Poland

$17,840.9
37.8M
Ranking
64/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

76/ 360
Executive partner
Sinopsis
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

26%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

12%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

16%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Poland had a GDP per capita of US$17,841 and a total population of 37.78 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 6,812 people, or 0.017% of the total population.

Poland established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1949. Poland was ranked 66th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 81/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    17.5% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    33.3% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    12.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    47.7% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    11.1% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    25.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    22.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

The two media listed on the official website of the 世界华文媒体 as Polish members are Chinese language media targeting mainly diaspora members and with marginal or no impact on wider Polish society. Chinese diaspora in Poland is a relatively small community counting around 9000 people in recent years.

  1. https://www.gcmcu.com/web/LMCY/index.html

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    No important Polish members of the two listed organizations have been identified. There were reports in Chinese State owned media, that Polish Fokus TV is a member of the 丝路电视跨国联播网 the project under Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance (link provided). However this station is no longer listed among the current members and therefore answer is marked as 0.

    1. http://media.people.com.cn/n1/2017/0424/c192372-29232248.html
    2. https://brnalink.com/members.html
    3. http://brmc.chnpec.com/cn/member.shtml

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      No evidence of that.

        Supplementary Notes

        Basing on the publicly available sources from 2019 grading for the period Jan 2020 – March 2021 remains 0. Other values remain unchanged.

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          No evidence of that.

          1. http://polish.cri.cn/

          Supplementary Notes

          There are no cases known to author of Polish journalists taking part in such training in period Jan 2020 – March 2021. There are few journalists who have had in the past worked for Chinese media outlets who worked for China Radio International in very early stages of their career as language support, but that has not influenced their work and position on China and their credibility as journalist.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Only the CRI.

            1. http://polish.cri.cn/

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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              6.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

              Yes

              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              19 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              0 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              These are mainly Chinese-language online media outlets targeting Chinese diaspora members. A Chinese publishing house Time Marszałek Group operates in the country, however as it is not a media outlet its existence was not reflected in the grading.

              1. http://www.plchinese.com/

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                7.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                3 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                22 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                21 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                6 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                23 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                7 countries chose this answer

                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                No evidence of that.

                  Supplementary Notes

                  If the questions covers the media outlets that serve as the direct transmission channel for the Chinese PRC state-funded media and which cover China related topics using only materials provided by the Chinese entities then the answer should be 0. The grade 2 was originally given because “There are many media outelst in Poland which use the content provided by the Chinese state owned media, even the media critical of China such as Gazeta.pl use Xinhua News content. There is not much connection between using pure information, often trivial by the Polish media and Chinese influence.” Specific examples of the articles: Link Link , Link, Link, Link.

                  1. https://wyborcza.pl/7,75399,27348808,12-osob-zginelo-w-powodzi-w-jednej-z-prowicji-w-chinach.html
                  2. https://biznes.interia.pl/gospodarka/news-zmarl-agronom-yuan-longping-ojciec-ryzu-hybrydowego,nId,5248961
                  3. https://pogoda.interia.pl/zdjecia/zdjecie,iId,2984585,iAId,391070
                  4. https://www.pap.pl/pap-technologie/762217%2Cchinski-bezzalogowy-statek-kosmiczny-polecial-przywiezc-probki-z-ksiezyca
                  5. https://www.pap.pl/aktualnosci/news%2C627889%2Cchiny-bilans-zmarlych-na-covid-19-w-wuhanie-podniesiono-o-50-proc.html

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                  8.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  38 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  8 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  There are several media outlets in Poland that publish in regularly, but the content usually does not promote CCP viewpoint. Either as sponsored promotional material or as free content. Provided are three examples of such media outlets.

                  1. https://www.rp.pl/Koronawirus-2019-nCoV/200319216-Ambasador-Chin-Test-globalnego-systemu.html
                  2. https://trybuna.info/swiat/walka-chin-z-epidemia-proba-czasu-i-historyczny-egzamin/
                  3. https://wiadomosci.onet.pl/opinie/ambasador-chin-w-polsce-hongkong-musi-byc-rzadzony-przez-patriotow-opinia/lfs5qyv

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                    9.
                    Pressure

                    In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    57 countries chose this answer

                    4/ Yes

                    24 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    No such case was identified within the period covered by this report.

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                        10.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                        Skip

                        More

                        Skipped

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        51 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        3 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        No evidence of such incidents.

                          Supplementary Notes

                          The question was skipped as I do not have knowledge about internal affairs of the editorial process in the media outlets. There no cases known to me of the media in Poland censoring the information on China. The answer could be 0. However the editorial process is an internal affair of media outlet and I could not assume with full certainty that there were actually cases of articles to be blocked or edited in order to avoid the complains or pressure from Chinese embassy or other PRC entities. If the answer to this question can be given considering the uncertainty surrounding the internal editorial process then the answer would be 0, with confidence level 60% and grade for effort = 3.

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                            11.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            44 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            18 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Very limited but see the provided examples.

                            1. https://www.youtube.com/user/chinytolubie
                            2. https://www.facebook.com/events/162089842414561?active_tab=about

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                              Academia

                              The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                              1.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              6 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              25 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Several major technical universities cooperate with Huawei Poland.

                              1. https://archive.vn/WR7Rp
                              2. https://archive.vn/XqLTs
                              3. https://archive.vn/2MyKy

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                2.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                27 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There are currently operating 6 Confucius Institutes and 7 Confucius Classrooms or Confucius Institute subbranches in Poland.

                                1. https://pism.pl/publikacje/Instytuty_Konfucjusza_jako_narz_dzie_promocji_interes_w_ChRL
                                2. https://asiaexplained.org/2019/10/new-confucius-institute-branch-in-warsaw-nowy-instytut-konfucjusza-w-warszawie/

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                  3.
                                  Exposure

                                  My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Students taking high school graduation exam can only select one of the following languages: English, French, Spanish, German, Russian, Italian. Exam taken after primary school also included Ukrainian in former years.

                                  1. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20160002223/O/D20162223.pdf
                                  2. https://www.gov.pl/web/edukacja-i-nauka/informacja-cke-o-egzaminie-osmoklasisty-przeprowadzanym-od-25-do-27-maja-2021-r

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                    4.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    The most important network connecting Chinese and Polish Universities is the „Belt and Road” Sino-Polish University Consortium. This consortium is not officially registered, however as it includes a number of prestigious Polish universities and it played an important role in the establishment of several Confucius Institutes, it reinforces CCP influence in Polish academia.

