Singapore

$72,794.0
5.45M
Ranking
3/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

228/ 384
Executive partner
Doublethink Lab
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

65%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

54%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

50%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Singapore had a GDP per capita of US$72,794 and a total population of 5.45 million people and a resident population of 4.04 million people, with the resident Chinese population comprising 3 million people, or 52.7% of the total population. Publicly available official statistics do not list the ethnicity of non-residents on various types of work and short-term visas.

Singapore established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1990. Singapore was ranked 139th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Partly Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 47/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    55.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    75.0% / 34%
  • Economy
    63.6% / 33.6%
  • Society
    62.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    54.5% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    45.5% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    90.9% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    36.4% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    52.3% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Singapore has a controlled media environment. Technically, the Broadcasting Act and the Newspaper and Printing Act prevent foreign ownership or entry into the Singapore media market. Link Link Link

  1. https://www.imda.gov.sg/regulations-and-licensing/Regulations/Acts-and-Regulations
  2. https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/BA1994
  3. https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/NPPA1974

Supplementary Notes

The main English language broadsheet, the Straits Times, has a media sharing agreement with through the Asian News Network that includes exchange agreements with the China Daily (PRC) and China Post (Taiwan) among others. See next entry.

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Singapore cable TV and telecommunications provider, StarHub, is part of the Belt and Road Media Community. Apart from Phoenix TV 鳳凰衛視 (Hong Kong), Dragon TV/Dongfang weishi 東方衛視 (China), and its own pay per view movie and entertainment channels, StarHub's cable service only carries Chinese-language channels that are part of the Belt and Road News Alliance, including TVB (Hong Kong), CGTN/CCTV (China), CTi (Taiwan). Singapore's other main cable TV and telecommunications provider, SingTel, carries Star, which is part of the Belt and Road Media Community

    1. http://brmc.chnpec.com/en/member.shtml
    2. https://brnalink.com/members.html
    3. https://www.starhub.com/personal/tvplus/passes/channel-listing.html
    4. https://www.singtel.com/personal/products-services/tv/singtel-tv-channels

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      The Straits Times is Singapore's newspaper of record and closely affiliated with the Singapore state and ruling party, the People's Action Party. Lianhe Zaobao 聯合早報 plays a similar role for readers who prefer Mandarin-language news. The management and editorial for both are closely controlled by the state. Both papers belong to Singapore Press Holdings, whose chairperson is someone close to the People's Action Party, often a former minister.

      1. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/inside-those-uighur-re-education-camps
      2. https://www.theonlinecitizen.com/2019/07/08/st-journalist-finds-it-hard-to-fault-china-for-running-uighur-re-education-camps/
      3. https://www.zaobao.com.sg/news/china/story20190425-951289
      4. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1ZQ0P9PGMqwDKBGg1RZyE069NdvgR7rU6eG9rhvIK43Y/edit#gid=1892747668
      5. https://www.sohu.com/a/463564514_115865
      6. http://www.chinaxinjiang.cn/zhuanti/2019/002/27/2701/201904/t20190424_576102.htm
      7. https://www.zaobao.com.sg/forum/zaodian/bei-jing-yi-ye-2/story20190422-950457
      8. https://youwuqiong.com/junshi/联合早报游润恬:有记者质疑学员在作秀,如真这/
      9. https://twitter.com/mahbubani_k/status/1188038663860408320?s=21
      10. https://t.co/lPw9UDLbh0?amp=1

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        This Noel Lee person was previously unknown, but has suddenly appeared on YouTube in late March 2021, making videos on China in China. These include denials of Xinjiang human rights abuses. His followers on YouTube suddenly shot up to more than 12.3k. Little is known about him, and his Facebook profile provides little information and nothing about his friends. The way he speaks sounds Singaporean. Many people in Singapore who deny human rights abuses in Xinjiang use his videos, which also seem to be shared on private messaging platforms like WhatsApp and WeChat. His videos seem slick, so he is likely to have received some training. Increasingly, Singapore's media also hires journalists, presenters, and editors from the PRC. They bring with them PRC perspectives on politics. These PRC trained media workers tend to be in Mandarin-language media. Some have significant media prominence, being the hosts or editors of important, regular news shows.

        1. https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC4A36huFFXfxfgw5WDL_S-g
        2. https://www.facebook.com/f14noel
        3. https://web.archive.org/web/20120928064641/http://tv.groups.yahoo.com/group/helencheung/
        4. https://www.facebook.com/haijiefans/
        5. https://www.facebook.com/lvlinxuan/

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Singapore has two main cable TV and telecommunications providers, SingTel and StarHub. StarHub is part of the Belt and Road Media Community. It carries several Chinese-language channels that cover Mandarin, Hokkien, and Cantonese. The Hokkien channel consists largely of Taiwanese 鄉土劇 with no news content. The Cantonese channel is TVB from Hong Kong, which covers mainly entertainment and some Cantonese news. Mandarin channels include StarHub's own entertainment and movie channels as well as the following from the Belt and Road Media Community: CCTV/CGTN (China) (Also Belt and Road Media Alliance) CTi(中天) (Taiwan) (Also Belt ant Road Media Alliance) It also carries the following other Mandarin TV channels: Phoenix TV 鳳凰衛視 (Hong Kong) Dragon TV 東方衛視 (China) TVB (Hong Kong) (Belt and Road Media Alliance) TVBS (Taiwan) (Belt and Road Media Alliance) Other Belt and Road Media Community channels StarHub Carries include: Astro (Malaysia) Star Media Group (Malaysia) Zee (India) National Geographic (USA) SingTel carries several Chinese-language channels, including some from the Belt and Road Media Community and Belt and Road Media Alliance. These include: ONE (Singapore) cHK 香港台 (Hong Kong) Star Chinese Channel 衛視中文台 (Hong Kong/Taiwan) TVB (Hong Kong) (Belt and Road Media Alliance) Oh!K Channel (Singapore/Malaysia) CTV/CGTN (China) (Belt and Road Media Community and Belt and Road Media Alliance) TVBS (Taiwan) (Belt and Road Media Alliance) TVB (Hong Kong) (Belt and Road Media Alliance) CBO 中國電視劇頻道 (Singapore) (Broadcasts of PRC-produced television series) ETTV Asia News 東森新聞 (Taiwan) e-Le Channel (Singapore) Other Belt and Road Media Community Channels: Astro (Malaysia) Zee (India) National Geographic (USA) The above channels cover news and entertainment.

