Romania

$14,861.9
19.1M
Ranking
53/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

107/ 396
Executive partner
Expert Forum
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

37%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

4%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

16%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Romania had a GDP per capita of US$14,862 with a total population of 19.11 million people, of which an estimate of 10,000 are Chinese (not including Chinese who are naturalized as citizens of host countries, or children born locally of Chinese descent).

Romania established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1949. Romania was ranked 56th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 83/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    22.7% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    36.4% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    27.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    18.2% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    31.8% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    31.8% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    36.4% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    20.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. https://www.romanian-companies.eu/hua-yang-media-group-srl-11755293/
  2. http://www.china-eunews.eu/6/2012/1121/78.html
  3. https://lujuba.cc/en/amp/408367.html

Supplementary Notes

At the World Chinese Media meeting in August 2019 (Shanghai), a Mr. Gao Jin representing "European Overseas Chinese Newspaper" was present from Romania. 华扬传媒集团 includes several smaller media outlets locally: 1. 旅罗华人报 2. 中欧通讯网 3. 罗马尼亚华人头条 4. 人民日报海外版罗马尼亚周刊 5. 今晚报罗马尼亚专版 6. 香港文汇报罗马尼亚专版

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Curierul National (journal) is a member of the Belt and Road Economic Information Partnership

    1. https://en.imsilkroad.com/p/306180.html

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://www.forbes.ro/articles/reportaj-cum-se-vede-business-ul-huawei-de-la-sediul-gigant-din-china-131790
      2. https://dantomozei.ro/2014/04/17/jurnalisti-romani-in-vizita-la-radio-china-international/
      3. https://economie.hotnews.ro/stiri-telecom-23518535-video-salutul-militaresc-modul-inedit-care-esti-intampinat-intrarea-sediul-central-huawei-din-china.htm

      Supplementary Notes

      There were several instances when Romanian journalists went to China on tours paid by a Chinese company. For instance, in 2018, a Forbes Romania team of journalists went on a field trip to Shenzhen, China, to visit Huawei's headquarters

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Interview with Dan Tomozei (see the URL below)

        1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2WnyG2pAGM

        Supplementary Notes

        There is no public information about the participation of Romanian journalists in media courses offered by China, but there are three Romanian journalists who work for the Romanian language section of Radio China International (China Media Group), including Dan Tomozei, who owns a personal blog, who were probably trained in China

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Chinese state media outlet is broadcasted in romanian language (see URL1 below). People's Daily 人民日报 also sets up a bureau in Romania (see URL2 below).

          1. https://romanian.cri.cn/
          2. https://www.wikiwand.com/zh-tw/%E4%BA%BA%E6%B0%91%E6%97%A5%E6%8A%A5%E7%A4%BE

          Supplementary Notes

          In Romania, there are two media outlets who broadcast in Romanian, namely Radio China International (CRI - both radio and online, via its own website and Facebook) and Xinhua (via Facebook)

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

            Hide
            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Biroul Roman de Audit Transmedia (BRAT) - is a non-profit media and advertising industry organization whose members include print and online publishers, agencies, advertising executives and clients, broadcasters, radio station owners, outdoor companies and other interested third parties.

            1. https://www.brat.ro/

            Supplementary Notes

            In Romania, there are NO publications with a PRC/CCP shareholding among the 200 most important media outlets in Romania that are members of the professional association in the field (BRAT - Romanian Transmedia Audience Bureau)

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

              1. https://curierulnational.ro/china/

              Supplementary Notes

              We detected only one partnership between a news website (CurierulNational.ro) and PRC-controlled entities (CCTV and Radio China International), which publishes 5-6 news stories a day on China-related topics

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                Hide
                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                We could not identify any PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                    Hide
                    9.
                    Pressure

                    In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    57 countries chose this answer

                    4/ Yes

                    24 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    There are no known cases of Romanian journalists being under pressure by China

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                        Hide
                        10.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        51 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        3 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        We did not discover any evidence that journalists or media outlets are censoring views critical of the PRC government

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                            Hide
                            11.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            44 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            18 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            There is a Romanian journalist in China, Dan Tomozei, who speaks favorably about human rights in China, but he is absolutely marginal

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                Hide

                                Academia

                                The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                1.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                25 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Not Found

                                1. https://adevarul.ro/tech/internet/huawei-incheie-parteneriat-upb-ofera-studentilor-burse-stagii-pregatire-it-1_60e6daa95163ec4271decb47/index.html
                                2. https://www.tuiasi.ro/noutati/huawei-a-inaugurat-primul-centru-de-instruire-din-tara-la-universitatea-tehnica-gheorghe-asachi-din-iasi/

                                Supplementary Notes

                                Except for a few partnerships with technical universities, Huawei also provides scholarships and trips to China for Romanian students from many other universities, including non-technical ones, as part of its Seeds for the Future program

