Philippines

$3,548.83
1.11B
Ranking
7/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

204/ 380
Executive partner
Rayyan Hassan
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

58%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

56%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

43%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Phillipines had a GDP per capita of US $3,548.83 and a total population of 113,880,328 people.

Phillipines established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1975. Phillipines was ranked 147th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Partly Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 55/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    60.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    40.0% / 34%
  • Economy
    63.6% / 33.6%
  • Society
    27.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    45.5% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    68.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    65.9% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    69.4% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    45.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. https://www.sec.gov/rules/other/4-460list.htm#c

Supplementary Notes

Supplementary notes: There are no trace of World Chinese Media in articles in the Philippines compared to other such as CNTV. WCM is also not listed in SEC. However, there is limited information on foreign investors since SEC only publishes list of registered companies.

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    People’s Television Network based in Quezon City is an official member of BRNA as seen in its website Link and PNA website Philippine News Agency (PNA) (under the PH government) is part of the BRNA according to their article Link

    1. https://brnalink.com/members.html
    2. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1049571
    3. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1076194

    Supplementary Notes

    Major broadcasting and television networks such as ABS-CBN, GMA, and TV5 (or popular newspapers such as Philippine Daily Inquirer, Philippine Star, Manila Bulletin, BusinessWorld, BusinessMirror) which has greater follower and wider reach coverage has yet to be become a member of Belt and Road News Alliance. Filipinos rarely visit PNA website to search for news given its biased reporting history.

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Skip

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Most of those who attended the China-funded training for Filipino journalists were journalists from Philippine state media. They have less reach than their counterparts in the mainstream media. There were also some journalists from regional mainstream media in the training (Cebu, Pampanga, Cavite).

      1. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1026842
      2. https://www.philstar.com/headlines/2020/01/16/1985293/us-think-tank-wary-china-funded-training-filipino-journalists

      Supplementary Notes

      [Doublethink Lab]: We skip this indicator as no evidence that indicates they've received paid-trip or gifts so far. (落地招待)

        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Media officials and prominent journalists from the Philippines visited China for two weeks in May 2018 to learn about “new media development” and “socialist journalism with Chinese characteristics.” Link. The Presidential Communications Operations Office (PCOO) currently has multiple bilateral media and communications agreements with the Chinese government, covering commitments to pursue personnel exchanges, workshops, seminars, information exchanges, rebroadcasts, joint production, and mutual visits. Link

        1. https://freedomhouse.org/report/special-report/2020/beijings-global-megaphone
        2. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1085444
        3. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1070144
        4. https://www.ifj.org/fileadmin/user_upload/IFJ_ChinaReport_2020.pdf

        Supplementary Notes

        [Second respondent]: Just 2019 alone, there are at least 36 journalists and media executives that went to China on all-expenses paid media tours. The number 30 came from this article, Link, while the 6 came from my own count based on my interviews with colleagues in the media industry. Also in July 2017, I was one of 10 Filipino journalists who joined an all-expense paid trip to Beijing, Xiamen, Fuzhou. China chose the “perfect timing” – the first anniversary of the historic Hague Ruling’s vs their 9-dash claim. hehe According to an IFJ 2020, there were some journalists from Mindanao, where the population is mostly Muslim, who were taken to Xinjiang and wrote “stories praising China for cracking down on terrorists.” Link

        1. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1070144
        2. https://www.ifj.org/fileadmin/user_upload/IFJ_ChinaReport_2020.pdf

        Answered by Camille Elemia and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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        5.
        Exposure

        In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

        Yes

        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        1 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        24 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        22 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        7 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        18 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Dubbed “Chinese News TV”, or CNTV, the news program will be the first regular show reporting international and local headlines in Mandarin Chinese as the principal language, with English and Filipino as supporting languages. Link Wow China is highlighted as a light “cultural program” that focuses on China and Philippines’ tradition, culture, and history, as well as the differences and similarities between the two countries. China Radio International (CRI) maintains websites and broadcasts shows in several languages, including Filipino. Link CGTN and CCTV broadcast in English and other languages along the Maritime Silk Road, including in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. (Page 32) Link

        1. https://businessmirror.com.ph/2017/09/17/chinatown-tv-launches-news-program-for-chinoys/
        2. https://www.rappler.com/nation/things-to-know-wow-china-radio-show
        3. https://asiasociety.org/sites/default/files/2020-09/Weaponizing%20the%20Belt%20and%20Road%20Initiative_0.pdf

        Supplementary Notes

        : Wow China uses both Filipino and English language in its content.