          1. https://www.singtel.com/personal/products-services/tv/singtel-tv-channels
          2. https://www.starhub.com/personal/entertainment/get-started/tv-plans/tv-streaming/channels.html
          3. http://brmc.chnpec.com/en/member.shtml
          4. https://brnalink.com/members.html

          Supplementary Notes

          Together SingTel and StarHub capture all of the Singapore cable TV market. This means to say that apart from Singapore-produced content, Singaporean TV viewers largely only have the options provided by these two channels. The dominance of PRC-related channels (including those ostensibly from Taiwan and Hong Kong) providing Chinese-language content means that the majority of Singaporean viewers of Chinese-language content will be exposed to either Singapore (such as MediaCorp Channel 8 or Channel U) or PRC-friendly material.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Singapore has a controlled media environment. Technically, the Broadcasting Act and the Newspaper and Printing Act prevent foreign ownership or entry into the Singapore media market. Link Link Link

            1. https://www.imda.gov.sg/regulations-and-licensing/Regulations/Acts-and-Regulations
            2. https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/BA1994
            3. https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/NPPA1974
            4. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/media-platform-offers-eye-on-spore-to-chinese-nationals-here

            Supplementary Notes

            However, there are informal online media sites that have close links to the PRC. One is jointly run by Koh Chin Yee, who is active in pushing cooperation with the PRC. (See document in drive)

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              The main Singapore English language broadsheet, the Straits Times, is part of the Asia News Network that includes the China Daily and the China Post. China Daily and occasionally China Post/NOWnews articles and opinion will regularly feature in the Straits Times as a result. See, for instance: Link Link Link The Straits Times also uses wire reports from Xinhua. (See link above: Link) The Straits Times has declining readership, but is seen as the official mouthpiece of the ruling People's Action Party and the Singapore state even though it is technically publicly-owned via the Singapore Press Holdings, whose main shareholders include DBS Bank, the National University of Singapore, and Nanyang Technological University. Singapore Press Holdings also owns the other physical newspapers in circulation in Singapore, including the Mandarin Lianhe Zaobao, Lianhe Wanbao, Shin Min Ribao, Malay Berita Harian, and Tamil Tamil Murasu. From the 1980s, senior management and editors of the Straits Times have been individuals closely associated with the Singapore state or People's Action Party. There is an online publication run under Singapore Press Holdings, ThinkChina, that regularly runs pieces by influential persons from the PRC or hold pro-PRC leanings.

              1. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/asia-news-network-celebrates-20th-anniversary-commits-to-bringing-region-closer
              2. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/in-person-meetings-highlight-how-much-asean-and-china-treasure-ties-china-daily
              3. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/two-sessions-will-set-course-that-will-also-help-the-world-china-daily-editorial
              4. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/vaccine-selfishness-will-prolong-pandemic-china-daily
              5. https://investor.sph.com.sg/main_shareholder.html
              6. https://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_2016-02-29_133820.html
              7. https://www.thinkchina.sg/about-us
              8. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/china-holds-college-entrance-exam-with-tailored-covid-19-measures-in-place
              9. https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR4373z3.html

              Supplementary Notes

              Xinhua runs reports of reports from Singapore's Lianhe Zaobao (聯合早報) supportive of the PRC's official position, apparently to demonstrate foreign support for the PRC government's statements and claims, including on the denial of human rights abuses in Xinjiang. (See attachments). PRC-made TV series are distributed alongside similar programming from Korea via Singtel, one of the two main cable providers. Link

              1. https://www.singtel.com/personal/products-services/lifestyle-services/cast/iqiyi

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              8.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

              Skip

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              38 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              13 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              15 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              8 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

                Supplementary Notes

                The Straits Times will carry free inserts from the China Daily from time to time. This may be due to their affiliation through the Asia News Network. This occurrence is not common, however. As the last time was a year or two ago, I cannot locate the insert to make copies.

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Journalist acquaintances report having PRC public security forcibly delete footage, occasionally detaining local camera people for short periods. Hong Kong reporter, Ching Cheong, working for the Straits Times was arrested and detained on state secret charges in China between 2005 and 2008.

                  1. https://www.asiaone.com/print/News/Latest%2BNews/Singapore/Story/A1Story20121109-382353.html
                  2. https://chinadigitaltimes.net/2019/08/wall-street-journal-reporter-expelled-from-china/

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                    10.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    51 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    The is no overt censorship of views critical of the PRC in Singapore. However, media often takes a pro-PRC angle in reporting, especially the Chinese-language media. The English-language media can be more critical on occasion.

                      Supplementary Notes

                      There was a report by the SCMP that the Lianhe Zaobao took down a report critical of the PRC's wolf warrior diplomacy. According the to the SCMP: Chu’s comments were first reported on July 15 by Lianhe Zaobao, a Chinese-language daily newspaper in Singapore, and were widely picked up by local and foreign media outlets in Hong Kong and Taiwan. But the newspaper deleted the report from its website the next day, after Chu received warnings from a high level that the Chinese foreign ministry was dismayed, according to a journalist at the newspaper. Neither the newspaper nor Chu responded to requests for comment. Link However, subsequent check from Singapore and overseas locations revealed that the report was still available here: Link

                      1. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3144269/wolf-vs-panda-china-crossroads-over-how-spread-its-global
                      2. https://www.zaobao.com.sg/news/china/story20210715-1169151

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                      11.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      2 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      44 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      18 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Over the years, there have been an increasing number of prominent individuals, often ethnic Chinese males who have been promoting PRC denialism toward Xinjiang and Hong Kong, as well as its position on Taiwan and the United States. Most prominent of these are former foreign minister George Yeo who is closely affiliated with Kerry Logistics and Kishore Mahbubani. The RedAnts.sg site owned by Lianhe Zaobao often has articles that parallel the PRC official line to some degree.

                      1. https://news.sina.cn/gn/2021-06-08/detail-ikqciyzi8344653.d.html?from=wap
                      2. https://www.zaobao.com.sg/keywords/xin-jiang?_wrapper_format=html&page=0
                      3. https://www.zaobao.com.sg/zvideos/news/story20190425-951246
                      4. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/inside-those-uighur-re-education-camps
                      5. https://mothership.sg/2021/05/george-yeo-xinjiang-genocide/
                      6. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/asiapacific/2021-04/20/c_139894396.htm
                      7. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/civilisational-states-like-china-are-less-prone-to-populism
                      8. https://foreignpolicy.com/author/kishore-mahbubani/
                      9. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/asiapacific/2021-05/17/c_139951981.htm
                      10. https://mothership.sg/2020/05/china-kishore-mahbubani/
                      11. https://www.facebook.com/100000779909212/posts/3962447010457923/?d=n
                      12. https://www.straitstimes.com/politics/george-yeo-to-retire-as-kerry-logistics-networks-chairman-to-spend-time-with-family-and
                      13. https://www.redants.sg
                      14. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202106/1226255.shtml
                      15. https://mahbubani.net
                      16. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1Nrgw37If0
                      17. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YpmDmpHHS2s
                      18. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OBQJc4X9s6M
                      19. https://asianpeacetalks.buzzsprout.com/1744847/8728195-perceptions-of-china-within-the-us-body-politic-facts-and-misconceptions
                      20. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/chinas-challenges-as-a-rising-power-george-yeo
                      21. https://www.zaobao.com/news/china/story20210629-1162207
                      22. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IdrFCworxPZgPcPnuAKi9lP6CtTEcz7t/view
                      23. https://www.thinkchina.sg/former-singapore-fm-george-yeo-ccps-centenary-chinese-revolution-continues
                      24. https://twitter.com/xinjiangchannel/status/1415137474255331332?s=21
                      25. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXpY7ySrS2M
                      26. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-06-17/Allegation-of-genocide-in-Xinjiang-not-convincing-Singaporean-scholar-11af1lkTmNy/index.html
                      27. https://www.zaobao.com.sg/forum/editorial/story20210615-1156217
                      28. https://twitter.com/sehof/status/1404677931339698177
                      29. http://www.xinhuanet.com/2021-06/11/c_1127556157.htm
                      30. http://www.chinaembassy.org.sg/chn/fyrth/t1872143.htm
                      31. http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2021-01/21/content_5581643.htm
                      32. http://www.chinaembassy.org.sg/chn/fyrth/t1875255.htm
                      33. http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/leaders/2021-06/01/c_1127517461.htm
                      34. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/guard-critical-thinking-as-us-china-rivalry-heats-up
                      35. https://twitter.com/globaltimesnews/status/1421013669396111364
                      36. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/opinion/article/3143887/britains-warship-transits-south-china-sea-memories-1949-yangtze
                      37. https://twitter.com/zaobaosg/status/1384031522882154501
                      38. https://mobile.twitter.com/sehof/status/1376799314442297347
                      39. https://www.wethecitizens.net/a-look-at-singapores-mandarin-media-coverage-of-china/
                      40. https://www.zaobao.com.sg/special/report/politic/cnpol/story20190423-950709

                      Supplementary Notes

                      Soon after Xi Jinping's call for re-making China's image into one that is "trustworthy, lovable (cute?), and respected" (可信、可愛、可敬) on May 31, 2021, George Yeo and Kishore Mahbubani released a series articles and podcasts (see above) that seem to closely parallel the CCP official line. Link PRC media also use Singapore-based individuals as well as state-affiliated media organizations, like Lianhe Zaobao to boost their own positions overseas. The use friendly reporting to legitimate and demonstrate international support for their claims.