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                  Hide
                                  2.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There are 4 Confucius Institutes in Romania: At the University of Bucharest At Babeș-Bolyai University in Cluj At Lucian Blaga University in Sibiu At Transilvania University in Brasov There are also Confucius Classrooms throughout Romanian cities. However the level of proficiency of students is in general low

                                  1. https://confucius.unibuc.ro/
                                  2. http://confucius.institute.ubbcluj.ro/
                                  3. https://confucius.ulbsibiu.ro/ro/
                                  4. https://www.unitbv.ro/institutul-confucius.html

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                    Hide
                                    3.
                                    Exposure

                                    My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ Yes

                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                    1. https://ziare.com/scoala/scoli-generale/prima-scoala-cu-predare-in-limba-chineza-din-romania-inaugurata-in-bucuresti-1309483
                                    2. https://www.digi24.ro/stiri/actualitate/educatie/limba-chineza-introdusa-in-scoli-profesorii-romani-pleaca-la-specializare-la-beijing-310099
                                    3. https://www.ziaruldeiasi.ro/stiri/scoala-ieseana-care-are-in-programa-obligatorie-limba-chineza--211243.html

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    A few Romanian schools or high schools provide Chinese as a foreign language. There were plans, almost a decade ago, to introduce Chinese in the national curricula, but they haven't been implemented. It is unlikely that such courses become very popular or involve a significant number of students

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                      Hide
                                      4.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      1. http://www.brsn.net/list/zhikujigou_en/index.html

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      The Institute for World Economy of the Romanian Academy is a member of the Belt and Road Studies Network Other organizations that are also part of similar networks: 1. 雅西戈奥尔基阿萨季技术大学有加入「丝绸之路大学联盟」 2. 中罗丝路工匠学院是「罗马尼亚首家罗中高职教育国际合作办学机构,也是中国高职院校在海外成立的第一家“丝路工匠学院” 3. 「华东理工大学锡比乌中欧国际商学院」是因為「响应教育部“一带一路”教育行动」而創立

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                        Hide
                                        5.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        The Executive Unit for Financing Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI) is a public institution with legal personality subordinated to the Ministry of National Education (MEN), and functional to the advisory councils of MEN with responsibilities in the field of higher education, scientific research, development and innovation (see URL3 below). Romanian-Chinese project for research on telocytes, funded by China with nearly 600,000 euros (see URL4 below).

                                        1. https://www.usamv.ro/index.php/ro/744-proiectul-comun-china-romania-intre-institutul-mediului-si-dezvoltare-durabila-in-agricultura-academia-chineza-a-stiintelor-agricole-caas-si-universitatea-de-stiinte-agronomice-si-medicina-veterinara-din-bucuresti-usamv
                                        2. https://cercetare.ubbcluj.ro/ro/newsletter-17-20-ianuarie-2022/
                                        3. https://uefiscdi.gov.ro/articole/3715/Cooperare-bilaterala-Romania-China--Competitia-2014.html
                                        4. https://www.curentul.info/social/proiect-romano-chinez-de-cercetare-a-telocitelor-finantat-de-china-cu-aproape-600-000-de-euro/

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        There are cases in which PRC connected entities or individuals have sponsored research activities in Romania. For example, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) has funded a joint project between the Institute of environment and sustainable development in Agriculture - The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CASS) and the University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                          Hide
                                          6.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          We could not identify any information throughout the media on Romanian experts participating in talent recruitment programs by the PRC

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                              Hide
                                              7.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                              1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cgconstanta//eng/zggk/t840461.htm
                                              2. http://confucius.institute.ubbcluj.ro/bursa-in-china/
                                              3. https://sibiuindependent.ro/2019/11/06/trei-studenti-ai-academiei-fortelor-terestre-au-vizitat-china/
                                              4. https://beijing.mae.ro/gallery/1336

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              There are numerous partnerships between Romanian and Chinese universities that include exchanges of students and professors. The four Confucius Institutes in Romania also provide scholarships to students for short-term or longer stays in the PRC. There are also visits of different think tank representatives to China

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                Hide
                                                8.
                                                Pressure

                                                In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                There have been no such cases made public. The number of students present in Romania is low anyway.