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          6.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          2 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          44 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          19 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          3 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          0 countries chose this answer

          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Article XVI Section 11(1) of the 1987 PH constitution states that “the ownership and management of mass media shall be limited to citizens of the Philippines, or to corporations, cooperatives or associations, wholly-owned and managed by such citizens.” Link

          1. https://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/constitutions/the-1987-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines/the-1987-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-article-xvi/

          Supplementary Notes

          Limited data. Although prohibited by the 1987 constitution, double citizenship may serve as a loophole for PRC citizen or corporations to wholly or partly own local media outlets.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            7.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

            Yes

            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            22 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            21 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            6 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            23 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            7 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            An article about the Philippines under China’s expanding media influence — report Link Website of Chinese Embassy in the country: Link [Second respondent]: There’s the content-sharing agreement between Xinhua/CGTN/other China state media with Philippine state media PTV4, online Philippine News Agency, and joint production between China Radio International and Philippine Radio. These also extend to Philippine state media’s online platforms. On top of these, there’s the major daily Manila Bulletin that also publishes Xinhua articles.

            1. http://www.shangbao.com.ph/
            2. https://thediplomat.com/2021/02/chinas-soft-power-grows-in-the-philippines/
            3. https://globalnation.inquirer.net/183231/philippines-under-chinas-expanding-media-influence-report
            4. http://ph.chineseembassy.org/eng/zt/117/
            5. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1049571
            6. https://www.ifj.org/fileadmin/user_upload/IFJ_Report_2020_-_The_China_Story.pdf

            Supplementary Notes

            Chinese Commercial News with Shangbao, it is the Philippines' oldest existing Chinese-language newspaper, and the country's third-oldest existing newspaper overall. There is no article on how it was being circulated nowadays but it can be access anytime for free.

              Answered by Camille Elemia and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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              8.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              38 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              13 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              15 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              8 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              A Chinese News TV owned by a Filipino-Chinese company aims to “promote shared Filipino-Chinese culture” and “spread the One Belt One Road advocacy,” China's initiative that aims to link the economic circles in East Asia and Europe, connecting China – on land and over water – to partners in Asia, Europe, and Africa. It started airing last 12 April 2021. [Second respondent]: They were published on two major national newspapers for an extended period of time. These were weekly full page ads/features. Also, according to two business journalists, Belt and Road Initiative advertorials also appeared in major business national paper BusinessWorld in 2019.

              1. https://www.rappler.com/nation/chinese-news-tv-airs-abs-cbn-channel
              2. https://www.rappler.com/nation/national-news/abs-news-chief-reyes-response-chinatown-news-abs-cbn-channel

                Answered by Camille Elemia and 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                9.
                Pressure

                In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                Yes

                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                57 countries chose this answer

                4/ Yes

                24 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                1. https://thediplomat.com/2021/04/chinese-navy-harasses-boat-carrying-filipino-journalists-report/
                2. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/inside-track/military-gives-award-after-calling-out-journalist-provoking-chinese-ships-west-philippine-sea
                3. https://news.abs-cbn.com/ancx/culture/spotlight/04/18/21/interview-with-chiara-zambrano-im-not-out-there-for-the-thrill-im-out-there-for-the-voices

                Supplementary Notes

                With the ongoing issue regarding the West Philippines Sea, Chinese vessels had been surrounding the area he tensions gets intense when a Filipino journalist tried to go there and cover the story.

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                  10.
                  Effect

                  In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  4 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  51 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  11 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  9 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  4 countries chose this answer

                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  An article about the Philippines accusing Facebook of censoring pro-government content: Link

                  1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-duterte-facebook-idUSKBN26K1AU
                  2. https://www.reuters.com/world/china/philippines-duterte-defends-purchase-chinese-covid-19-vaccine-2021-01-13/
                  3. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/4/29/dutertes-mix-message-on-south-china-sea-dispute-draws-criticism

                  Supplementary Notes

                  A network of accounts traced back from China and Philippines was banned by Facebook when “a coordinated inauthentic behaviour” was detected which was accounted as a support to the anti-communism stance. There are also multiple events where critical claim towards PRC were defended by the government officials, some issues include the West Philippine Sea, COVID vaccine, and travel ban of people coming from China among others.

