South Korea

$34,757.7
51.7M
Ranking
13/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

175/ 388
Executive partner
National Bureau of Asian Research
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

46%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

60%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

37%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, South Korea had a GDP per capita of US$34,758 and a total population of 51.7 million people, with Chinese foreign residents comprising 1.07 million people, or 2.1% of the total population.

South Korea established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1992. South Korea was ranked 43rd in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 83/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    36.4% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    47.7% / 34%
  • Economy
    72.7% / 33.6%
  • Society
    18.2% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    62.5% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    47.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    52.3% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    52.3% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      One of the largest and most influential entertainment companies, CJ ENM, is a member of the Belt and Road Media Community. TV Chosun and SBS are also part of the BRNA. That said, it’s not clear what the criteria of significance is.

      1. https://brnalink.com/members.html
      2. http://brmc.chnpec.com/en/member.shtml

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

        Hide
        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        Yes

        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        The South Korean government has occasionally helped organize these tours itself, such as a 2019 tour of Huawei’s campus for Korean journalists and officials cosponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Other examples are numerous.

        1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-huawei-tech-usa-samsung-analysis-idUSKCN1SZ0AG

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          Yes

          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          See below links.

          1. http://www.journalist.or.kr/news/section3.html?p_num=2
          2. https://www.hankyung.com/society/article/2020030469531

          Supplementary Notes

          There are plenty of programs that send journalists and others to China for training or short-term education program, and these days, there are so many Korean college students that get trained or study in China, some of who become journalists or online influencers.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

            Hide
            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            Yes

            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            PRC state online media is available in Korean but are not really read by the general public.

            1. http://kr.xinhuanet.com/

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

              Hide
              6.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              19 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              0 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              There are no local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations that I am aware of. I can’t say for maybe small, online-based media outlets, but all established outlets are owned by Koreans.

              1. https://www.leejeonghwan.com/4579

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                Hide
                7.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                3 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                22 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                21 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                6 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                23 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                7 countries chose this answer

                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                There is no evidence local media outlets delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-funded media directly, unless they are some unknown, minor media outlets.

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                    Hide
                    8.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    38 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    13 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    15 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    8 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Occasional PRC government advertisements have appeared in Korean newspapers, but they are by no means a regular or dominant feature of advertising in Korea.

                    1. http://www.the-pr.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=32657

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                      Hide
                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      There may have been some cases, but no evidence so far, at least no major cases that made the headlines. The most notable recent incident was of two South Korean photojournalists covering President Moon’s visit to China being beaten by security guards in China.

                      1. https://rsf.org/en/news/south-korean-journalists-beaten-during-moon-visit-china

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                        Hide
                        10.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        51 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        3 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Though there have been constant accusations (article 1) that the Moon government is restricting free speech through the legislation of several fake news-related bills, Korea was still ranked #1 (article 2) in Asia in freedom of speech. I don’t think there are overt censoring that takes place, but I would be surprised if there is absolutely no implicit pressure from senior members of media groups and the government. It would be hard to locate hard evidence of the existence of such pressure. Amid heightened anti-China sentiment in Korea, there have been a lot of media reports (article 3) critical of the Chinese government and China in general, so there isn’t any widespread, active censoring of anti-Chinese gov’t reporting.

                        1. https://www.mk.co.kr/news/politics/view/2021/08/790904/
                        2. http://www.mediatoday.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=213020
                        3. https://www.hankookilbo.com/News/Read/A2021072214120000180

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                          Hide
                          11.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          2 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          44 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          18 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          In South Korea, the most prominent voices denying human rights violations in China are Chinese celebrities active in South Korea, such as Chinese members of K-pop groups. These celebrities often go on the defensive, taking pro-Chinese stances on Chinese social media over issues like Hong Kong and Xinjiang. However, they mostly avoid doing this on Korean social media. While there are only a few Chinese celebrities active in Korea, the number is growing and they have become more vocal in recent years.

                          1. https://koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/2021/04/08/entertainment/kpop/Xinjiang-Uyghur-Autonomous-Region-Uighur-Uyghur/20210408172300404.html
                          2. http://sports.khan.co.kr/entertainment/sk_index.html?art_id=202104011633003&pt=nv+
                          3. https://thediplomat.com/2021/05/how-chinese-fans-enforce-chinese-nationalism-on-the-world
                          4. https://www.voanews.com/east-asia-pacific/chinese-k-pop-stars-publicly-back-beijing-hong-kong
                          5. https://www.koreatimes.co.kr/www/art/2021/04/732_306582.html
                          6. https://www.voanews.com/east-asia-pacific/chinese-k-pop-stars-publicly-back-beijing-hong-kong

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                            Hide

                            Academia

                            The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                            1.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                            More

                            0/ No

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            6 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            31 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            25 countries chose this answer

                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            See below link.