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                    Hide
                                                    9.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    There a no publicly known cases in Romania, but nor are there scholars known for being critical of the PRC

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                        Hide
                                                        10.
                                                        Effect

                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        In Romania, there are no university courses on Chinese politics or contemporary history, so there were no such cases of involvement in curriculum design

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                            Hide
                                                            11.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            In Romania, there are no confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding sensitive political issues; see also item 10

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                Hide

                                                                Economy

                                                                The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                1.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                1. https://www.caleaeuropeana.ro/eurostat-germania-si-italia-au-fost-principalii-parteneri-comerciali-ai-romaniei-in-2020/

                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                In 2020, the PRC was only on the fifth position regarding imports and wasn't even in the top 5 regarding exports. Germany and Italy were on the first two places in both categories

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  2.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  There is no public info about PRC ownership of Romanian debt and Romania hasn't signed any loan agreement with China in the past two decades

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      3.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://oec.world/en/profile/country/rou#yearly-trade

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      In 2020, Romania's exports to the PRC were only $1 billion and the main exports were ball bearings, sawn wood, electrical control boards, particle boards and vehicle parts. Exports to the PRC from extractive industries were under $0.3 billion, while total exports from extractive industries reached around $10 billion

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        4.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://www.zf.ro/zf-24/chinezii-de-la-cofco-au-cumparat-integral-traderul-de-cereale-nidera-15600788

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        Except for Huawei, whose equipment is present in 3G and 4G networks, the only PRC company with a connection to what might be defined as a Romanian piece of infrastructure is COFCO, which owns a grain terminal in the Port of Constanta, which it acquired though its takeover of Dutch company Nidera. However this is just a trading installation in a competitive business, and it is not clear to what extent it qualifies as "critical infrastructure".

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          5.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          Romania is a member of the AIIB since December 2018

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            6.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. https://eng.mazars.com.tr/Home/Services/Doing-business-abroad/Global-China-Services/Our-events/What-Is-BRICA
                                                                            2. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=3

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Romania (CCIR) is a member of the Belt & Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance (BRICA). There is no Romanian business or chamber in the Silk Road Members listed on the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce (SRCIC) website

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              7.
                                                                              Pressure

                                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              There have been no such cases of coercion regarding Romania

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  8.
                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                  In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  In Romania, there have been no such cases of harassment or threats nor cases of businesses supporting causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      9.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      As a member of the European Union, Romania cannot sign bilateral FTAs. Romania didn't have a free trade agreement with the PRC before joining the EU

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          10.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                          1. https://ziarulprahova.ro/2011/12/prin-construirea-primului-parc-industrial-chinezesc-din-romania-firma-meteor-international-import-export-baicoi-creaza-500-de-locuri-de-munca/

                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                          There are no special economic zones dedicated to PRC investments in Romania. There are only a few very small industrial parks with involvement by small Chinese-owned companies

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            11.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            In Romania, there have been no such cases nor loans for infrastructure building or other large projects

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                Society

                                                                                                The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                1. https://romanian.cri.cn/341/2020/06/04/1s210098.htm
                                                                                                2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cero/chn/sgxw/t1402467.htm

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                There is an association named the Romanian Association for the Promotion of the Peaceful Reunification of China

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  There seem to be no online references to United World Chinese Association activities or members in Romania

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                      1. https://uniuneascriitorilor.ro/2018-07-09-scriitori-romani-in-franta-si-in-china-doua-noi-participari-externe-ale-uniunii-scriitorilor
                                                                                                      2. https://www.agerpres.ro/comunicate/2018/04/24/comunicat-de-presa-uniunea-nationala-a-patronatului-roman--96373
                                                                                                      3. https://www.aafro.ro/relatii-internationale/europa/romania/visuri-pe-drumul-mtsii/

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      The Writers' Union of Romania has sent a delegation to the PRC at the invitation of the China Writers Association, in 2018. The National Union of Romanian Employers has also received visits from PRC delegates. The Art Photographers Association of Romania has collaborated on a BRI book project organized by the China Photographers Association and received a visit of Chinese photographers in Romania. But there are very few, if any, examples of cooperation between true labor unions (in industry, services or the public sector) in Romania and China.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        There are no such reports, but visits of PRC Embassy officials or PRC businesspersons to events of the Chinese community are common

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                            1. https://uniuneascriitorilor.ro/2018-07-09-scriitori-romani-in-franta-si-in-china-doua-noi-participari-externe-ale-uniunii-scriitorilor

                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                            While there are some contacts, like those between the China Writers Association and the Writers' Union of Romania, or between the China Photographers Association and the Art Photographers Association of Romania, they are few and sporadic. These PRC associations are not closely engaged with Romanian counterparts

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                              1. https://www.facebook.com/xinhua.romania/photos/a.905798106158825/7232611023477470/
                                                                                                              2. https://financialintelligence.ro/huawei-romania-a-donat-10-000-de-euro-pentru-cadourile-de-craciun-destinate-copiilor-din-programele-asociatiei-sos-satele-copiilor/
                                                                                                              3. https://adevarul.ro/tech/gadget/huawei-donat-sisteme-wireless-dispozitv-ideahub-copiii-nevoi-speciale-scoala-targu-neamt-1_61b3159a5163ec42716a4218/index.html

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              Not religious, but charity: China recently donated $150,000 to the Romanian Red Cross. Huawei has also made numerous donations to Romanian NGOs, such as Save the Children Romania, SOS Satele copiilor, etc, as well as wireless systems and devices for children with special needs.