                                    1. http://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/info/1092/1707.htm
                                    2. https://spuc.bjut.edu.cn/en/lmcy_/Poland.htm

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                      5.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Skip

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        The questions does not specify if t concerns only the think tanks or academic researches covering China related issues or any think tanks and academic research centers. As for the academic research centers focused strictly on China related topics there for the period covered there are no cases know to author that can be defined as financial support. However the academic research centers are operating within the universities which have joint projects with the Chinese counterparts and those joint projects cover financial aspects as well. The scholars that constitute staff of the research centers are involved in projects programs or other activities organized / arranged by the Chinese counterparts and it is difficult to draw the line between the activities they are involved in as the staff members of the research center or scholars having position at the university. If the questions covers any think tanks /research centers not only involved in China related research as they were described in general way in the question then accurate grading would require in depth and large scale research involving research of financial statements and documents which are often difficult to obtain. That kind of in depth research largely exceeds the framework of the research time in this project.

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                          6.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                          Skip

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          According to my knowledge supported by limited research within this projects framework Polish experts did not participate in the listed programs in the period Jan 2020 – March 2021. Then answer would be 0. However as Alex Joske’s and other scholars research show the identifying the engagement of foreign experts would require large scale in depth research and there is some possibility of such cases. Therefore the confidence level of the response would be low 30%. Time for this questions = 3

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                              7.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                              69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Limited exchanges occurred prior to the Covid-19 pandemic.

                                              1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-07/31/c_138272365.htm

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              If the years 2018 / 2019 to be taken as proxy for 2020 then the grading would be 1, other values remain unchanged Link, „Trip” is considered as an event not directly related to academic exchanges. However to preserve the consistency with the findings and grading by other experts covering other countries the same methodology allowing the substitution of grading based on evidence for 2019 or 2019 and 2018. , Due to pandemic, academic exchanges in 2020 have been suspended. However in the previous years there had been such paid trips to the PRC. For the period covered by this report the mark is given 0, however this leads to distorted image of situation. The author's proposal is to use 2019 or average of 2019 and 2018 as proxy for pandemic 2020.

                                              1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-07/31/c_138272365.htm

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                              8.
                                              Pressure

                                              In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                              Yes

                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Due to the pandemic, the interactions between students were limited. In previous years there were single cases of disputes between Chinese and Taiwanese or Polish students concerning the Taiwan status or situation in Tibet.

                                              1. https://bielskobiala.wyborcza.pl/bielskobiala/7,88025,25189241,flaga-tajwanu-zniknela-z-sali-wykladowej-studenci-interweniowali.html

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                9.
                                                Pressure

                                                In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                No such publicly available information is known to author. However, in previous years the people who were denied visa to China usually did not make public statements about that. In 2020, due to pandemic situation the scholar exchanges were suspended. Moreover, the PRC-critical scholars or analysts do not apply for PRC visa fearing denial or fearing that they would have difficulties with leaving China. Those who still wish to visit the PRC do not touch the topics that are considered as sensitive by the CCP. The visa issues are not discussed publicly by scholars.

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  The answer NO provided in original response is correct: „No such case publicly available report is known to author” is direct response to the question posed. The comment provided in comment was meant to highlight, that the problem is not about being denied visa. „The point is that scholars or analysts who are critical of China do not apply for Chinese visa fearing denial or fearing that they would have difficulties with leaving China.” and also: „The fear of visa denial or loosing access to Chinese financing is very important factor influencing the public position of many scholars on China and the mark for this question would be 4” No supporting evidence can be provided as this opinion is based on private and confidential conversations, where interviewers would not not wish to be identified. „To reflect the current situation in Poland this questions should be reformulated and take into the consideration the non-public opinions of scholars and academic involved in China research.” which would require rephrasing the questions and allowing for local experts to evaluate the situation without providing evidence as the opinion is mainly based on private and confidential conversations.

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                    10.
                                                    Effect

                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    There are some summer schools or extra courses taught by Chinese professors or conducted in cooperation with a PRC university, but there is no evidence of PRC entities affecting curricula as such.

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                        11.
                                                        Effect

                                                        In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        No public evidence found. Many scholars and analysts avoid voicing opinions critical of the PRC fearing being denied visa, grants or cooperation with the Chinese counterparts.

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                            Economy

                                                            The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                            1.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            China is the second largest exporter to Poland after Germany, but is a much less significant export market for Polish companies ranking 19th in 2020 in terms of goods' export. Import and export of services forms a fraction of the total trade exchange with China.

                                                            1. http://swaid.stat.gov.pl/HandelZagraniczny_dashboards/Raporty_predefiniowane/RAP_SWAID_HZ_3_8.aspx
                                                            2. http://swaid.stat.gov.pl/HandelZagraniczny_dashboards/Raporty_predefiniowane/RAP_DBD_HZ_3.aspx
                                                            3. http://swaid.stat.gov.pl/HandelZagraniczny_dashboards/Raporty_predefiniowane/RAP_DBD_HZ_4.aspx

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                              2.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Japan is by far the largest holder of Poland’s external debt. China has not been listed among the top 10 creditors.

                                                              1. https://www.gov.pl/attachment/5c0dcf32-9b58-4a23-b7f1-2ef7f0ee0542
                                                              2. https://www.gov.pl/attachment/595e3a68-7598-4168-9752-d981e2f85df4
                                                              3. https://www.gov.pl/attachment/79ba95cd-143a-4b82-a8c4-4feb32f9678d

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide
                                                                3.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                China is the 5th largest market for goods under heading 2704 Coke and semi-coke of coal, of lignite or of peat, whether or not agglomerated; retort carbon and 2nd larges importer of copper, refined, and copper alloys, unwrought (excluding copper alloys of heading 7405).

                                                                1. https://www.trademap.org/Product_SelCountry_TS.aspx?nvpm=1%7c616%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c4%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c1
                                                                2. https://www.trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry_TS.aspx?nvpm=1%7c616%7c%7c%7c%7c7403%7c%7c%7c4%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c2%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c1

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                  4.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  There is no publicly available information suggesting any such operation.