                            1. https://www.sedaily.com/NewsVIew/1S3JCKPHME

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                              Hide
                              2.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              27 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              See below link.

                              1. http://weekly.chosun.com/client/news/viw.asp?ctcd=C07&nNewsNumb=002663100015

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                Hide
                                3.
                                Exposure

                                My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                1 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                46 countries chose this answer

                                4/ Yes

                                35 countries chose this answer

                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                The second link says increasing number of Korean learn Chinese. Some of them learn Chinese from Confucius Institute. Chinese government provides text books of Confucius Institute.

                                1. http://www.mdfh.or.kr/?act=doc&mcode=121515
                                2. https://m.blog.naver.com/PostView.naver?isHttpsRedirect=true&blogId=china-contents-lab&logNo=220603331800

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                  Hide
                                  4.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Not Found

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    Yonsei University tried to link any networks related to Belt and Road projects, but Chinese were not enthusiastic.

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                      Hide
                                      5.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                          Hide
                                          6.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          See below link.

                                          1. https://shindonga.donga.com/3/all/13/2224708/1

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                            Hide
                                            7.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                            69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            See below link.

                                            1. https://news.joins.com/article/15826932

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                              Hide
                                              8.
                                              Pressure

                                              In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              See below link.

                                              1. https://www.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2019/11/14/2019111400228.html

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                Hide
                                                9.
                                                Pressure

                                                In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  It is almost impossible to find the sources on this topic.

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                    Hide
                                                    10.
                                                    Effect

                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                      Charhar does not involve in curriculum design. They try to approach to professors for making them China-friendly. Also Charhar hosts conferences and seminars which attract attentions from the public.

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                        Hide
                                                        11.
                                                        Effect

                                                        In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        See below link.

                                                        1. https://www.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2020/05/28/2020052800256.html

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                          Hide

                                                          Economy

                                                          The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                          1.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                          Yes

                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          See below link.

                                                          1. https://unipass.customs.go.kr/ets/index.do?menuId=ETS_MNU_00000176

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                            Hide
                                                            2.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            The share of foreign ownership of Korea’s sovereign debt is not that high.

                                                            1. http://biz.khan.co.kr/khan_art_view.html?artid=202104141714021&code=920100

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                              Hide
                                                              3.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                              Yes

                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              South Korea’s extractive industry is mostly in the refining side (refining crude oil imported and exporting refined products and byproducts), so it’s not necessarily what we consider PRC’s imports of natural resources. That said, for those refined products, PRC is the largest consumer.

                                                              1. https://oec.world/en/profile/country/kor/#yearly-exports

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                Hide
                                                                4.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                These key infrastructure are domestically controlled

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    5.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                    Yes

                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    55 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    South Korea is already a member of the AIIB.

                                                                    1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      6.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      See below link.

                                                                      1. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20180919003200320

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        7.
                                                                        Pressure

                                                                        My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Most notably following the installation of the U.S. THAAD antimissile system in 2016 for 18 months (with some residual impact), South Korean tourism, entertainment, and South Korean retail companies in China, in particular, were targeted.

                                                                        1. https://theasanforum.org/chinese-economic-coercion-during-the-thaad-dispute/

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          8.
                                                                          Pressure

                                                                          In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Chinese Kpop stars supporting Chinese causes was more of an issue in Korea than the other way around. There was an incident where a Taiwanese Kpop star (that belongs to a popular girl group) had to issue a public apology for carrying a Taiwanese flag, likely pressured by her entertainment company that relies on China for Kpop consumer demand.

                                                                          1. https://www.aljazeera.com/features/2016/1/18/k-pop-star-rocked-by-taiwan-flag-row
                                                                          2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-54513408

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            9.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            The two countries have an FTA in place.

                                                                            1. http://fta.mofcom.gov.cn/topic/enkorea.shtml

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              10.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              47 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              The Incheon Free Economic Zone and other FEZs are aimed at attracting investment from China, though certainly not exclusively.

                                                                              1. http://fez.go.kr/global/en/area/ifez.do

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                11.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                No evidence in media reports so far of any such incident, and it appears highly unlikely.

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                    Society

                                                                                    The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                    1.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        2.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            3.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            4.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Korean soap operas portray the PRC positive way, because Chinese funding becomes inevitable for the productions and PPL is popular among the producers

                                                                                                            1. https://news.kbs.co.kr/news/view.do?ncd=5146585

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                      In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      See below link.

                                                                                                                      1. https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2020/10/06/unfavorable-views-of-china-reach-historic-highs-in-many-countries/

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                        Military

                                                                                                                        The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                              A number of military personnel have received education from China, but not military education

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    See below links.