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                1. https://www.tvmania.ro/tvr-1-difuzeaza-un-nou-serial-chinezesc-produs-in-2018-yanxi-palatul-suspinelor-263016
                                                                                                                2. http://www.tvr.ro/ferma-noastra-ultimul-episod-al-seriei-documentare-china-gust-si-savoare_17166.html#view

                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                In Romania, both TV series and documentaries made by Chinese entities were broadcast. For example, the documentary series "China, taste and flavor" made by CCTV was broadcast on the Romanian national television station TVR2, in 2016. Also, the series The Story of Yanxi Palace, a China 2018 production, the most watched production in the country of origin for 39 consecutive days, it was broadcast in 2019 on the Romanian national television station TVR 1. However this is just a drop in the ocean of the entertainment market; South Korean productions are much more frequent and visible

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                  1. http://www.tvr.ro/china-cea-de-taina-tara-contrastelor-intr-un-documentar-exclusiv-la-tvr_17806.html#view

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  There have been a few documentaries about China produced by Romanian journalists that presented China in a positive manner from a cultural perspective, but their circulation and impact are low. It is far from being a trend

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Very few public persons say anything about the PRC and the ones that do have small followings. Examples: There is a TV producer, Marina Almasan, who has made a documentary and written three books about China and who sometimes posts information about China on her Facebook page. However, her posts focus on cultural issues. There is also a Romanian doctor, Adina Alberts, who throughout the Covid-19 pandemic has taken a position against vaccination and has sometimes and has sometimes taken up China's propaganda against vaccines from Western companies. Marina Almășan: -"Marina Almășan are o nouă emisiune la TVR 2" (see URL1 below) Adina Alberts: -"Adina Alberts: China a avertizat Norvegia să NU mai folosească vaccurile Pfizer și Moderna/ Reacția Norvegiei" (see URL2 below) - "DR. ADINA ALBERTS - ADEVARUL DESPRE IVERMECTINA, VACCINURI, VALUL TREI. PUNE INTREBARI. SUNTEM AICI!"(see the URL3 below and the video description in this URL) -In this artical "Dr. Adina Alberts: "Oameni buni, nu vă lăsați aiuriți. Testați-vă, protejați-vă și vedeți-vă de treabă"" , Ms Alberts said that it would have been ideal if the Sinopharm vaccine were also available in Romania. - In this artical "Doctorul Adina Alberts: Vaccinul Sputnik și cele chinezești sunt mai bune decat Pfizer și Zeneca", Ms. Alberts says Sputnik and Chinese vaccines are better than Pfizer and Zeneca.

                                                                                                                    1. https://romanialibera.ro/lifestyle/marina-almasan-are-o-noua-emisiune-la-tvr-2-843009/
                                                                                                                    2. https://m.facebook.com/stiripesurse.ro/posts/3931592833530018?locale2=hi_IN
                                                                                                                    3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vF8XU229X4
                                                                                                                    4. https://www.antena3.ro/actualitate/adina-alberts-mesaj-tulpini-coronavirus-594365.html
                                                                                                                    5. https://newsweek.ro/sanatate/doctorul-adina-alberts-vaccinul-sputnik-si-cele-chinezesti-sunt-mai-bune-decat-pfizer-si-zeneca

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                      In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      We have not identified any cases where the Romanian government has published PRC propaganda

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                          In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                          1. https://ziare.com/social/romani/cata-incredere-au-romanii-in-politica-ue-nato-sau-a-americii-rusiei-si-china-1610977
                                                                                                                          2. https://www.globsec.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/GLOBSEC-Trends-2021_final.pdf
                                                                                                                          3. https://www.globsec.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/GLOBSEC-Trends-2020_read-version.pdf

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          While there are very few polls in Romania regarding perceptions of China, those that exist have found a greater positive perception than the negative one, though it does not reach a majority of citizens - many respondents express no position. Most citizens don't know, or care much about China actually

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                            Military

                                                                                                                            The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Romania is a NATO member state, its military acquisitions being in line with the North Atlantic Alliance's recommendations. For this reason, Romania does not supply itself with military equipment from the PRC. We have not identified any cases of purchases of military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                1. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A91997E002410
                                                                                                                                2. https://www.sipri.org/databases/embargoes/eu_arms_embargoes/china

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                Romania is part of the EU, which imposed an arms embargo on the PRC

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Romania is an EU and NATO member state, so it does not collaborate with the PRC on weapons development

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Romania is an EU and NATO member state and there have never been such reports or rumors about possible PRC bases

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          There are no documented examples of situations where the Chinese PLA has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              The only PLA military personnel deployed in Romania are defense attaches

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/china
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://sibiuindependent.ro/2019/11/06/trei-studenti-ai-academiei-fortelor-terestre-au-vizitat-china/