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      5.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Joined June 15, 2016.

                                                                      1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        6.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Key Polish chambers of commerce are listed as members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce therefore the answer is yes. However, according to research conducted by author, the interactions of both chambers with this PRC institution are very limited and the membership itself does not necessarily boost PRC influence.

                                                                        1. http://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=2
                                                                        2. https://www.bricaistanbul.com/speakers/

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          7.
                                                                          Pressure

                                                                          My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          No such evidence publicly available.

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              8.
                                                                              Pressure

                                                                              In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Poland’s exports to China are very limited with few consumer goods sold in larger volumes allowing for efficient boycott actions. Polish government does not voice critical opinions on the PRC government's atrocities or domestic politics, therefore there is little ground for boycotting Polish products in China.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  9.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Poland is an EU member country. The bloc’s trade policies are formulated by the relevant EU organs and executed by the EU Commission. Free Trade Agreements are negotiated and signed by EU organs. Therefore the list of FTA’s for the whole bloc is also the list for Poland. So far no FTA between China and EU has been signed and the CAI ratification process is frozen.

                                                                                  1. https://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/negotiations-and-agreements/

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    10.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    On the contrary, in June 2020 a new bill has been passed by the Polish parliament that increased scrutiny over foreign investments and revised the 2015 bill on foreign investments (link provided).

                                                                                    1. https://web.archive.org/web/20210328051552/https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20200001086/O/D20201086.pdf
                                                                                    2. https://wyborcza.biz/Gieldy/7,132329,26106519,gaz-system-uzyskal-kredyt-od-konsorcjum-10-bankow-w-wysokosci.html

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      11.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      As explained in indicator 2, PRC entities do not hold a significant amount of Polish debt. Polish government services its foreign debt in a timely manner and Poland has not defaulted on the foreign debt yet. In 2016 Polish Ministry of finance issued so-called panda bonds, but they have been paid in 2019. There are several Chinese state-owned banks running their branches in Poland (BoC, ICBC, China Construction Bank, Haitong Bank). Those banks provide credit services to Polish entities, including during the period covered by this report. However, there is also no information on the significant defaults to Chinese banks, related to those loans. In recent years, PRC banks have mainly provided loans not as a sole creditor, but as a member of financing consortia.

                                                                                      1. https://www.finanse.mf.gov.pl/dlug-publiczny/obligacje-zagraniczne/wyszukiwarka-listow-emisyjnych
                                                                                      2. https://www.gov.pl/attachment/79ba95cd-143a-4b82-a8c4-4feb32f9678d
                                                                                      3. https://archive.vn/YzUi8

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                        Society

                                                                                        The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                        1.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        The influence of this organization covers mainly the Chinese diaspora in Poland. Impact outside diaspora community is very limited.

                                                                                        1. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/202011/t20201118_12307161.html
                                                                                        2. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/202007/t20200706_12284734.html
                                                                                        3. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/202006/t20200629_12283790.html
                                                                                        4. https://archive.vn/BEVGe
                                                                                        5. https://archive.vn/t5qTz

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                          2.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          According to the UWCA, Polish organizations are not members of the association and the information gathered does not indicate that the important organizations located and operating in Poland are its members.

                                                                                          1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                            3.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            There are several thousand labor union organizations in Poland and there is a possibility that representatives of some of them have maintained relations and exchanges with the Chinese counterparts, however in the period covered by this report there have been no significant exchanges between the Polish unions and ACFTU, therefore answer NO is given. Most of the major labor unions have negative or skeptic attitude towards CCP and cooperation with the PRC and they voice criticism on the PRC or are involved in actions against to PRC political and economic interests. The major All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions (OPZZ) has maintained some and exchanges wit the Chinese counterparts. Adam Rogalewski, a former head of the OPZZ international department, currently Policy Officer (Health and Social Services) European Public Service Unions (EPSU) was particularly active in this regard. The intensity of relations weakened last year with no significant exchange in the period covered by this report.

                                                                                            1. https://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/aktualnosci/wiadomosci/zagranica/item/19495-lee-cheuk-yan-sekretarz-generalny-konfederacji-zwiazkow-zawodowych-hongkongu-aresztowany-hkctu
                                                                                            2. https://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/aktualnosci/wiadomosci/zagranica/item/19104-wzywamy-do-zaprzestania-represji-w-hongkongu-przywrocenia-praw-obywatelskich-i-demokratycznych
                                                                                            3. https://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/aktualnosci/wiadomosci/zagranica/item/19554-koniec-autonomii-hongkongu-mieszkancy-protestuja
                                                                                            4. https://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/aktualnosci/wiadomosci/zagranica/item/20371-hongkonski-dzialacz-zwiazkowy-skazany-na-wiezienie
                                                                                            5. https://www.solidarnosc.org.pl/aktualnosci/wiadomosci/zagranica/item/20199-14-lutego-dniem-solidarnosci-z-lee-cheuk-yanem
                                                                                            6. https://www.ozzip.pl/publicystyka/polityka/item/2664-list-z-chin-czy-chiny-kupily-czas-dla-zachodu
                                                                                            7. https://www.opzz.org.pl/aktualnosci/swiat/okragly-stol-na-temat-digitalizacji-i-celow-zrownowazonego-rozwoju-w-shanghaju
                                                                                            8. https://www.ozzip.pl/informacje/zagranica/item/2317-rok-batalii-pracownikow-fabryki-volkswagena-w-changchun-w-chinach
                                                                                            9. https://www.opzz.org.pl/aktualnosci/swiat/okragly-stol-chinsko-europejskiego-spoleczenstwa-obywatelskiego
                                                                                            10. https://www.opzz.org.pl/aktualnosci/swiat/wazne-sprawy-w-europie
                                                                                            11. https://www.opzz.org.pl/aktualnosci/swiat/zwiazki-zawodowe-z-calego-swiata-sla-kondolencje-z-powodu-smierci-jana-guza-i-wyrazy-uznania-dla-jego-zaslug
                                                                                            12. https://www.opzz.org.pl/aktualnosci/swiat/europejski-dzien-akcji-na-rzecz-stali-1-pazdziernik-2020

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              The relations between diaspora organizations and the UFWD are based on mutual visits, which due to pandemic situation have been limited since the beginning of 2020.