                      1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/politics/leaders/2021-06/01/c_1127517461.htm

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                      Academia

                      The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                      1.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                      More

                      0/ No

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      6 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      31 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      25 countries chose this answer

                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Singapore tries to be a research hub, so its universities have significant research collaboration with many entities, among them several state-linked PRC firms.

                      1. https://enterprise.nus.edu.sg/partnering-corporates/tencent-nus-cloud-startup-program/
                      2. https://news.nus.edu.sg/tencent-nus-set-up-incubator-scheme-for-singapore-start-ups/
                      3. https://enterprise.nus.edu.sg/partnering-corporates/corporate-partnerships/
                      4. https://bizbeat.nus.edu.sg/press-release/article/alibaba-cloud-partners-with-national-university-of-singapore-to-support-the-citys-smart-nation-initiative/
                      5. https://news.nus.edu.sg/alibaba-cloud-nus-and-ez-link-collaborate-to-advance-singapores-digital-economy/
                      6. https://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/images/resources/Alibaba_Talent_Programme-Aug2019-rev.pdf
                      7. https://www.alibabacloud.com/blog/alibaba-cloud-partners-with-national-university-of-singapore-to-support-smart-nation-initiative_593921
                      8. https://www.ntu.edu.sg/alibaba-ntu-jri
                      9. https://www.connectedtoindia.com/nus-partners-alibaba-cloud-to-nurture-talents-in-emerging-tech-fields-4456.html
                      10. https://www.ntu.edu.sg/news/detail/ntu-singapore-and-alibaba-group-launch-joint-research-institute-on-artificial-intelligence-technologies/ntu-singapore-and-alibaba-group-launch-joint-research-institute-on-artificial-intelligence-technologies
                      11. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/alibaba-group-opens-first-joint-research-institute-outside-china-with-ntu-to-study-ai
                      12. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/education/alibaba-launches-post-graduate-talent-programme-in-singapore
                      13. https://e.huawei.com/en/case-studies/leading-new-ict/2018/201812191506
                      14. https://www.ntu.edu.sg/ntc/news-events/news/detail/huawei---chinese-telecommunications-giant-strategies-to-success
                      15. https://www.facebook.com/entresoc.ntu/posts/and-the-huawei-seeds-of-the-future-programme-is-a-successthe-programme-is-organi/870943806275905/

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide
                        2.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                        More

                        0/ No

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        14 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        31 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        27 countries chose this answer

                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Singapore's efforts to cooperate with PRC in education, including to maintain Chinese-language and culture, saw the establishment of a Confucius Institute and Confucius classroom in the country. This has included efforts to train Chinese-language teachers in Singapore schools or sometimes helping to hire them from the PRC.

                        1. https://www.ntu.edu.sg/ci
                        2. https://hsk-crestar.com.sg/confucius-classroom-crestar/

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          3.
                          Exposure

                          My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          46 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          35 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          This is a grey area for Singapore. It has longstanding and broad-based Mandarin teaching. It does not use PRC textbook material or teachers for free, but hires them from the PRC in addition to locally. Some private tuition (enrichment programs) that parents commonly opt for appear to include PRC teachers and content.

                          1. https://www.zhihu.com/question/21730431
                          2. https://www.nie.edu.sg/docs/default-source/news-document/280512-zb-pg-6.pdf?Status=Master&sfvrsn=0
                          3. https://ace.edu.sg/wp/advisory-board/
                          4. http://huayuanassociation.com/zh/category/最新活动/

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                            4.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            40 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            17 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            7 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            14 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            The East Asian Institute (EAI) based at the National University of Singapore is part of the SiLKS. A long-serving former directors known to be close to the PRC. EAI is influential as it provides briefs to various Singapore ministries, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Trade and Industry. It also briefs foreign academic and official visitors to Singapore. The former EAI direction was linked to the Longus Institute and International Public Policy Private Limited, two think tanks that used to advance pro-PRC viewpoints and promote visits by PRC academics and officials. Both organizations seems to have closed, especially with the departure of the EAI director from Singapore in 2020.

                            1. https://web.archive.org/web/20210122052445/http://www.esilks.org/about/members
                            2. https://web.archive.org/web/20210128112221/http://www.esilks.org/institut/sid/uxLcS333
                            3. https://research.nus.edu.sg/eai/about-us/profile-and-objectives/
                            4. https://www.sgpbusiness.com/company/International-Public-Policy-Private-Limited
                            5. https://www.facebook.com/longusresearch/
                            6. https://www.sgpbusiness.com/company/Longus-Institute-For-Development-And-Strategy-Ltd
                            7. https://sgpgrid.com/company-details/longus-institute-for-development-and-strategy-ltd
                            8. https://openinghours-sg.com/019724/Longus_Research_Institute
                            9. https://www.linkedin.com/company/longus-institute-for-development-and-strategy/about/

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                              5.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              10 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              21 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              19 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              10 countries chose this answer

                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Singapore more established think tanks and universities are generally regulated by the state quite tightly as a consequence of historical efforts to clamp on protests and limit academic freedom. As a result, there tends to be higher control of foreign funding going toward think tanks and universities, especially if they come in the form of philanthropic giving. There may be some projects with PRC funding, but these tend to be balanced by funding from other sources. Private think tanks, however, reportedly receive more PRC funding. These included the International Public Policy Private Limited and Longus Institute, which seem to be dormant at present. There is suspicion that the Kuok family of Kerry Logistics/Shangri-La Group provides some funds to the Singapore Institute of International Affairs (SIIA), IISS in Singapore, and Yale-NUS College.

                              1. https://www.yicai.com/news/100130297.html
                              2. http://www.tianshui.com.cn/news/ws/2014110520344870342.html
                              3. http://www.siiaonline.org/our-people/
                              4. https://yaledailynews.com/blog/2021/04/29/petition-demands-removal-of-yale-nus-governing-board-chair-over-ties-to-myanmar-army/
                              5. https://www.thenewslens.com/article/150452
                              6. https://www.kuokgroup.com/businesses/shangri-la
                              7. https://www.kuokgroup.com/businesses
                              8. http://en.iiss.pku.edu.cn/dynamic/dh/subjectEn02/js/gw/2212.html

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                6.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                3 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                47 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Scholars at Singapore universities participate in the Changjiang Scholars Program (長江學者計畫). These numbers seem to be growing. Reportedly, there have been attempts to recruit through the Thousand Talents Program as well, but no direct evidence is yet available.