                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                  A few members of the military went to China for language courses in the 1990s and early 2000s, but these were isolated cases there is no information that they proper received military education in the PRC

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/china

                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                    According to the Romanian Gendarmerie, the traditional Chinese martial arts trainings for its personnel was useful in international peacekeeping operations

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://psnews.ro/adevarata-legatura-dintre-dragnea-si-oprea-trece-prin-china-si-ponta-apare-in-schema-exclusiv-207520/

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      A few retired military and intelligence officers have been affiliated with the Casa Romano-Chineze (Romanian-Chinese House), but it isn't clear if they received remuneration for their positions

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        As a member of NATO, no such opinions have appeared in Romania

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            In 2009 and 2010, Romania and China held two joint military training exercises. There was also a military interaction in a port visit in Constanta by Chinese frigate Yantai, in 2012. Here is an excerpt from a 2012 article: "The mountain troops of the two armies held two joint trainings coded "Friendship Action" in 2009 and 2010 respectively, in which they exchanged training experience with each other and improved their ability to conduct joint operations. In addition, this year, the frigate "Yantai" of the 11th Escort Task Force of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy of China conducted a five-day goodwill visit to the Black Sea port city of Constanta from July 31 to August 4, during the visit, the navies of China and Romania conducted multi-level friendly exchanges." Since then, joint military training has ceased. However, I could not identify any official reason for this cessation. The military exercises were not of a significant scale, but rather of a symbolic nature. In my opinion, it is possible that these exercises have ceased because Romania has begun to define its role in NATO more clearly and to draw closer to the US amid the growing Russian threat

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://beijing.mae.ro/node/170
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocumentAfis/50558
                                                                                                                                                                3. https://legislatie.just.ro/Public/DetaliiDocumentAfis/65288

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                Between Romania and China there is a bilateral legal framework composed of several treaties and agreements concluded at both governmental and ministerial level, including: 1) Treaty between Romania and the PRC on Legal Assistance in Civil and Criminal Matters, signed in Beijing: 16.I.1991 (in force: 22.I.1993); 2) Treaty between Romania and the PRC on extradition, signed in Bucharest: 1.VII.1996 (in force: 16.I.1999);

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.eppgroup.eu/ro/zona-presei/publicatii/relatiile-ue-china

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  At present there is no specific cooperation between Romania and China on counter-terrorism. The same is the situation at European level, due to the fact that China's definition of terrorism is vague. In addition, charges of terrorism are often used arbitrarily and retroactively by China against protesters and minority rights supporters, for example in Xinjiang, Tibet and Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.impact.ro/special-dosarele-comisarului-vijelie-estul-salbatic-romania-anilor-90-cum-au-fost-prinsi-asasinii-chinezilor-transati-bagati-in-geamantane-si-aruncati-in-lac-filmul-ca-129615.html
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.libertatea.ro/stiri/secretele-comunitatii-chineze-din-romania-76528
                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://gazetadecluj.ro/mafia-chineza-preluat-intreaga-exploatare-cuprului-din-romania/
                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://observatornews.ro/social/mafia-chineza-tun-de-milioane-in-romania-64351.html
                                                                                                                                                                    5. https://www.tolo.ro/2018/01/23/cuprins-toate-capitolele-din-investigatia-gsp-cazul-shanghai/
                                                                                                                                                                    6. https://www.tolo.ro/2018/06/27/chinezul-wang-din-dosarul-shanghai-pericolul-pentru-siguranta-nationala-a-romaniei-care-a-semnat-contractul-cu-cuprumin-cere-ziaristilor-de-investigatie-prejudicii-de-5-milioane-de/

                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                    The Chinese Triad operated in Romania in the 1990s and early 2000s, along with other Chinese criminal gangs. In an interview with Commissioner Constantin Marinescu, the first head of the Organised Crime Fighting Service of the Bucharest Police, he spoke in detail about how he managed the criminal groups. There were cases of crimes committed by Chinese triads against Chinese traders established in Romania that appeared in the press and even a series of assassinations that shocked the public. However, in the last 10 years there have been no more such cases, or at least they have not reached the public eye.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      There are no public reports about economic espionage from the PRC, but such cases are likely to exist

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://romania.europalibera.org/a/sri-suspecteaza-hackerii-care-au-atacat-spitalele-romanesti-sunt-de-origine-chineza/30012594.html
                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.agerpres.ro/justitie/2019/06/21/sri-autorii-atacurilor-cibernetice-de-la-spitale-de-origine-chineza--329721

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          In 2019, Health Minister Sorina Pintea announced the existence of ransomware cyber attacks on four Romanian hospitals: "Victor Babeș" - Bucharest, Huși, Dorohoi and Alba, based on reports by the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI)