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    11.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    2 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    44 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    18 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    5 countries chose this answer

                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    IDSI, a thinktank that parrots Chinese narratives and even shares false information on its Facebook page. It has regular columns in a national daily, The Manila Times. Here’s an example: Link Another one is this Manila Times’ columnist: Link Link

                    1. https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/04/04/opinion/columnists/another-big-lie-by-the-west-xinjiang-genocide/859909
                    2. https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/06/13/opinion/columns/the-chinese-tit-for-tat/1803009

                      Answered by Camille Elemia, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                      Academia

                      The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                      1.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                      More

                      0/ No

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      6 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      31 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      25 countries chose this answer

                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                      1. https://ac.upd.edu.ph/
                      2. https://www.panpacificu.edu.ph/philippines-china-education-research-institute/
                      3. https://www.dost.gov.ph/23-announcements/1810-2020-joint-research-project-call-for-proposal-ph-china-2020-05-04.html
                      4. https://up.edu.ph/public-lecture-on-change-continuity-in-chinas-foreign-policy/

                      Supplementary Notes

                      There are many university and academe in the Philippines that have research partnership with PRC. Most of them have their own department and studies specific for PRC.

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide
                        2.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                        More

                        0/ No

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        14 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        31 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        27 countries chose this answer

                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        There are Confucius Institutes in the premier Philippine universities including University of the Philippines and Ateneo De Manila University. There are also Cis in top regional universities including the Ateneo De Davao University, Bulacan State University, and Angeles University Foundation in Pampanga. More universities are planning to set up one including the Mariano Marcos State University. Cis are influential in the Chinese language education and training in the country. For instance, Cis in universities are used as a platform to train language teachers from grade school to college as well as sponsor study trips of Filipino students to China.

                        1. https://upd.edu.ph/confucius-institute-takes-root-at-up/
                        2. https://ateneoconfucius.com
                        3. https://bulsu.edu.ph/confucius/home2.html
                        4. http://confucius.auf.edu.ph/aboutus.php
                        5. http://international.addu.edu.ph/?p=5506
                        6. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1115230
                        7. https://www.atlantis-press.com/proceedings/icsshe-19/125915864

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          3.
                          Exposure

                          My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          46 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          35 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          There is no known K12 or primary education that offers Chinese as a foreign language, only Chinese School have Chinese language subjects. In the Philippines, it was way back 2015-2016 when senators and lawmakers proposed the inclusion of Chinese language to the K12 curriculum; however, no trace of implementation yet.

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              4.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              40 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              17 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              7 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                              1. https://cnnphilippines.com/news/2020/3/23/China-research-stations-West-Philippine-Sea.html
                              2. https://www.fsi.gov.ph/chinas-belt-and-road-initiative-implications-for-the-philippines/
                              3. https://www.fsi.gov.ph/the-belt-and-road-initiative-and-philippine-participation-in-the-maritime-silk-road/

                              Supplementary Notes

                              China builds a research stations in the West Philippine Sea, however this action was controversial as there is a dispute since the WPS is owned by the Philippines. In addition, Philippines joined in the China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in 2017 as announced by Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Liu Zhien Min.

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide
                                5.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                21 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                19 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Not Found

                                1. https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/scitech/science/777305/dost-most-china-approve-8-research-projects-for-funding-in-2021/story/#:~:text=Philippines%2C%20China%20approve%208%20research%20projects%20for%20funding%20in%202021,-Published%202021%2D02&text=According%20to%20the%20DOST%2C%20the,annual%20fund%20of%20P1%20million

                                Supplementary Notes

                                There is some recent funding from China to Philippine Research though there is a very limited references regarding this.

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  6.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  There are no traces of evidence of PRC talent recruitment programs such as Thousand Talents or Changjiang Scholars in the Philippines.

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      7.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. http://ph.china-embassy.org/eng/sgdt/t1688576.htm
                                      2. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/https://ched.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/Chinese-Government-Scholarship-Program-for-Academic-Year-2020-2021.pdf
                                      3. https://www.wemakescholars.com/scholarships-for-filipinos-students-to-study-in-china

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      To improve their relationship and also share the Chinese culture, PRC offered a lot of scholarship opportunities for the Filipino students.

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        8.
                                        Pressure

                                        In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                        1. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/18/world/asia/cambridge-university-press-academic-freedom.html
                                        2. https://www.studyinternational.com/news/academic-censorship-china-global-issue/
                                        3. http://afics.weebly.com/about-us.html
                                        4. https://www.pacs.ph/
                                        5. https://www.dlsu.edu.ph/students/international/international-student-oriented-organizations/

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        There are a lot of Chinese Student Associations established in the Philippines there are a few evidences that they are involved in attempts to censor staff or students regarding harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC.

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          9.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                          1. https://www.oversixty.com.au/entertainment/movies/5-actors-who-are-banned-from-china

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          There are some famous people banned in entering China due to racial discrimination act and some who discussed issues (such human rights violation) happening in China, on the other hand, there is no record of scholars or academics banned in China from my country.