                                1. https://bizfaculty.nus.edu.sg/faculty-details/?profId=451
                                2. https://chemistry.nus.edu.sg/people/guillermo-c-bazan/
                                3. http://saton.jmu.edu.cn/info/1013/1600.htm
                                4. https://m.sohu.com/n/447515710/
                                5. http://newsweb.nuaa.edu.cn/2016/0823/c738a30070/pagem.htm
                                6. http://www.nuaa.edu.cn/2010/0630/c852a28293/page.htm

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                  7.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There have been regular PRC efforts to sponsor trips by Singapore-based academics to China. These include study trips and tours, as well as high profile events such as the Bo'ao Forum and Xiangshan Forum.

                                  1. https://news.nus.edu.sg/nus-president-attends-boao-forum/
                                  2. https://www.boaoforum.org/u/cms/www2/201804/04103033o6c8.pdf
                                  3. http://www.xiangshanforum.cn/scheduling_EN
                                  4. https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=2770182006586824
                                  5. https://www.sgcssa.org/

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                    8.
                                    Pressure

                                    In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Student organizations in Singapore are tightly controlled by the state, including the CSSA. This limits their activities. There are sporadic reports of CSSA members or PRC students complaining about course content offends PRC sensibilities. However, they have not yet become a force that puts academics and others in a position to be wary and engage in self-censorship. The CSSA in Singapore is known to have links with the PRC Embassy in Singapore, which helps sponsor some of their events.

                                    1. https://www.sgcssa.org

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    Even though the role of CSSAs are unclear, Nanyang Technological University (NTU) told their faculty in writing that there was a directive from MOE to not refer to Taiwan and Hong Kong as anything that might be construed as "countries." To the best of my knowledge, we never received anything similar at NUS. I'm not heard of a similar directive at either SMU or SUSS. (See attachment.) At NTU, non-Singapore based scholar was told to remove all references to "Republic of China" from slides in a talk--even though this person is a historian who works on World War II. The scholar was told to use "China" instead. The organizer telling the academic to do so is a PRC scholar based in at NTU. A possible explanation may be the fact that NTU has far closer ties with the PRC, with the flagship training it offers to mayors from the PRC. NUS has a similar program for provincial officials, but it is much smaller. There may be faculty who are more willing to convey their preferences to a university administration more sensitive to such issues even if there is no formal role for a CSSA. Across universities, some faculty have reported PRC students possibly complaining or putting in negative evaluations for emphasis on Taiwan, although this is anecdotal. Possibly because the identities of complainants or evaluations cannot be clearly ascertained. Whether such actions are motivated by the CSSA is unclear, even though the CSSAs have close ties with the PRC embassy. (See attached image)

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                      9.
                                      Pressure

                                      In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      None known at present.

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                          10.
                                          Effect

                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          There are reports of Mandarin-language curriculum material increasingly following PRC standards due to the increasing number of PRC teachers hired by the Ministry of Education to teach Mandarin. There are also a number of PRC-related entities that set up tuition centers (補習班) teaching Mandarin in Singapore.

                                          1. https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/134016809
                                          2. https://zhidao.baidu.com/question/924235760209131219.html
                                          3. https://www.qlchat.com/hot/html/79553866.html
                                          4. https://hsk-crestar.com.sg/zh-hans/从中国高考考官到新加坡学院母语部主任,一个新/
                                          5. https://www.ecda.gov.sg/Documents/Documents%20Required%20for%20Teacher%20Certification%20(Foreign%20Qualifications_%20Chinese).pdf
                                          6. https://finance.sina.com.cn/roll/2019-03-04/doc-ihsxncvf9735757.shtml

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                            11.
                                            Effect

                                            In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                            Skip

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                            77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              There have been few but increasingly common reports of censorship relating to issues sensitive to the PRC. In one instance in 2020, a US-based historian working on the history of World War II was told to drop references to the "Republic of China" in the title and contents of a talk he was to give at Nanyang Technological University, one of Singapore's main universities. Faculty at Nanyang Technological University received an email circular asking them to ensure that they do not refer to Hong Kong or Taiwan in ways that could be construed as countries. There is email traffic on the issue, but they are not shared out of personal privacy protection concerns.

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                Economy

                                                The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                1.
                                                Exposure

                                                The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                Yes

                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                MoreHide
                                                2.
                                                Exposure

                                                PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                According to official sources, Singapore maintains no net foreign debt. This includes sovereign debt. Details, however, are difficult to independently ascertain.

                                                1. https://www.singstat.gov.sg/find-data/search-by-theme/economy/external-debt/latest-data
                                                2. https://www.mof.gov.sg/news-publications/media-articles/askST-Why-does-Singapore-have-an-external-debt-of-US1-766-trillion-
                                                3. https://www.tablebuilder.singstat.gov.sg/publicfacing/createDataTable.action?refId=14924
                                                4. https://www.gov.sg/article/is-it-fiscally-sustainable-for-singapore-to-have-such-a-high-level-of-debt
                                                5. https://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202009/18/WS5f63ed41a31024ad0ba7a40c.html
                                                6. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-business-chamber-in-china-key-to-relations-between-the-2-countries-minister-of
                                                7. https://www.enterprisesg.gov.sg/overseas-markets/asia-pacific/china/market-profile

                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                Singapore is the largest foreign investor in China and the China market is the largest destination for investments from one of Singapore's two sovereign wealth funds, Temasek Holdings.

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                  3.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  0/ No

                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Singapore has no extractive industries. It extracts low wage labour, sand, and raw materials from other countries.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                      4.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Hide
                                                      5.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Hide
                                                      6.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Via Hong Kong Singapore Business Association and Singapore Business Federation. There is also the Singapore Chamber of Commerce in China, to which many Singapore businesses are tied.

                                                      1. https://www.beltandroadglobalforum.com/en/member/forumfull
                                                      2. https://www.sbf.org.sg
                                                      3. https://www.hsba.org.sg/index.php
                                                      4. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-business-chamber-in-china-key-to-relations-between-the-2-countries-minister-of

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                        7.
                                                        Pressure

                                                        My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                        1. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-38101345
                                                        2. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/sporeans-naive-about-fake-news-threat-beijings-influence-operations-threaten-social
                                                        3. https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08SINGAPORE71_a.html
                                                        4. https://www.pmo.gov.sg/Newsroom/prime-minister-lee-hsien-loongs-national-day-rally-2004-english
                                                        5. https://www.mfa.gov.sg/Newsroom/Press-Statements-Transcripts-and-Photos/2004/07/Transcript-of-Questions-and-Answers-with-DPM-Lee-Hsien-Loong-on-His-Visit-to-Taiwan

                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                        There were other forms coercion, such as threats and the detention of armored vehicles passing through Hong Kong but no direct economic coercion yet. Allegedly, much of the threats were passed to the Singapore state by way of Singapore businesses with interests in the PRC. However, there could be coercion behind the scenes that are less directly observable, given Singapore's opacity.