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            We could not identify any instance of triads threatening Chinese dissidents in Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Both Dahua and Hikvision are present in Romania, so it is very likely that local authorities may use them for video surveillance. But there is no public information available about such contracts

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    In Romania, there haven't been any records of joint patrols by the Romanian and the PRC representatives

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        We have not identified any case of request by the PRC to the Romanian government related to detaining people for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.cdep.ro/interpel/2022/r4239A.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                            The Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs informed that no extradition requests of Taiwan citizens from the PRC have been received

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://www.cdep.ro/interpel/2022/r4239A.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              The Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs informed that no extradition requests from the PRC have been received. There have been cases of Chinese citizens deported to the PRC from Romania, but for crimes committed in Romania and the decisions didn't attract any criticism

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                The official website of the National Authority for Administration and Regulation in Communications (ANCOM), which lists the authorised providers of communications networks and services for Romania(see the URL below)

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.ancom.ro/lista-furnizorilor-de-comunicatii-autorizati_4186/Pagina/

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                None of these provide telecom services in Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.zf.ro/business-hi-tech/video-guvernul-citu-i-exasperat-gigantii-orange-vodafone-telekom-20044002
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.zf.ro/business-hi-tech/directorii-generali-orange-vodafone-digi-au-mers-impreuna-intalnire-20078399

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  All telecom operators in Romania use Huawei or ZTE equipment in their 3G or 4G networks. The largest Romanian telecom player (RCS-RDS) has had a development strategy based on cheap hardware components of Chinese origin, either under the ZTE or Huawei brands, or white-label brands

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.zf.ro/business-hi-tech/upc-romania-externalizeaza-catre-huawei-managementul-operatiunilor-de-retea-15080777

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    As they had already established strong commercial relations with Huawei and/or ZTE for their 3G and 4G networks, most telecom operators also used their hardware for internet or telecommunication services. One Romanian TV, internet and fixed telecom provider, UPC, which was owned by Liberty Global before being acquired by Vodafone, even externalized its network management to Huawei.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-huawei-europe-romania-idUSKCN1QO1L2

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      While the Romanian government signed a memorandum with Huawei in 2013 to support its expansion in the country, the national intelligence service that deals with telecommunications informed that Huawei equipment hasn't been used in critical infrastructure. In the meantime, Romania passed a 5G law that sets strict standards for authorizing vendors and its provisions are seen as making it impossible for PRC companies to supply equipment for 5G networks. The law also mandates telecommunication operators to remove equipment of unauthorized providers in their 3G and 4G networks in a certain timeframe

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        There have been no reports of such collaboration in Romania. At the same time, as an EU member state, strict data protection standards are applied in Romania, in accordance with the European GDPR

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.zf.ro/business-hi-tech/grupul-telekom-lansat-impreuna-chinezii-zte-proiect-smart-city-constanta-primarul-decebal-fagadau-intai-facem-teste-anul-viitor-ne-pregatim-strategia-smart-city-apoi-vom-face-achizitii-16473750
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.mediafax.ro/social/foto-statie-de-incarcare-pentru-masini-electrice-pe-domeniul-public-din-timisoara-16279287
                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://adevarul.ro/locale/pitesti/smart-city-tehnologie-chineza-mioveni-economie-energie-urma-aduca-implementarea-proiectului-1_5cd51764445219c57e753e6b/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Most of the projects implemented with equipment from PRC companies have been small pilot projects. The two PRC companies involved in Romania in smart city projects are Huawei and ZTE. Some of the partnerships have been directly with local authorities, while in others, they only provided equipment or cooperated with telecom providers that coordinated the project and which worked with the local authorities. According to a 2020 analysis, ZTE withdrew from the smart city market in Romania, while Huawei has 6 projects in the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.cips.com.cn/en/participants/participants_announcement/56547/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              At present, CIPS has 75 direct participants. In Europe, the system’s direct participants are in London, Frankfurt, Zurich, Paris, Luxembourg, Hungary and Russia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.startupcafe.ro/idei-antreprenori/miniclip-tencent-chinezi-preluare-green-horse-games-companie-romaneasca.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is very little information about such investments in Romania. While not a venture capital investment in a start-up, a Romanian company was acquired by a company owned by Tencent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There have been no such announcements in Romania, with the exception of cooperation on smart cities or 5G telecom infrastructure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.doads.ro/cele-mai-utilizate-retele-sociale-in-romania-2020/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TikTok is one of the five most popular social media sites/apps in Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is no information that Romanian authorities have endorsed the Beidou satellite navigation system

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.cdep.ro/interpel/2022/r4669A.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.mae.ro/bilateral-relations/3121
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.pmb.ro/interes-public/menu-page/acorduri-cooperare-colaborare-Municipiul%20Bucure%C8%99ti