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20150710078552043
                                                                                                                                                    2. http://www.newdaily.co.kr/site/data/html/2021/06/14/2021061400144.html

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                          My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                              Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                              The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              See below link.

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://news.joins.com/article/23575360

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                See below links.

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20151127141000014
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.mofa.go.kr/eng/brd/m_5676/view.do?seq=319498&srchFr=&amp%3BsrchTo=&amp%3BsrchWord=&amp%3BsrchTp=&amp%3Bcompany_cd=&amp%3Bcompany_nm=

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                While the above links show evidence of cooperation, there is no evidence that an actual agreement was signed. As such, this question was skipped.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.chosun.com/international/china/2020/09/10/YEONUFKRSRHTRJORC63DBIG2HM/

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.newdaily.co.kr/site/data/html/2020/10/07/2020100700155.html

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      There are many Chinese organized crime felons. It is not sure whether they threaten Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2007/04/27/2007042700871.html
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.ilyosisa.co.kr/news/article.html?no=221179

                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                      There are many Chinese organized crime felons. It is not sure whether they threaten Chinese dissidents

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        See below links.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.cctvnews.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=214636
                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.edaily.co.kr/news/read?newsId=03250486625969984&mediaCodeNo=257

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                          My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                      Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                      The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      All three telecommunications companies – SK Telecom, LG Uplus, KT – are Korean.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Of the three telecommunications companies, only LG Uplus uses Huawei 4G/5G equipment.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20201105000339

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://biz.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2020/11/26/2020112601423.html

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Link KOTRA is largely funded by the government, and it has been engaged in promoting bilateral collaboration with Chinese companies on 5G, IoT, and AI. Private companies have already teamed up with Chinese companies on IoT and AI, but there is no evidence of collection and use of voice and facial big data. Also, unlike what the question is likely aiming at, this is more for the expansion of Korean companies into the Chinese market. Link Link If the question is specifically asking about “facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI,” I’ll change the response to "no" (especially at the central, local government level)

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence found. But, South Korea is very eager to invest in Chinese smart cities and there have been South Korean government efforts to export “K-smart city” systems to China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      South Korean branches of global financial companies and local banks, such as Shinhan Bank, currently participate in the CIPS system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.koreaittimes.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=56674
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.mk.co.kr/news/world/view/2019/05/328166/

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        PRC-connected VC, such as Legend Capital, Sequoia Capital China, IDG Capital China have invested in a number of Korean startups. That said, South Korean startups are not as popular with Chinese VCs as are American or Israeli startups due to its smaller market size. Companies such as Tencent (technically not a VC), however, have actively invested in Korean startup companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://news.joins.com/article/23766596
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://news.joins.com/article/22448719

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Numerous MOUs across all relevant industries. The public sector is also involved, with the Seoul Metropolitan Government signing an MOU on smart tourism with Tencent this year, for example.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.ttgasia.com/2021/05/18/seoul-joins-hands-with-tencent-cloud-to-woo-chinese-tourists/

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Top social media apps are American or Korean (KakaoTalk, YouTube, Naver, Coupang, Band, Instagram, Facebook). However, Tencent has a stake in KakaoTalk – South Korea’s most popular messaging app – through its subsidiary Maximo PTE.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.kakaocorp.com/ir/managementInformation/shareholderComposition?lang=en
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.hankyung.com/it/article/202105186330v

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              They’re reviewing it, but an adoption is less likely due to security concerns.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.chosun.com/economy/mint/2021/04/23/2G45J3R6WFF2LKKSKLH26QX2JY/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                See below links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.yna.co.kr/view/RPR20200806001300353

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I’m 90% sure that we have fairly many politicians (government officials? I am not sure) have been China with Chinese fund. But I scored 0, because I cannot find the sources. Chinese did this in a covert way.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://newsis.com/view/?id=NISX20180116_0000204166

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chahaer (察哈爾学会), one of the core organization under the United Front Work Department, set up its office in Seoul and starts to operate in Korea.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.yonsei.ac.kr/sc/intro/pressrel.jsp?article_no=179887&mode=view

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20171215070100001

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.fntoday.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=223975

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://m.mcnews.kr/66613

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See below links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.chosun.com/international/china/2021/07/16/SY3PWHO4VVGPJBFDA6JAN5RDXI/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://mb.ntdtv.kr/news/society/381.htm#_enliple

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See below links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.hani.co.kr/arti/society/society_general/532744.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://m.joseilbo.com/news/view.htm?newsid=352149

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Korea was not active in supporting Taiwan's WHO membership

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.hankookilbo.com/News/Read/A2020091009540001473

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://news.joins.com/article/24025957

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2020/05/28/2020052800256.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
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