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          8.
                                                          Pressure

                                                          In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                          Yes

                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Reportedly in the wake of the South China Sea Arbitral Tribunal Ruling, Singapore businesses were warned that Singapore's insistence on international law could jeopardize their commercial position in the PRC. Singapore supposedly had a downgraded invitation to the 2017 Belt and Road Forum in the PRC for its position on the South China Sea, inviting Minister of National Development Lawrence Wong instead of Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In 2004, Singapore was supposedly subject to some freeze in contact due to a visit by Lee Hsien Loong to Taiwan before he became Prime Minister. The Straits Times further reports that six Singaporean lawyers, including former Attorney-General VK Rajah, left Essex Court Chambers Duxton (Singapore Practice Group) after its London office was sanctioned by Beijing. The sanctions were in response to a legal opinion critical of PRC policy in Xinjiang written by four partners of the firm in London.

                                                          1. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/sporeans-naive-about-fake-news-threat-beijings-influence-operations-threaten-social
                                                          2. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/sporeans-should-be-aware-of-chinas-influence-ops-bilahari
                                                          3. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2004-07/12/content_347678.htm
                                                          4. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/chinas-belt-and-road-project-could-pose-challenges-to-spore-minister-lawrence-wong
                                                          5. https://www.todayonline.com/business/spore-businesses-quizzed-chinese-counterparts-over-their-stand-south-china-sea-issue
                                                          6. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-asean-china-singapore-analysis-idUSKBN1AO17D
                                                          7. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/chinas-s-china-sea-stance-must-be-able-to-withstand-the-spore-test
                                                          8. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/ex-ag-and-five-other-lawyers-all-leave-essex-court-chambers-duxton-to-form-new-practice

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                            9.
                                                            Effect

                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            MoreHide
                                                            10.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            47 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Hide
                                                            11.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            76 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-03-14/singapore-property-dynasty-s-china-deal-becomes-cautionary-tale
                                                            2. https://www.thinkchina.sg/singapore-and-suzhou-where-will-journey-lead-us
                                                            3. https://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_2015-02-17_101058.html

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            Less so PRC firms requisitioning assets, but Singapore firms losing control of assets in China.

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide

                                                              Society

                                                              The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                              1.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not in the open, since the civil society space in Singapore is tightly regulated. There may be other organizations with similar aims, but do not carry this official title. These tend to operated more behind the scenes.

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  2.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  One of the members of the board of Temasek Holdings, one of Singapore's two sovereign wealth funds, is a member of the CPPCC. SinoLand, owned by the Ng family, reportedly has close ties with the Central Liaison Office in Hong Kong. There are also members of the the China Overseas Friendship Association (中國海外聯誼會).

                                                                  1. https://www.temasek.com.sg/en/who-we-are/our-leadership#bod-robert-ng-cs
                                                                  2. https://www.hk01.com/社會新聞/168808/全國兩會-政協專委會副主任出爐-消息-王冬勝-黃志祥均上榜
                                                                  3. https://www.scmp.com/business/article/2187645/chinas-liaison-office-officials-have-buying-local-flats-drawing-focus-tax
                                                                  4. https://www.ejinsight.com/eji/article/id/2066211/20190225-liaison-office-wants-a-big-piece-of-grand-central
                                                                  5. http://www.singapore-china.org/profile/board19_22.shtml

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  If so, this is not publicly known, given the tight control over civil society by the Singapore state, particularly regarding organizations with external links.

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    3.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                    Yes

                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://fdawu.org.sg/wps/portal/fdawu/home/workingforu/workingforudetails?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/content_library/ntuc/home/working+for+u/2195ac80-4221-48bd-97b6-d7cc011d2582

                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                    The National Trades Union Congress is closely affiliated with Singapore's ruling party, the People's Action Party, which has been in power since 1959. The head of the NTUC is almost always a cabinet minister.

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      4.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Yes, available from social media accounts of local ethnic Chinese organizations. Requires upload of screenshots. Among the ethnic Chinese organizations is one called the Huayuan Association 華源會, whose members seem to be largely new PRC immigrants to Singapore. It's head, property tycoon 王泉成 has been invited to be a special observer at the CPPCC (中央政協). Head of the Tianfu Association 天府會, Du Zhiqiang 杜志強, has been invited to be a special observer at the Sichuan CPPCC (四川政協).

                                                                      1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/world/2018-03/03/c_1122481843.htm
                                                                      2. http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2018/0303/c1002-29845671.html
                                                                      3. http://www.singapore-china.org/about_ssfa.shtml
                                                                      4. http://www.sctyzx.gov.cn/m/tzzx/202011/54266144.html

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        5.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        33 countries chose this answer

                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        6.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Yes, often through temple lineages and associations, including the Meizhou Mazu temple (湄洲媽祖廟) network. These have links with Malaysia and Taiwan as well--including groups in Taiwan identified as being closely tied to the CCP or local agents of the PRC.

                                                                        1. http://huayuanassociation.com/zh/category/最新活动/
                                                                        2. https://jamestown.org/program/a-preliminary-survey-of-ccp-influence-operations-in-singapore/
                                                                        3. https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RRA200/RRA290-1/RAND_RRA290-1.pdf

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        Please allow uploading of images from social media posts.

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          7.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          38 countries chose this answer

                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Streaming devices are available relatively cheaply in Singapore, making any PRC distribution less competitive. There are anecdotal reports of the distribution of cheap OTT devices streaming PRC programmes, but they have to compete with other devices. The popularity of devices distributed by PRC-related entities is difficult to track.

                                                                          1. https://iprice.sg/tv-video-dvd/streaming-media-players/

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            8.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                            Skip

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              Portrayal of the PRC in a positive light and Hong Kong and Taiwan in a negative light may also have to do with the discouragement of more democratic expectations among the local population. These tend to be TV or radio shows, they do not all have links that can be reproduced.

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                9.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Entertainment in Singapore is generally separate from politics due to social control by the state. There may be sporadic sharing of pro-PRC positions or non-opposition to being labelled similarly to a PRC citizen (see JJ Lin above), but this tends not to be publicly evident.

                                                                                1. https://www.zaobao.com.sg/zentertainment/celebs/story20190223-934405

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                If entertainers demonstrate open political support for any group, this is usually the ruling People's Action Party. Apart from a few individuals (eg. JJ Lin, Stephanie Sun, Tanya Chua etc), Singapore also tends to have few major celebrities.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  10.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                  1. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IdrFCworxPZgPcPnuAKi9lP6CtTEcz7t/view

                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                  Singapore only has one level of government, broadly speaking. However, it is significant that national-level political figures occasionally will play up the PRC line.

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    11.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Views of the PRC are mixed in Singapore, but there is a general view of the PRC as holding great commercial opportunity and technological prowess even if quite a sizable number of people (likely a minority, however) are suspicious of the PRC's intentions. Seen from a recent Pew poll, a majority of people from Singapore seem to hold positive views of the PRC. Some of this may be due to the media content they receive, given that Singapore mainstream media is quite positive of the PRC and there is quite a bit of pro-China programming from the PRC, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Some people in Singapore are drawn to the PRC as a site for "Asian values." Non-commercial elite/expert views tend to be more suspicious towards the PRC (see the expert poll from the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies above).

                                                                                    1. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/The-State-of-SEA-2021-v2.pdf
                                                                                    2. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/articles-commentaries/aseanfocus/the-state-of-southeast-asia-2020-survey-report/
                                                                                    3. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/06/30/chinas-international-image-remains-broadly-negative-as-views-of-the-u-s-rebound/

                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                    There is also some conflation between the PRC state and immigrants from the PRC. There is some resistance to PRC immigrants, but that does not equate to views of the commercial promise of the PRC state.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                      Military

                                                                                      The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                      1.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Major military and law enforcement equipment is predominantly sourced from the United States, Europe, United Kingdom, Israel, or self-made. There is some Russian equipment, but no known PRC equipment so far.