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Over 30 partnerships between Romanian cities and counties and regional entities in the PRC have been concluded, including cities such as Bucharest, Cluj, Iasi or Constanta. Their real impact is not clear, however

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://www.cdep.ro/interpel/2022/r4669A.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.mae.ro/bilateral-relations/3121
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_twin_towns_and_sister_cities_in_Romania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              According to the Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, there are 53 sisterhood agreements between Romania and the PRC (19 between Romanian counties and PRC provinces, 32 between cities and 3 mixed agreements)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                It is likely that such trips have been organized, but there is no public information available. If so, they probably involve low level politicians or officials. One exception is Victor Ponta, MP and leader of PSD party, who in 2006 organized his wedding in Beijing. After 2010 he would become Prime minister.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.cdep.ro/interpel/2022/r4669A.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://carnegieendowment.org/2021/10/13/china-s-influence-in-southeastern-central-and-eastern-europe-vulnerabilities-and-resilience-in-four-countries-pub-85415

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the past, especially before 2015, many Romanian officials and politicians used to meet with PRC officials or visit the PRC. But after 2019 very few have done so, not just because of the pandemic, but because of deteriorating relations between Romania and the PRC. The officials and politicians who meet with PRC representatives tend to be low level today

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In Romania, the Gendarmerie is part of the law enforcement apparatus, participating in criminal investigations, crowd controls, arrests in organized crime cases and the like. Gendarmes are not considered soldiers, even if they have a military regime.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.jandarmeriaromana.ro/china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Romanian Gendarmerie had an agreement with the People's Armed Police, which included exchanges and trainings. Over 15 training sessions, around 1,150 Romanian gendarmes were trained in traditional Chinese martial arts. These things happened more than 10 years ago, however

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://romania.europalibera.org/a/propaganda-huawei-citu/31640703.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Romanian law on the financing of political parties stipulates that "the acceptance of donations from other states or foreign organisations, as well as from foreign natural or legal persons is prohibited."

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://psnews.ro/adevarata-legatura-dintre-dragnea-si-oprea-trece-prin-china-si-ponta-apare-in-schema-exclusiv-207520/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is no public evidence available related to UFWD related groups providing support to Romanian government employees, politicians or parties. Nonetheless, a prominent NGO, Casa Romano-Chineza (the Romanian-Chinese House) included numerous important politicians, retired or still active, some in leading positions and others just as honorary members. Its founder and leader, Nicolae Dumitru, who was convicted of involvement in a large bribery case, was close to some important politicians and there were indications he might have provided them different benefits or funds. But there is no clear link involving the PRC, as these activities might have been domestic corruption, unconnected to his involvement with PRC entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            There have been no politicians accused of being "anti-China", especially because very few Romanian politicians have taken positions critical of the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Until 2019, it was a tradition in Romania for politicians from all parties to praise good ties with China and talk about the "traditional friendship between Romania-China." A few have sometimes praised China for its economic growth, infrastructure development of its general development. The clime of opinion has changed in the past years, howver.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://psnews.ro/adevarata-legatura-dintre-dragnea-si-oprea-trece-prin-china-si-ponta-apare-in-schema-exclusiv-207520/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.profit.ro/insider/turism/foto-zsolt-nagy-fost-ministru-al-comunicatiilor-inlocuit-de-la-conducerea-niro-investment-20261531

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Casa Romano-Chineza and the Niro Investment Group, both associated with Nicolae Dumitru, have involved numerous former politicians in their activities. A former telecommunications minister was CEO of Niro Investment between 2018 and 2021

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There are no such contracts nor PRC companies offering security services

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Chamber of Deputies official webpage

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.cdep.ro/pls/parlam/structura2015.pr?idg=62&leg=2016

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are 17 MPs in the Romania - PRC friendship group in the Romanian Parliament. Among them, 9 are from the Social Democrats (PSD) and 4 are from the liberals (PNL)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.cdep.ro/relatii_publice/site2015.text_presa?pid=15753
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://www.cdep.ro/relatii_publice/site2015.text_presa?pid=18140
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. http://ro.china-embassy.gov.cn/rom/dsxxnew/dshdnew/201910/t20191020_2987822.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            On 13 July 2016, Mr. Florin Iordache, President of the Chamber of Deputies, welcomed a delegation of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, led by the Chairman of the Committee, Fu Ying

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We could not find any evidence supporting the assertion that the PRC provides training to Romanian diplomats or civil servants Very unlikely

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We could not find any evidence that the PRC diplomats have been pressuring Romanian diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances. An interesting fact is that, on November 1, 2020, the Romanian Consulate in Beijing was closed, all consular services moving to Shanghai

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.cdep.ro/interpel/2022/r4239A.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      According to information provided by the Romanian Embassy in Beijing, in the last 10 years, 8 Romanian citizens have been indicted in the PRC for violating Chinese criminal law, namely for committing the crimes of forgery of financial instruments, bank card fraud and fraud, embezzlement and the crime of thwarting the fight against diseases