                                                                                              1. https://archive.vn/ziFKy

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                In 2019, the Polish Media Association signed a cooperation agreement with the Polish Media Association, a small organization with ties to Warsaw Chamber of Commerce (WCC). The actions and public comments by WCC and PMA are result of earlier cooperation with their Chinese counterparts. There are other organizations in Poland that maintain relations with Chinese counterparts as Polish Writers” Union (among others with China Writers Association). However in recent years particularly in 2020 the ties have weakened. There have been also some events organized by PRC entities listed in the brief (e.g. China Writers Association), promoting Chinese literature, attended by Polish writers and translators, with no obvious political agenda.

                                                                                                1. https://wig.waw.pl/porozumienie-o-wspolpracy-chinskich-i-polskich-stowarzyszen-mediow/
                                                                                                2. https://polskiemedia.org/kto-nie-byl-w-shaanxi-nie-poznal-chin/
                                                                                                3. https://polskiemedia.org/epidemia-sie-skonczy-slowa-wsparcia-i-solidarnosci-od-dziennikarzy-chinskich/
                                                                                                4. http://polskiemedia.org/wsiasc-do-ostatniego-wagonika-z-czerwonymi-dolarami/
                                                                                                5. https://wig.today/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/A_letter_to_Polish_Media_Association.pdf
                                                                                                6. http://en.people.cn/n3/2017/1219/c90000-9306005.html
                                                                                                7. http://www.chinawriter.com.cn/n1/2021/0519/c403993-32107727.html
                                                                                                8. https://www.sohu.com/a/437276622_115239

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    There are no know to author donations of the kind as defined in the question. I have not identified any significant cases of such donations during the period Jan 2020 – March 2021. The answer can be NO however the confidence level 30% , time spent =2. However the accurate response to this question is not possible as the churches and religious associations do not need to publish the full list of donations received. Framing this questions as YES/NO also leads to distortion of the image of situation between countries considering the scale involvement of PRC connected entities in financing the religious associations (e.g. Buddhist) in other countries.

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      No such evidence available.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          China and China-relate themes are not important components in movies or TV shows produced in Poland. The coverage of China in other products is rather critical. CGTN can be watched online or with satellite with individual settings, but currently no major TV provider includes it in the list of offered channels (internet, cable or satellite). CCTV is available on Hot Bird Satellite, but is not included in the package (e.g. Canal Plus).

                                                                                                          1. https://kino.dlastudenta.pl/filmy/spis-baza-filmow,polskie,0,0,2020,2021,1.html
                                                                                                          2. https://www.antyradio.pl/Filmy-i-seriale/Filmy/Polskie-filmy-ktore-ukaza-sie-w-2020-roku-Wsrod-nich-Psy-3-i-Broad-Peak-35163
                                                                                                          3. https://www.telemagazyn.pl/artykuly/nowe-polskie-seriale-w-2020-roku-co-ogladac-w-tv-w-nowym-roku-77758.html
                                                                                                          4. https://kultura.onet.pl/film/wiadomosci/nowe-polskie-seriale-2020-co-zobaczymy-w-tv-w-nowym-roku/dgqnfls
                                                                                                          5. https://www.upc.pl/telewizja/poznaj/kanaly-tv/lista-kanalow-tv/
                                                                                                          6. https://www.vectra.pl/oferta/3211/
                                                                                                          7. https://sklep.cyfrowypolsat.pl/telewizja-internetowa-ott

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                            In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            No such evidence publicly available. China is not a major topic in Poland.

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                The term local government is not clear. There are 17 województwa, 314 counties, 66 municipal counties and 2477 gmin (smallest unit of administration) which constitute three levels of administrative network in Poland. Well-founded answer to this question would require considerable in-depth research. The answer 0 is based on the author’s research on the Chinese influence on sub-national level. There was not identified any local government regularly publishing Chinese propaganda within the period covered by the report. However, considering the number of local administration units, it is possible that some operations were missed leading to the lower confidence level.

                                                                                                                1. https://marszalek.com.pl/echoswidwina/numery.html

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  The Polish public sentiment toward China is negative.

                                                                                                                  1. https://ceias.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/PL-poll-report.pdf

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                    Military

                                                                                                                    The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    No evidence publicly available.

                                                                                                                    1. https://www.trademap.org/Bilateral_TS.aspx?nvpm=1%7c616%7c%7c156%7c%7c93%7c%7c%7c4%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c1

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    Absolute majority of arms imports form China is constituted by the goods under the HS code 9304 which include the spring rifles and pistols or gas pistols and rifles which are mainly used by civilians. Gas pistols can be bought without permit and are used for self protection. Another significant group of imports under HS code 93069090 constitute ammunition and grenades or similar equipment excluding the equipment of military grade. The volume military grade armaments under HS code 9301 is marginal and answer YES would create the distorted image of the situation while compared to countries who heavily import form China various types of weapons.

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      No evidence supporting this thesis available.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          No public evidence available.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                    Excluding military staff participating in exchanges between relevant universities and other entities.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      There are single cases of the Polish officers studying in the PRC but that does not have any impact on the overall situation.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          No public evidence available.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                There have been no publicly available reports known to author for the period January 2020 – March 2021 on such cases. However the author does not track the employment history of all Polish intelligence/military officers, therefore that could be a case that as some of them after competing service start working in the security sector and are hired as consultants keeping low profile interactions with Chinese employers. The probability is low however cannot be excluded. Therefore the answer could be given as NO. However the confidence of answer is relatively low 560%. Grade for time devoted to research = 3.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                      My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                          Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                          The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Agreements were signed with the PRC and Hongkong SAR.

                                                                                                                                                          1. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU19880090065/O/D19880065.pdf
                                                                                                                                                          2. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20071671175/O/D20071175.pdf

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            No such agreements provided on the official Polish list of legal acts and bilateral agreements related to China.

                                                                                                                                                            1. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/ByKeyword.xsp?key=Chiny

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              Question YES/NO leads to distorted results. Chinese gangs operate in Poland but their activities are very limited compared to other criminal groups and they do not play an important role on Poland’s criminal scene.