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        Maintaining access to advanced US and NATO-standard technologies places limits on equipment purchases from the PRC, given security concerns.

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          2.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          3.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Singapore Technologies Kinetics previously was in a joint venture with Guizhou Zonyang Kintetics. This collaboration allegedly produced a Bv206 style tracked all-terrain tracked transporter, similar to the Bronco used by the Singapore armed forces. Singapore Kinetics reportedly sold its stake in Guizhou Zonyang Kinetics in 2016. It is unclear if other collaboration continues. The vehicle is reportedly in use on the Tibetan plateau. The latest report on co-development is from the SCMP in January 2021.

                                                                                          1. https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/china/jm-8.htm
                                                                                          2. https://www.cccme.cn/shop/cccme12302/introduction.aspx
                                                                                          3. https://www.bdapartners.com/transaction/bda-advises-st-kinetics-on-sale-of-its-60-stake-in-guizhou-jonyang-kinetics-to-gicam/
                                                                                          4. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/military/article/3118339/chinas-military-uses-new-all-terrain-vehicle-get-supplies

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            4.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            There are reports of PRC interest in basing. There is little independent corroboration, however.

                                                                                            1. https://www.thinkchina.sg/will-china-establish-military-bases-southeast-asia

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              5.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              No

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        Unsure about training kept in the quiet.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                          1. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/george-yeo-to-retire-as-kerry-logistics-networks-chairman
                                                                                                          2. https://www.thenewslens.com/article/150452
                                                                                                          3. https://www.yicai.com/news/100130297.html
                                                                                                          4. https://www.thenewslens.com/article/150452

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          There are unverified reports of retired senior Singapore Armed Forces personnel working in China, including at Chinese firms. The nature of what they do is unclear. However, there is the prominent case of George Yeo, former Brigadier General and former Foreign Minister, joining the senior management of the Kerry Group. The Kerry Group reportedly has close ties with the CCP and its chairperson is a CPPCC member. Yeo's public writings have taken a clear pro-PRC turn.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              Not openly.

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                MoreHide

                                                                                                                Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                1. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1791773/china-repatriates-no-2-sky-net-fugitive-official-who
                                                                                                                2. https://www.oecd.org/site/adboecdanti-corruptioninitiative/39788692.pdf
                                                                                                                3. https://sso.agc.gov.sg/SL/EA1968-N1?DocDate=20000131
                                                                                                                4. https://www.oecd.org/site/adboecdanti-corruptioninitiative/39355524.pdf
                                                                                                                5. https://www.oecd.org/site/adboecdanti-corruptioninitiative/39788741.pdf
                                                                                                                6. https://www.oecd.org/site/adboecdanti-corruptioninitiative/39368700.pdf

                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                There are no formal extradition arrangements between Singapore and the PRC. However, there was at least one past case of individuals sent back to the PRC on the request of Beijing. Singapore has an extradition agreement with Hong Kong, however.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                  1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-07/28/c_138263458.htm

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  There is no publicly available information on counter-terrorism cooperation through law enforcement. Counter-terrorism cooperation occurs through the Singapore Armed Forces and the People's Liberation Army.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                    1. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/22/world/winson-north-korea-oil-tankers.html
                                                                                                                    2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hDTCHdcPYTQ
                                                                                                                    3. https://www.nytimes.com/video/world/asia/100000007422226/north-korea-winson-oil-tanker.html
                                                                                                                    4. https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/u-s-moves-to-seize-tanker-used-in-illicit-north-korean-trade
                                                                                                                    5. https://www.gtreview.com/news/asia/singapore-oil-trader-denies-alleged-role-in-sanctioned-north-korean-trade/

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    Little information is available publicly about secret societies and criminal gangs in Singapore. There are, however, periodic reports about the collusion of Singapore firms with illegal activities relating to the PRC. They include the illegal sale of oil and other products to the DPRK, via China and Taiwan, in contravention of UN embargoes.

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      See below.

                                                                                                                      1. https://www.zdnet.com/article/hacker-group-behind-singhealth-data-breach-identified-targeted-mainly-singapore-firms/
                                                                                                                      2. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/singhealth-hack-whitefly-cyber-espionage-group-symantec-11317330
                                                                                                                      3. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/mindef-internet-system-hacked-personal-data-850-personnel-stolen
                                                                                                                      4. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/healthcare-training-provider-hmi-institutes-server-infected-by-ransomware
                                                                                                                      5. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/singtel-assessing-hack-data-breach-third-party-file-system-14168814
                                                                                                                      6. https://www.channelasia.tech/article/686732/singapore-airlines-warns-frequent-flyer-members-third-party-data-breach/
                                                                                                                      7. https://www.zdnet.com/article/singapore-airlines-customer-logs-into-account-sees-strangers-personal-data/
                                                                                                                      8. https://mustsharenews.com/data-breaches-singapore/
                                                                                                                      9. https://www.ft.com/content/4443da60-6d90-4d27-b300-b0896425f99f
                                                                                                                      10. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/more-than-1500-singpass-accounts-could-have-been-accessed-illegitimately-ida
                                                                                                                      11. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44900507
                                                                                                                      12. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/singapore-investor-watchdog-sias-uncovers-personal-data-breach-10562884
                                                                                                                      13. https://www.straitstimes.com/tech/tech-news/nearly-400-servers-here-at-risk-from-global-microsoft-hack
                                                                                                                      14. https://www.channelasia.tech/article/659206/singapore-government-credentials-found-dark-web/
                                                                                                                      15. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/technology/login-details-of-singapore-government-email-accounts-found-in-11366204
                                                                                                                      16. https://www.zdnet.com/article/axa-insurance-data-breach-hits-5400-customers-in-singapore/
                                                                                                                      17. https://www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2021/06/10/are-the-fbis-most-wanted-chinese-spies-hacking-the-airline-industry/?sh=6fd61def237d

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      Contacts in the tech and security industry report regular probes of Singapore cybersystems by suspected PRC-backed entities. There has been no smoking gun or official assigning of culpability by the Singapore state, however.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                        In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                        1. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/20/world/asia/vietnam-will-nguyen.html

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        There have been no reports of triad pressure activities linked to the PRC, but William Nguyen reported on facebook that Chinese embassy officials tried to find out more about him after his arrest in Vietnam for protesting Chinese influence.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                          My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Hikvision cameras observed at Changi Airport.

                                                                                                                          1. https://titan-sg.com/
                                                                                                                          2. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/courts-crime/new-technology-to-help-police-fight-crime-and-enforce-law
                                                                                                                          3. https://sg.news.yahoo.com/90000-police-cameras-installed-singapore-shanmugam-102536548.html

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          Seems like there is some licensing by the Singapore Police Force for digital surveillance products and admiration for the PRC system by the Home Affairs Minister.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              No known instance.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                  No known instance, although Singapore may warn citizens privately.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                    My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                      No known instance yet.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                        My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        There have been repatriations, but opposition was muted given the tight control of civil society in Singapore. The bus drivers repatriated for an "illegal strike" over wages and conditions saw limited local civil society opposition criticism over their repatriation. The point of contention was over the justness and fairness of such as move. During the Cold War, the Singapore state had a history of deporting ethnic Chinese it deemed "leftist" to the PRC. This was the source of some controversy, as some had claim to be Singapore citizens. This was a time after independence when there was campaigning for ethnic Chinese residents of Singapore to be considered citizens. Their status was ambiguous from the colonial period on. (See Link) Others left on their own accord, given affinity to the Communist regime. The most prominent of these returnees being tycoon Tan Kah Kee 陳嘉庚. (Link)

                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.todayonline.com/chinaindia/china/ex-chinese-govt-official-who-fled-singapore-sentenced-life-imprisonment
                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1791773/china-repatriates-no-2-sky-net-fugitive-official-who
                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/transport/all-29-ex-smrt-bus-drivers-from-china-repatriated-on-dec-2
                                                                                                                                        4. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43863101
                                                                                                                                        5. https://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/infopedia/articles/SIP_163_2005-01-22.html
                                                                                                                                        6. https://www.tkkfoundation.org.sg/biography

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                          Technology

                                                                                                                                          The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Pre-paid SIM services for individuals and VOIP services largely targeting commercial users.