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://urmaspaet.eu/2020/05/13/over-100-meps-and-mps-co-sign-an-open-letter-in-support-of-taiwans-participation-at-the-world-health-assembly/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. http://ro.china-embassy.gov.cn/rom/sgzcnew/sghdnew/202004/t20200409_2989544.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Romanian executive didn't take any public stance over Taiwan's participation in the WHO. However, one Romanian MEP, Dragos Tudorache, has signed an open letter in support of Taiwan’s participation at the World Health Assembly, alongside more than 100 other MEP and MPs from member states. Tudorache is the only Romanian MEP/MP who signed the letter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          We could not identify any public statement of any Romanian government official in support of Chinese candidates at United Nations Agencies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Romania didn't take any public stance over PRC territorial claims, but as a member of the EU, Romania supported the common EU position to reject the PRC's claims and support the 2016 UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal Award

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The joint statement has come out on June 14, 2022 (see the URL below) Romania was one of the 47 countries that signed the Joint Declaration on the Situation of Human Rights in China, which was read by the Netherlands at the UN Human Rights Council. The statement expressed "concern about the arbitrary detention of more than one million people in Xinjiang, along with concern about the widespread surveillance and discrimination against Uyghurs and other minorities, as well as severe restrictions on Uyghur culture and the exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to freedom of religion or belief." However, at home, unlike the parliaments of the Netherlands, Canada, France, among others, the Romanian Parliament has not adopted a resolution condemning human rights violations against the Uyghur population, much less describing them as genocide, as the Dutch Parliament did. Neither the Romanian Government nor the Romanian Presidency has taken a position. On the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the only reference to the Uyghurs is made in the context of the conditions of travel to China, with an official narrative from the People's Republic of China that the actions of the Uyghur minority are of a terrorist nature: "(...)Terrorist threats According to analyses carried out at the level of the Chinese authorities, mainly related to developments within the Uyghur minority, the risk of terrorist threats in China exists and remains high. (...)"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.government.nl/documents/diplomatic-statements/2022/06/14/joint-statement-47-countries-un-human-rights-council-situation-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The joint statement has come out on June 14, 2022 (see the URL below) Romania was one of the 47 countries that signed the Joint Declaration on the Situation of Human Rights in China, which was read by the Netherlands at the UN Human Rights Council. The statement expressed "concern about the arbitrary detention of more than one million people in Xinjiang, along with concern about the widespread surveillance and discrimination against Uyghurs and other minorities, as well as severe restrictions on Uyghur culture and the exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to freedom of religion or belief." However, at home, unlike the parliaments of the Netherlands, Canada, France, among others, the Romanian Parliament has not adopted a resolution condemning human rights violations against the Uyghur population, much less describing them as genocide, as the Dutch Parliament did. Neither the Romanian Government nor the Romanian Presidency has taken a position. On the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the only reference to the Uyghurs is made in the context of the conditions of travel to China, with an official narrative from the People's Republic of China that the actions of the Uyghur minority are of a terrorist nature: "(...)Terrorist threats According to analyses carried out at the level of the Chinese authorities, mainly related to developments within the Uyghur minority, the risk of terrorist threats in China exists and remains high. (...)"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.government.nl/documents/diplomatic-statements/2022/06/14/joint-statement-47-countries-un-human-rights-council-situation-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Unlike the European Parliament, the Romanian Parliament has not adopted resolutions on the human rights situation in the Tibet Autonomous Region or on cultural genocide. There is no official position on this issue from the Romanian Presidency or the Government

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The joint statement has come out on June 14, 2022 (see the URL below) Romania was one of the 47 countries that signed the Joint Declaration on the Situation of Human Rights in China, which was read by the Netherlands at the UN Human Rights Council. The statement expressed "concern about the arbitrary detention of more than one million people in Xinjiang, along with concern about the widespread surveillance and discrimination against Uyghurs and other minorities, as well as severe restrictions on Uyghur culture and the exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to freedom of religion or belief." However, at home, unlike the parliaments of the Netherlands, Canada, France, among others, the Romanian Parliament has not adopted a resolution condemning human rights violations against the Uyghur population, much less describing them as genocide, as the Dutch Parliament did. Neither the Romanian Government nor the Romanian Presidency has taken a position. On the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the only reference to the Uyghurs is made in the context of the conditions of travel to China, with an official narrative from the People's Republic of China that the actions of the Uyghur minority are of a terrorist nature: "(...)Terrorist threats According to analyses carried out at the level of the Chinese authorities, mainly related to developments within the Uyghur minority, the risk of terrorist threats in China exists and remains high. (...)"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.government.nl/documents/diplomatic-statements/2022/06/14/joint-statement-47-countries-un-human-rights-council-situation-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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