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.rmf24.pl/fakty/polska/news-chinska-mafia-narkotykowa-dzialala-w-polsce-przerzucala-nark,nId,4257191#crp_state=1
                                                                                                                                                              2. https://katowice.wyborcza.pl/katowice/7,35063,26345576,slaski-gangster-przemycal-narkotyki-dla-chinskiej-triady-cud.html

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                The PRC was the leading country in terms of the botnet servers localization, hackers targeting the cryptocurrency traders, IOT risks, however the findings are not strictly quantified. No attacks by Chinese groups such as APT41 in Poland have been identified. According to reports and media information for 2020 and 2021, Polish government institutions were mainly targeted by actors originating in Russia Federation. Critical successful attacks from the PRC bringing massive damage were reported. However the Polish entities on average are not well secured and there could be many undetected attacks.

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.cert.pl/uploads/docs/Raport_CP_2019.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                Due to lack of sources of information for Jan 2020 – March 2021 that would provide the detailed and accurate quantitative data on the activity of the Chinese hackers compared to activity of hackers from other countries. The last published CERT report covers year 2019 Link The China was a leading country in terms of the botnet servers localization, hackers targeting the cryptocurrency traders, IOT risks however the finding are not strictly quantified. The report does not identify any attacks by Chinese groups such as APT41 with Poland. According to reports and media information f for 2020 and 2021 Polish government institutions were mainly targeted by actors originating in Russia Federation. Reports about critical successful attacks from China bringing massive damage were reported. However the Polish entities on average are not well secured and there could be many undetected attacks therefore I had problems with grading this questions with 3 or 4. However considering that grade 0 given in case of no reply would distort the image of situation please change the grading to 3, with confidence level 50% and grade for time devoted to 3

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.cert.pl/uploads/docs/Raport_CP_2019.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                The official report on the Poland’s cyber security for 2020 is not available yet, therefore the cyber security threats form China were evaluated based on reports from previous years and media reports. The share of attacks from China in total number of attacks has diminished in recent years and the PRC is no longer the top source of cyberthreats. There have been also no reports about major Chinese attack targeting Polish entities during the period covered by this report. This result does not necessarily reflect the real threat from China as cyber protection in Polish enterprises especially SME is not very good and many threats or intrusions could be simply undetected.

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://csirt.gov.pl/cer/publikacje/raporty-o-stanie-bezpi/969,Raport-o-stanie-bezpieczenstwa-cyberprzestrzeni-RP-w-2019-roku.html
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://csirt.gov.pl/cer/publikacje/raporty-o-stanie-bezpi/964,Raport-o-stanie-bezpieczenstwa-cyberprzestrzeni-RP-w-2018-roku.html
                                                                                                                                                                3. https://csirt.gov.pl/cer/publikacje/raporty-o-stanie-bezpi/964,Raport-o-stanie-bezpieczenstwa-cyberprzestrzeni-RP-w-2018-roku.html
                                                                                                                                                                4. https://csirt.gov.pl/cer/publikacje/raporty-o-stanie-bezpi/958,Raport-o-stanie-bezpieczenstwa-cyberprzestrzeni-RP-w-2017-roku.html

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  No such cases during the period covered by this report are known to author. However, considering that the Chinese diaspora in Poland is a very closed community and many issues are handled within the diaspora, it is possible that such cases did take place.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                        The originally response given was YES and the supporting evidence was provided. However in comment I suggested that the response would be more accurate in 0-4 matrix as Chinese video surveillance systems (equipment solutions) are deployed by the Polish judiciary, prisons but still not on a massive scale, which is incomparable with other countries. The answer for the question n 0-4 matrix would require in depth research unless the relevant report covering the relevant information is published in the future.

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence available.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  There has been a case of a Taiwan citizen, in whose case the Polish Supreme Court ruled for extradition to China, however in another case the same Supreme Court blocked the extradition process and ordered a case review. As Poland does not recognize Taiwan as a state, Taiwanese citizens are treated as PRC citizens and are extradited to China unless the process is stopped due to special reasons such as the danger of death penalty, torture or other human rights abuse. The situation has changed with the new agreement between Taiwan and Poland on cooperation between Poland and Taiwan in civil and criminal cases that entered in force in February 2021.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://archive.vn/i1skc
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://archive.vn/qreK4
                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://archive.vn/hDeoF
                                                                                                                                                                                  4. https://archive.vn/H1y7K
                                                                                                                                                                                  5. https://archive.vn/F4ITZ
                                                                                                                                                                                  6. https://web.archive.org/web/20210828205426/https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20210000230/O/D20210230.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  The link to the article on the PRC citizen is to prove that in some cases even extradition of a PRC citizen can be blocked „due to special reasons as possibility of death penalty, torture or other human rights abuse the extradition process is blocked.”

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Question does not take into consideration that the court decision should be based on law, which includes the bilateral agreements with other countries. Pressure from NGOs or other organizations on public opinion cannot influence court to decide against the law.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://bip.brpo.gov.pl/pl/content/obywatel-tajwanu-ma-byc-wydany-chinom-kasacja-rpo
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://wyborcza.pl/duzyformat/7,127290,24504795,czy-polska-wyda-tajwanczyka-na-tortury.html

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                    This question in its current formulation should be removed from the questionnaire.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                      The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      No public information available about such operations.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bip.uke.gov.pl/rpt/
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://super-sim.pl/sieci-komorkowe-w-Polsce

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Huawei equipment has 70-90% share in the 4G networks of three our out of four major telcos in Poland. Only one telco’s infrastructure is based on other providers.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://serwisy.gazetaprawna.pl/telekomunikacja/artykuly/1491046,huawei-cyberbezpieczenstwo-sieci-telekomunikacyjne.html
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.money.pl/gielda/play-ograniczenie-udzialu-huawei-w-5g-wymagaloby-0-9-mld-zl-inwestycji-w-7-lat-6554646051403905a.html
                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://wyborcza.biz/biznes/7,177150,26257634,kto-zbuduje-w-polsce-siec-5g-eksperci-koszt-wykluczenia-huawei.html