                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.cloudexpoasia.com/exhibitors/china-telecom-singapore-pte-ltd
                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.cmlink.com/sg/
                                                                                                                                          3. https://blog.moneysmart.sg/budgeting/sim-only-plans-china-mobile-singapore-cmlink/
                                                                                                                                          4. https://sgpgrid.com/company-details/china-unicom-singapore-operations-pte-ltd

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Huawei and ZTE not in core infrastructure, but there are apparent apparent plans to include them in other parts of Singapore's future 5G and 6G telecommunications infrastructure based on news reports. TechHQ report linked above writes, "Huawei only won a contract to provide technology for a smaller, local network system to TPG Telecom, a smaller player in Singapore."

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/06/25/huawei-loses-out-to-nokia-ericsson-in-building-singapores-main-5g-networks.html
                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.zdnet.com/article/singtel-makes-massive-mimo-move-with-ericsson-huawei-zte/
                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.reuters.com/article/singapore-telecoms-5g-idUKL4N2E12M5
                                                                                                                                            4. https://www.zte.com.cn/global/topics/mwc2018/newsdetail.aspx-id=119748641.html
                                                                                                                                            5. https://techhq.com/2020/06/ericsson-nokia-oust-huawei-to-win-5g-contracts-in-singapore/

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              MoreHide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              There seems to be some cooperation, from sporadic news reporting. However, this seems to be tied to key data systems in Singapore. Hikvision facial recognition devices used at Singapore Changi Airport (see attachments).

                                                                                                                                              1. https://opengovasia.com/singapore-and-nanjing-deepen-collaboration-on-ai-and-sustainable-urban-solutions/
                                                                                                                                              2. https://opengovasia.com/singapore-and-nanjing-deepen-collaboration-on-ai-and-sustainable-urban-solutions/
                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapore-chongqing-deepen-cooperation-with-chinas-first-dedicated-international-data-link
                                                                                                                                              4. http://global.gsafety.com/list/post/34251/

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Singapore-based banks use CIPS by virtue of the fact that Singapore ins one of the overseas RMB clearing houses.

                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.theglobaltreasurer.com/2015/10/12/icbc-singapore-clears-first-asia-rmb-transaction-on-cips/
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.thecorporatetreasurer.com/article/chongqing-launches-rmb-programme-with-singapore-swift-and-cips-to-cooperate-on-c/406950

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  In recent years, PRC-based venture capital is taking on an increasingly visible role in Singapore. They invest in many areas, including technology.

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.rikvin.com/blog/top-22-venture-capital-firms-and-angel-investors-in-singapore/
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.drwealth.com/venture-capital-singapore/
                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.techinasia.com/directory-of-early-stage-venture-capital-seed-funds-and-angel-investors-for-startups-in-singapore
                                                                                                                                                  4. https://www.questventures.com

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    These are areas that the current Singapore government identifies as important to the country's next stage of growth and is eager to partner with PRC firms. They are encouraging firms and universities to do likewise.

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.enterprisesg.gov.sg/-/media/esg/files/media-centre/media-releases/2020/dec-2020/media-release--new-blockchain-for-trade--connectivity-network-to-be-launched.pdf?la=en
                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.ledgerinsights.com/singapore-trade-network-to-integrate-with-chinas-blockchain-service-network-others/
                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.finews.asia/finance/32210-tencent-cloud-inks-mou-with-digital-bank-consortium-in-singapore-asia-digital-bank-corporation
                                                                                                                                                    4. https://www.fintechfutures.com/2020/07/singapores-adbc-signs-mou-with-tencent-cloud/
                                                                                                                                                    5. https://kr-asia.com/alibaba-cloud-signs-mou-with-national-university-of-singapore
                                                                                                                                                    6. https://www.finextra.com/pressarticle/83258/new-singapore-bank-adbc-inks-mou-with-tencent-cloud
                                                                                                                                                    7. https://opengovasia.com/new-agreement-between-singapore-and-china-focusing-on-research-and-innovation-efforts/
                                                                                                                                                    8. https://www.imda.gov.sg/news-and-events/Media-Room/Media-Releases/2019/Launch-of-China-Singapore-Chongqing-International-Data-Channel
                                                                                                                                                    9. https://www.businesstimes.com.sg/companies-markets/starhub-signs-mou-to-co-build-data-links-with-top-china-service-providers
                                                                                                                                                    10. https://www.ichongqing.info/2019/10/19/chongqing-and-singapore-sign-a-mou-for-internet-data-channel/
                                                                                                                                                    11. https://www.singtel.com/about-us/media-centre/news-releases/singtel-partners-chinese-telcos-to-establish-data-link-betwen-singapore-and-c
                                                                                                                                                    12. https://www.enterprisesg.gov.sg/media-centre/media-releases/2019/september/singapore-chongqing-economic-and-trade-cooperation-forum-and-mou-signing-ceremony
                                                                                                                                                    13. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/technology/chinese-ai-unicorn-sensetime-signs-mou-with-3-singapore-10484136
                                                                                                                                                    14. https://opengovasia.com/ai-singapore-signs-mou-to-promote-training-and-rd-in-ai-and-analytics/
                                                                                                                                                    15. https://www.thedrum.com/news/2018/02/28/alibaba-partners-ntu-singapore-establish-its-first-ai-research-institute-outside
                                                                                                                                                    16. https://www.businesstimes.com.sg/technology/alibaba-cloud-partners-nus-ez-link-to-boost-data-capabilities-amended

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      The Singapore state has a number of cooperative projects involving the Beidou system. The exact nature and extent of such collaboration is unknown, however, given Singapore's opacity.

                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.spacetime-tech.com/singapore-and-china-collaborate-beidou-applications
                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.gnss.asia/sites/default/files/Countryprofiles_Singapore_v4.pdf
                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.gpsworld.com/singapore-joins-with-china-to-develop-apps-protect-beidou-signals/

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                        Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                        The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Local politicians in Singapore have no authority to sign agreements with foreign entities.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Local municipalities in Singapore do not have the legal leeway to make such arrangements.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Trips are few but significant because Singaporean officials’ comments are used to broadcast support for the PRC’s positions both domestically and internationally.

