKbJ1BzvEZ201012.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8. https://www.epochtimes.com/b5/20/10/17/n12482659.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Taiwan is not applicable for the question, and we are not able to participate in any UN organizations, including WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Taiwan is not applicable for the question as we are not able to participate in any UN organizations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        After the South China Sea arbitration ruling, the foreign ministry of Taiwan publicly objected the ruling of the Arbitral Tribunal. However, it's because the territory claim of Republic of China (ROC) is way bigger than PRC's claim. It can't be concluded as Taiwanese government agrees China's claim, but their stand is in deed identical with China's. Also, on the sovereignty issue on Senkaku Islands, Taiwanese government still claims to own Senkaku (as ROC/China) - this is somewhat the same with China's claim.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.mofa.gov.tw/News_Content.aspx?n=8742DCE7A2A28761&s=2FE266654F43DD5C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/china/2016/07/160721_tw-response_to_hagua_arbitration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/china/2016/07/160712_taiwan_southsea_island

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The reason behind this is that, firstly, the Taiwan regime doesn't properly identify whether its current self is the same entity as the ROC regime before 1949. According to the 1947 ROC Constitution (which is the constitution Taiwan currently uses), Taiwan regards itself as the successor to ROC. Therefore, the current government still considers the 9-dash line settled in 1946-47 as their claim of territory and sea area. Secondly, the when the South China Sea arbitration ruling was proceeding in 2013 to 2016, the Ma Ying-jeou administration was pro-China and aligned with China's claim more often than now. However, we haven't seen a shift in the South China Sea policy in the current Tsai administration, probably due to the fear of causing further hostility from China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          President Tsai attended the Taiwan International Religious Freedom Forum on May 30 2019. During her remarks, she said, "(in China) Christian churches face suppression. Tibetan Buddhists have been placed under strict control. And Uighur Muslims are being sent to re-education camps as we speak. The international community must show its concern and speak out about these developments." During the controversy of Xinjiang cotton, President Tsai posted on her social media, saying, "human rights is universal. We would like to call for the Beijing authority to confront the human rights issues of Uyghur people. The international suspicion and the conflicts can only be resolved by stopping oppression." Legislators formed Taiwan Parliament Group for Uyghurs in April 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201905300258.aspx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://english.president.gov.tw/News/5745
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.facebook.com/tsaiingwen/photos/10157381306376065/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. https://focustaiwan.tw/politics/202104230015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            President Tsai attended the Taiwan International Religious Freedom Forum on May 30 2019. During her remarks, she said, "(in China) Christian churches face suppression. Tibetan Buddhists have been placed under strict control. And Uighur Muslims are being sent to re-education camps as we speak. The international community must show its concern and speak out about these developments." In Legislative Yuan, there has been Parliament groups on Tibet since 2012, including the Parliamentary Friends of Tibet in 2012, Taiwan Parliament Group for Tibet in 2016 and 2020.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.cna.com.tw/news/firstnews/201905300258.aspx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://english.president.gov.tw/News/5745
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/https://www.bikhimtaiwan.org/2012/07/blog-post.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. https://freetibet.org/news-media/na/new-tibet-group-formed-taiwan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5. https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/news/3962568

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              After the Hong Kong National Security Law was passed, Legislative Yuan passed unanimous resolution to condemned the decision, expressing support to the appeal of Hong Kong people defending their democracy and freedoms, expressing deep concerned and strong condemnation to China bypassing the Legislation Council in Hong Kong to pass the laws. The President, Executive Yuan and Mainland Affairs Council also stated that they will support Hong Kong people by all means in humanitarian aspects.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.hk01.com/台灣新聞/479250/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/trad/chinese-news-52854259

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Lee Penghsuan, and has been reviewed by Raymond Chen-En SUNG

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