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                            The question was skipped because of ambiguity and difficulty with accessing the detailed information allowing the accurate evaluation of the share of PRC connected entities in the infrastructure. As for ambiguity it is not clear what is referred to by „internet/wifi infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.”: if the question refers to the backbone network and solutions/equipment for managing the backbone network, then the answer to this question would require in depth research. The backbone network is not build in addition to 5G/4G it is basis. The market of the backbone network is fragmented. Some operators work with Huawei as HAWE Link Other work with other suppliers e.g. Netia works with Nokia Link . Plus which is telco operating cellular network uses Netia’s backbones network Link. Telcos operating cellular network also build/buy the backbone network. It is not clear what is meant by WiFi infrastructure projects offered by Telcos does it concern the complete WiFi solutions for business/local communities/universities. For this question still no answer can be provided even with low level of confidence.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.operatorzy.pl/telekomunikacja/news/wiadomosci-firmowe/huawei-wspiera-hawe-telekom-opracowywac-zintegrowane-rozwiazanie-transportowe-ms-otn,p303987271,25
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.speedtest.pl/wiadomosci/news/netia-pojemnosc-sieci/
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://grupapolsatplus.pl/sites/default/files/documents/2021/grupa_polsat_raport_2020.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            The amendments in the Polish cyber security law have not been yet implemented. Under the current law regulations Chinese suppliers can provide equipment to government agencies (as in the provided example for the Ministry of Finance). The new regulation is still in the legislative process and in the stage of consultations. The institution of authorized vendors has not been yet implemented therefore every supplier that meets requirements under current legal regime can provide the equipment to the government agencies.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://crn.pl/aktualnosci/przetarg-dla-resortu-finansow-rozstrzygniety-kontrakt-na-28-mln-zl/
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20180001560/T/D20181560L.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://legislacja.rcl.gov.pl/projekt/12337950/katalog/12716624#12716624

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                            The question uses the term „authorized vendor”. Under current law regulations the supplier as e.g. Huawei, Hikvision, Dahua do not have status of authorized vendors and they do not need to be granted the special status to have their equipment supplied to government agencies, military or security forces (e.g. police) with equipment as it was explained in the original response. Their equipment can be provided by local distributors participating in public tenders (examples provided in url 1 and 2). New law regulations (if adopted) would require suppliers to be granted that status but only for specific equipment. Many products such as surveillance systems and solutions will be still provided under the current regulations. If the question was formulated as „Can the PRC connected entities supply tech providing equipment or services to our government, military or security services?” then answer would be YES.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              No such cases of collaboration have been identified by author in the period cover by the report.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No significant agreements within the period covered by this report are known to author. However, it should be noted that in June 2021 Huawei signed agreement on implementation of smart city solution with the town of Serock.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.serock.pl/4069,2021-rok?tresc=25524

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The original response: „No significant agreements within the period covered by this report are known to author. There fore answer is 0. other values also remain unchanged. However it should be noted that in June 2021 Huawei signed agreement on implementation of smart city solution with the small city Serock. Link provided” 1. The period covered in replies was Jan 2020 -March 2021. The agreement between Serock and Huawei was signed in June 2021. Serock is small city and the deal is largely insignificant. Changing the answer to yes would distort the overall image of the situation while compared with other countries where Huawei is active in large scale smart city projects. In 0 – 4 matrix the answer would be 1. However to preserve the consistency with the findings and grading by other experts covering other countries the same methodology allowing the substitution of grading based on evidence for 2019 or 2019 and 2018.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In 2018, there were less than three institutions operating in Poland that were indirect users of the CIPS system. In 2020, no Polish entity was the direct user of CIPS system. In Europe, the key CIPS users are localized in Germany and UK. While considering the status as of 2018 the answer was given YES (1) however it should be noted that such formulation of question leads to distorted image.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.cips.com.cn/cips/resource/cms/article/38772/42202/%e5%8f%82%e4%b8%8e%e8%80%85%e6%9c%8d%e5%8a%a1%e6%9c%88%e6%8a%a5-%e6%91%a9%e6%a0%b9%e5%a4%a7%e9%80%9a%e9%93%b6%e8%a1%8c%ef%bc%88%e4%b8%ad%e5%9b%bd%ef%bc%89%e6%9c%89%e9%99%90%e5%85%ac%e5%8f%b8-2020%e5%b9%b46%e6%9c%88.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2020-08/14/5534896/files/efc3e33de4124221bb56825649a0e4d0.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.cips.com.cn/cips/_2664/_2708/33611/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No major VC investments in Polish startups in the period covered by the report have been identified. Some startups described as Polish - Chinese enterprises - the most famous example is Cosmoe - are registered and operating outside Poland. Foreign investor participation in funding Polish startups is very limited and even if the PRC-related entities invested in the Polish startups their share in overall startups investments would be marginal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://pfrventures.pl/dam/jcr:97b2797b-5c3c-4f0a-8e38-ba42098244bf/Polskie%20Startupy%202020%20COVID%20EDITION.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://cosmose.co/

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No cooperation agreements as described in the questions for the period January 2020 March 2021 have been found in the course of research made within this projects framework. However there are thousand of Polish companies, many of them are small and operating under radar. The accurate answer to this question meeting the framework requirements and grading would require large scale research and the possibility that some companies have signed some kind of cooperation agreement with the Chinese partners cannot be excluded. The answer could be NO = 0 however with low confidence 50%. Time spent = 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            PRC-linked media apps are far behind their Western competitors in popularity among Polish users.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2020-poland