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://amp.economist.com/china/2021/08/07/chinas-efforts-to-lift-xinjiangs-economy-may-smother-it?__twitter_impression=true
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/http://wap.xjdaily.com/xjrb/20210629/177030.html

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                Not to my knowledge when it comes to political appointees in the executive branch. Singapore tends to be quite strict regarding political office holders. However, what ruling party backbenchers do is less known, do to the opacity of Singapore's political system. Some backbenchers apparently travel to China for work, since legislators are part-time in Singapore. Some of these trips may be paid for by their companies or China-based business partners. It remains to be seen whether any of such contact becomes salient, however.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Official meetings are the usual course of doing business. That said, there are many meetings and exchanges between political appointees from Singapore, PRC officials, and think tanks. These meetings result in statements and also cooperative agreements. Since at least the 2000s the ruling People's Action Party Youth Wing has had meetings and trainings with the Communist Youth League according to WikiLeaks.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.mindef.gov.sg/web/portal/mindef/news-and-events/latest-releases/article-detail/2019/October/22oct19_nr
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.istana.gov.sg/Newsroom/Speeches/2021/04/20/Speech-by-President-Halimah-Yacob-at-Boao-Forum-for-Asia-Annual-Conference-2021-Opening-Plenary
                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/singapore-china-travel-border-restriction-vivian-balakrishnan-14532426
                                                                                                                                                                  4. https://www.mnd.gov.sg/newsroom/press-releases/view/minister-lawrence-wong-visits-china-for-tianjin-eco-city-anniversary-commemorative-activities-and-singapore-tianjin-economic-and-trade-council-meeting
                                                                                                                                                                  5. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/vivian-balakrishnan-in-china-for-asean-china-meeting
                                                                                                                                                                  6. https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/09SINGAPORE863_a.html

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign donations for political parties and politicians in Singapore are tightly regulated. However, political donations are not public knowledge even if they have be reported to the state.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.eld.gov.sg/registry.html
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://sso.agc.gov.sg/Act/PDA2000

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      There have been several business associations, native place associations (同鄉會), and clan associations (宗親會) with UFWD links that seem to be developing relationships with politicians from the People's Action Party (PAP). They have in the past posted photos on their social media sites. These organizations or their leaders are reportedly active in the PAP grassroots, which means that they are likely to have some involvement in fund-raising.

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Foreign involvement in Singapore politics is frowned upon. As a result, groups are likely to be less open about endorsement or opposition to candidates based on an overtly foreign policy related issue. Lobbying may well take place in private, out the view of observers.

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Link are reports of former Singapore politicians or senior civil servants taking Link board roles with PRC-related firms. Former foreign minister George Yeo is the most prominent. He works with the Kerry Group (嘉里集團) and Kuok family which purportedly has close ties with the CCP. However, the lack of disclosure laws mean that not all these relationships are easily observable.

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/former-foreign-minister-george-yeo-step-down-chairman-kerry-logistics-network
                                                                                                                                                                              2. http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2021/05-08/9472472.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.thinkchina.sg/former-singapore-fm-george-yeo-ccps-centenary-chinese-revolution-continues
                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://investor.pinduoduo.com/index.php/corporate-governance/board-of-directors
                                                                                                                                                                              5. https://sgchina30.businesschina.org.sg/en/chairman.html

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Private security contracted by the Singapore government tend to be local firms/auxiliary police such as Certis Cisco or AETOS.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Singapore's Parliament is dominated by the executive, so it does not have the committee, caucus, or friendship group structure common to other legislatures. Government Parliamentary Committees are largely dormant and tend to help the ruling party sound out and spread its perspectives as their main function. Parliamentary committees largely have procedural functions.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.parliament.gov.sg/about-us/parliament-information/functions
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.pap.org.sg/whos-who/gpc/
                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.parliament.gov.sg/about-us/structure/select-committees

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                      The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Following the detention of Singapore's armored vehicles in Hong Kong in 2016 and 2017, Singapore has become visibly quieter over the South China Sea dispute and international rule of law relating to the PRC. The Singapore state has instead emphasized cooperation with the PRC and advised that the US and PRC set aside their differences.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/politics/article/2051322/how-singapores-military-vehicles-became-beijings-diplomatic

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Not currently known, but Singapore is as opaque as the PRC, which makes such information difficult to know.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not in public.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                No reports found. Whether there is behind the scenes lobbying is unknown.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Singapore calls for peaceful resolution to the competing the South China Sea claims. It previously criticized PRC behavior with regard to the arbitral tribunal procedures, but has stayed silent on the actual sovereignty issues. It calls doing so, "not choosing sides."

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.mfa.gov.sg/Newsroom/Press-Statements-Transcripts-and-Photos/2017/06/Transcript-of-Minister-for-Foreign-Affairs-Dr-Vivian-Balakrishnans-Written-Interview-with-China-Dail

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Singapore seems somewhat ambivalent. Top officials have voiced a need to exercise care. A working-level official has voiced support and this has been published in both the PRC and international media. Singapore officials and diplomats in particular are subject to significant discipline and internal scrutiny. Usually much more so than other states. Statements on highly sensitive issues such as Xinjiang are very likely to require higher level approvals, even if it is issued by a consul-general.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://wap.xjdaily.com/xjrb/20210629/177030.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.economist.com/china/2021/08/07/chinas-efforts-to-lift-xinjiangs-economy-may-smother-it
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.pmo.gov.sg/Newsroom/PM-Lee-Hsien-Loong-at-the-Aspen-Security-Forum

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Singapore Prime Minister at Aspen Security Forum, August 3, 2021: I think it is a very delicate matter for China. They have a very challenging situation to deal with in Xinjiang because it is one of those situations where you are not sure whether which way to go. If you take it very stringently and tightly, that may result in a pushback. If you ease up too much, that may result in situation bursting forth elsewhere. And from an external point of view, if you take a view that you want to express moral approval or disapproval, then you have to try and make a calculation whether that will make a difference to your objective, and will that make things better or worse in China? It is always delicate for a country to be publicly expressed disapproval of and to accept that and say yes, I will learn and do better. I think no country in the world does that. So the question is how you are able to continue to operate with them and yet at the same time, you have your views, they have their views, and without compromising your position, you maintain your dignity but you do the business, which is necessary. You have had to do that in many countries on many occasions; your diplomats understand this problem. Link Singapore Consul-General in Shanghai, 許瑋芝, 新疆日報, June 26, 2021: 新加坡驻上海总领馆政务领事许玮芝说,一路走来,我们看到政府花了大力气来改善当地人民生活。更为可贵的是,各项措施不断提高居民生活质量,同时做到“修旧如旧”,充分体现了新疆重视保护少数民族文化的事实。 Link Singapore Consul-General in Shanghai, 許瑋芝, The Economist, August 7, 2021: “We have seen the great effort by the government to improve the lives of local people,” gushed the consul-general of Singapore, according to Xinjiang Daily, a state-run newspaper. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.pmo.gov.sg/Newsroom/PM-Lee-Hsien-Loong-at-the-Aspen-Security-Forum
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://wap.xjdaily.com/xjrb/20210629/177030.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://amp.economist.com/china/2021/08/07/chinas-efforts-to-lift-xinjiangs-economy-may-smother-it?__twitter_impression=true

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Singapore has said nothing officially about the PRC position on Tibet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Singapore officials and state-related media have supported the Hong Kong government's crackdown on protests in Hong Kong. Some of this has to do with the People Action Party's own paranoia about mass protests, often seeing them as synonymous with riots and mass violence.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://hongkongfp.com/2019/11/10/singaporeans-dont-back-hong-kong-protests/
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-hongkong-protests-singapore-idUSKBN1WV1Z7
                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.ft.com/content/0d8cba3c-f539-11e9-b018-3ef8794b17c6

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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