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No significant cooperation on Beidou has been recorded by author within the period covered by this report. The Polish Space Agency (POLSA) does no consider cooperation with the PRC as a top priority. Despite signing a cooperation agreement in 2016, the relations are not close. PRC delegation visited POLSA in 2017 but there were no close contacts in the period covered by this report.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://polsa.gov.pl/images/KPK_2018_FINAL/KPK_proj_20-12-18_small.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://polsa.gov.pl/wydarzenia/13-ostatnie/119-porozumienie-o-wspolpracy-z-chinska-narodowa-agencja-kosmiczna-cnsa
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.wojsko-polskie.pl/aszwoj/u/25/a7/25a75228-7fe5-498a-893b-314496095ed4/2019-01_biuletyn_osrodka_badan_azji.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                The answer for this question is 2 as the rating was made in the context of the whole country. The number of the signed agreements on the regional level (województwa) is large. Around 20% of 100 largest cities maintain some relations with PRC partners. However, the agreements themselves do not have in many cases any direct practical impact on the dynamics and nature of mutual relations, where according to author’s own unpublished research there have been only a few significant cases of cooperation. Therefore the answer is marked as 2 but actually it is more than 2. Another issue is that answering this question could lead to a distorted image of the situation. In several cases local authorities signed cooperation agreements with PRC SOEs as a result of a public tender process for infrastructural projects. If the Chinese offer (at least formally) fits best the criteria, the local authorities are obliged to sign the contract. Such situation does not mean that Chinese SOEs has some influence or relations with local authorities. It is simply a legal process.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://wydawnictwo.uni.lodz.pl/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/KAMINSKI_The-role-of-Regions-in-EU-.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://web.archive.org/web/20210829155613/https://repozytorium.uni.lodz.pl/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11089/30037/The%20Subnational%20Dimension%20of%20the%20EU-China%20Relations.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Around 20% of the 100 largest cities maintain some relations with PRC partners. Examples of cities that in the past attended the relevant conferences and still maintain sister city relations provided.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://wydawnictwo.uni.lodz.pl/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/KAMINSKI_The-role-of-Regions-in-EU-.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://archive.vn/K8p2y
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://archive.vn/tlI72
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4. https://archive.vn/yRLfR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Due to the pandemic, traveling to Poland during the period covered by this report was very limited and Polish politicians communicated online. However, such trips were organized in previous years.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://archive.vn/pxo71
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://web.archive.org/web/20201006145922/http://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm8.nsf/komunikat.xsp?documentId=2BBBCDAA73165783C1258043002A9372
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://archive.vn/selhs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://archive.vn/mIlst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5. ttps://archive.vn/lpNdU

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Link it was the fifth edition of the trip. the traveling costs in previous editions were paid by the chancellery of sejm, the local expenses were covered by the Chinese side Link the fourth edition in 2018 Link in 2019 former polish president Bronisław Komorowski attended the 2019一乡一品国际商品博览会 Link year earlier he was invited to Taihu World Cultural Forum (太湖世界文化论坛) and iFlytec Link He was invited by the PRC connected entities However to preserve the consistency with the findings and grading by other experts covering other countries the same methodology allowing the substitution of grading based on evidence for 2019 or 2019 and 2018. ,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://archive.vn/pxo71
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.sejm.gov.pl/sejm8.nsf/komunikat.xsp?documentid=2bbbcdaa73165783c1258043002a9372
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://archive.vn/selhs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://archive.vn/mIlst
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5. https://archive.vn/lpNdU

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    It is natural for politicians to visit the countries, with which Poland maintains diplomatic relations and to meet the relevant officials. Meetings do not indicate the scale and type of PRC influence. In 2020, due to pandemic, meetings were limited and replaced with online calls. Examples of such meetings are provided.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.prezydent.pl/aktualnosci/wydarzenia/art,1717,rozmowa--prezydentem-chinskiej-republiki-ludowej-.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.sejm.gov.pl/sejm9.nsf/interpelacjaTresc.xsp?documentId=0F64AB0695B51466C12586C6004BC9F3&view=S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.gov.pl/web/dyplomacja/rozmowa-ministra-jacka-czaputowicza-z-ambasadorem-chrl-w-warszawie

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No such significant cases are know to author.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Polish political parties cannot receive funds from any legal persons and from physical persons that are either foreign citizens or Polish citizens with permanent residence abroad. There could be some minor donations from the Polish citizens of Chinese origin but as of author’s knowledge they did not have any significant impact on the elections. Chinese diaspora in Poland is limited in numbers and has marginal if any influence on Poland’s political life. In 2020, neither national election nor country-wide local elections were held, therefore there was no election campaign.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20160002223/O/D20162223.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.gov.pl/web/edukacja-i-nauka/informacja-cke-o-egzaminie-osmoklasisty-przeprowadzanym-od-25-do-27-maja-2021-r

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No such significant cases have been reported. There were no national nor local elections held last year.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No such significant cases have been reported. There were no national nor local elections held last year.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The accurate response to this question would require substantial quantitative research concerning the public statements made the Polish local officials on different administrative levels exceeding the time frame for this project. Moreover, as the various PRC connected entities have were engaged in providing the equipment needed for fighting COVID epidemic there were many statements of local official expressing gratitude for the provided support and including favorable views on China. However considering the circumstances it is hard to treat them as a voice of majority of Polish local politicians. On specific occasions (e.g. Chinese investments in Poland) there were also critical opinions. Without quantitative research the accurate response cannot be provided. Moreover, analysis only of the public statements on China made by the very small group of local politicians, especially considering the situation with COVID could also lead to distorted image of the situation as the public statements do not reflect the position of the overwhelming silent majority of the local politicians. Basing on the limited in quantity materials reviewed by author the answer would be NO, with low confidence level as 50% and ranking = 3

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No such case is known to the author for year 2020, however there were such cases in previous years.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://businessinsider.com.pl/firmy/strategie/ryszard-hordynski-nowym-dyrektorem-w-huawei-polska/pnljhr9He
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.pb.pl/trzesienie-ziemi-w-pionie-it-ministerstwa-finansow-871856

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In recent years the significant case of employing former Polish official by PRC connected entity was the case of Ryszard Horodyński. Former plenipotentiary responsible for IT technologies in ministry of development and infrastructure under Mateusz Morawiecki. Left position in 2017 Link. Later served as advisor to minister of digital affairs and was managing director in PFR Nieruchomości S.A. one f companies operating under umbrella of the state agency Polish Development Fund Group. In 2019 he was employed by Huawei at the position of senior director responsible for strategy and communications Link still works in Huawei at this position.. Considering the recency the answer could be YES. However, he was appointed before the period covered. Moreover his influence seems to be limited. Generally framing this issue in YES/NO matrix leads to distorted image as that would place Poland on the same level as countries where multiple and higher ranked officials are employed by the PRC connected entities and would lead to distorted perception of the situation. The answer NO seems to be the best one describing the situation.Confidence level 80%, time spent =3. However to preserve the consistency with the findings and grading by other experts covering other countries the same methodology allowing the substitution of grading based on evidence for 2019 or 2019 and 2018.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.pb.pl/trzesienie-ziemi-w-pionie-it-ministerstwa-finansow-871856
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://businessinsider.com.pl/firmy/strategie/ryszard-hordynski-nowym-dyrektorem-w-huawei-polska/pnljhr9He

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There are no major security services companies controlled by PRC-related entities in Poland. The takeover of the largest Polish security company in 2017 by a PRC-related entity was not completed. Polish market is very fragmented with a large number of very small companies. There are over 2000 entities registered in KRS, which specialize in security services (excluding security systems providers but including companies removed from the registry) and nearly 500 companies providing servicing security systems, so some PRC-linked involvement is possible. However, it should be noted that the PRC companies Hikvision and Dahua are fast expanding providers of security equipment and they also supply public institutions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.piooim.pl/firmy-czlonkowskie/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.pzpochrona.pl/czlonkowie-wspierajacy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://sinopsis.cz/en/sarek-5g-iot/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There is a Chinese-Polish Parliamentary Group, but it comprises exclusively of Polish MPs. However it should be noted that leadership that this group includes politicians with positive views of CPC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.sejm.gov.pl/SQL2.nsf/skladgr?OpenAgent=&392=&PL_=

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Meeting occur often, including higher levels of politics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.chinaembassy.org.pl/chn/ywzn/ggwj/t1820959.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.senat.gov.pl/aktualnoscilista/art,13621,22-kwietnia-2021-r-.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://archive.vn/03b2n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. http://www.chinaembassy.org.pl/chn/ywzn/ggwj/t1820955.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No significant cases of such training or programs have been identified by the author for the period covered by this report. Standard procedure for candidates for diplomats includes training organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://isap.sejm.gov.pl/isap.nsf/download.xsp/WDU20011281403/U/D20011403Lj.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://orka.sejm.gov.pl/proc9.nsf/ustawy/877_u.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.gov.pl/web/dyplomacja/aplikacja-dyplomatyczno-konsularna
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.gov.pl/web/dyplomacja/akademia-dyplomatyczna

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No reliable reports on such pressures have been identified by the author. However it should be noted that during the negotiations process behind the close door both sides can use various tools for pressuring the counterpart, which is a typical process in international politics.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No such significant cases have been identified by the author for the period covered by this report.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No clear statement on this issue made by the relevant officials is known to author. However, Poland also does not back Taiwan attendance at WHA meetings, and Poland was not among the countries supporting Taiwan participation in 73 WHA assembly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://qz.com/1857449/taiwan-china-relations-take-center-stage-at-who-meeting/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA73/Background_on_supplementary_agenda.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The question was about the position of three specific officials in Polish government and the response to this question was NO “No clear statement on this issue made by the listed officials is known to author.And referring to this question answer is NO. The additional comment was given concerning the overall situation with Polish position on Taiwan participation in WHA. Poland did not back Taiwan’s request in 2020 concerning the attendance at WHA meetings, and Poland was not among the countries supporting Taiwan participation in 73 WHA assembly. List of countries supporting Taiwan in the sources” The link provided in Notes referring to 2006 is not relevant the countries Policies change and the action described in the article taken 15 years ago are not relevant in 2021. The 71 assembly was in 2018. In my comments I referred to the events at the 73 assembly in 2020. Poland was not among the countries backing the Taiwan’s inclusion in WHA works. However Polish representatives has also publicly not expressed their opinion rejecting Taiwan’s request . The provisional summary records for WHA 73 assembly are available here Link Summing up: As per authors knowledge three listed Polish officials between January 2020 and March 2021 have not clearly rejected Taiwans request for inclusion in WHA works. Therefore answer is NO. However it should be noted that Polish representatives at WHA/WHO have not backed Taiwan’s efforts as well.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://apps.who.int/gb/or/e/e_wha73-PSR.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            During the period covered by this report there had been no significant actions or comments undertaken by the Polish central government officials concerning the territorial claims. Occasionally, Polish officials highlighted that all disputes should be solved in a peaceful way and without unilateral actions. The summary of the official Polish position for the covered period was included in the Action Plan for the Implementation of the Strategic Partnership between the Government of the Republic of Poland and the Government of Japan for the years 2021-2025)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.gov.pl/attachment/a3e2560e-6d69-4f65-b055-91221b5f7441

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Poland joined the German action undertaken on the forum of United Nations Human Rights Commission, therefore the mark 0 is given. In June this year (period not covered by the report) this stance was supported by joining a similar action undertaken by the Canadian government. However, it should be noted, that recently (after March 2021, period not covered by the report), that during his direct interactions with the Chinese counterparts , the Polish Foreign Minister Znigniew Rau has not raised the issue of atrocities in Xinjiang and remained silent, avoiding confrontation, which is also remarkable.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://new-york-un.diplo.de/un-en/news-corner/201006-heusgen-china/2402648
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://usun.usmission.gov/joint-statement-on-the-human-rights-situation-in-xinjiang-and-the-recent-developments-in-hong-kong-delivered-by-germany-on-behalf-of-39-countries/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.gov.pl/web/chiny/minister-rau-z-wizyta-w-chinach
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.gov.pl/web/dyplomacja/rozmowa-telefoniczna-ministra-zbigniewa-raua-z-ministrem-spraw-zagranicznych-chrl-wang-yi2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                During the period covered by this report there were no significant actions or comments undertaken by the Polish central government officials concerning the situation in Tibet. During a telephone conversation with Wang Yi in early March 2021, the Polish FM highlighted that Poland respects the PRC’s territorial integrity.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.gov.pl/web/dyplomacja/rozmowa-telefoniczna-ministra-zbigniewa-raua-z-ministrem-spraw-zagranicznych-chrl-wang-yi2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In July 2020, a motion for Polish Parliament resolution signed by 15 MPs was sent to International Affairs Commission and has not been processed since then. Polish MEPs have voted for the adoption of a joint motion resolution concerning PRC state security law for Hong Kong and the need for the EU to defend Hong Kong's high degree of autonomy in June 2020, but this voting should not be treated as representing the official position of the Polish government. However, the situation in Hong Kong is not important for Polish political elites, while relations with China are also far from a priority. This also impacts the lack of clear stance on these issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.sejm.gov.pl/Sejm9.nsf/druk.xsp?nr=467

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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