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            10.
                                            Effect

                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ Yes

                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            there are no evidence that PRC was involved in designing overseas curriculum such as courses about East Asian history.

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                11.
                                                Effect

                                                In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                Skip

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                1. https://www.rappler.com/nation/la-salle-professors-slam-failure-government-west-philippine-sea

                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                As a democratic country, there is no censorship when speaking their opinion towards the PRC. In most cases, teachers and professors are vocal with their comments and discussing it publicly. There is no known record that there are persons from the academe censoring topics that are against China. [Second respondent]: I personally know senior and junior scholars, with frequent travel and research trips to China, avoiding discussion of sensitive political issues (Taiwan, West Philippine Sea) in classes, conferences, and other public activities. They also usually advise graduate students to adopt the same level of cautiousness to ensure they will have access to China as researchers.

                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                  Hide

                                                  Economy

                                                  The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                  1.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  0/ No

                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                  1. https://boi.gov.ph/cifit-2020-philippines-china-business-relations/#:~:text=In%202018%2C%20China%20ranked%20first,US%24%2047%20Million%20in%202017.&text=Top%20export%20products%20to%20China,bananas%2C%20pineapples%20and%20marine%20products.

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  Based on the data from Board of Investments (BOI) PRC is the number one trading partner of the country.

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    2.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                    1. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/in-depth/duterte-loans-coronavirus-why-philippines-might-need-more
                                                    2. https://www.dof.gov.ph/data/outstanding-public-sector-debt/
                                                    3. https://globalnation.inquirer.net/196359/what-do-we-owe-china
                                                    4. https://www.rappler.com/business/philippine-government-debt-february-2021
                                                    5. https://www.dof.gov.ph/govt-taps-p58-4-billion-from-multilateral-lenders-for-covid-19-vaccines/

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    The country has been borrowing to aid the covid pandemic. These borrowing mostly came from international banks. Philippines owes most of its debts to World Bank ($1.3 billion). The country also borrowed from other financial institute such as China’s Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank ($750 million), Japan International Cooperation Agency ($458.9 million), Agence Française de Développement ($275.7 million) and to global funds ($2.35 billion).

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      3.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                      1. https://www.dti.gov.ph/uncategorized/exports/#:~:text=Japan%20ranked%20first%20among%20the,%2C%20Singapore%2C%20US%24298%20million
                                                      2. https://www.worldstopexports.com/philippines-top-10-exports/
                                                      3. https://wits.worldbank.org/countrysnapshot/en/phl
                                                      4. https://tradingeconomics.com/philippines/exports/china

                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                      Japan is the top exporter of the country with highest export value followed by US, Hong Kong, China, and Singapore.

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        4.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                        1. https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/03/05/business/business-top/dti-to-china-firms-invest-more-in-ph/847494/
                                                        2. https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/03/05/business/business-top/dti-to-china-firms-invest-more-in-ph/847494/
                                                        3. https://www.rappler.com/business/dito-telecommunity-services-available-metro-manila-may-17-2021
                                                        4. https://www.lightreading.com/asia/china-backed-incomer-dito-starts-service-in-philippines/d/d-id/767969
                                                        5. http://www.peza.gov.ph/index.php/press-release/128-peza-board-approves-26-new-investments-in-ph-worth-p13-1-billion-amid-covid-crisis

                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                        PRC’s owns the new telecom party in the Philippines which is DITO Telecom. It is now operating in many parts of the country including the capital region which is the NCR - Metro Manila. There are many articles and website that discussed infrastructure and business investment and ownership of China in the Philippines. They are also one of the top investors of PEZA (A government owned and controlled corporations) that provides incentives to foreign investors in the creation of Economic zones in the country.

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          5.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                          Yes

                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                          1. https://www.fsi.gov.ph/the-asian-infrastructure-investment-bank-considerations-for-the-philippines-by-andrea-chloe-a-wong-vol-ii-no-11-may-2015/#:~:text=In%20October%202014%2C%20the%20Asian,the%20AIIB%20as%20founding%20members.
                                                          2. https://www.aiib.org/en/news-events/news/2020/AIIB-Approves-USD750-M-Loan-to-the-Philippines-for-COVID-19-Response.html

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          The Philippines is a member and also a co-founding member along with 20 other countries through a signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the establishment of the AIIB.

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            6.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. https://www.psricc.com/en/#:~:text=The%20Philippine%20Silk%20Road%20International,Duterte%20in%20October%2013%2C%202016
                                                            2. https://www.psricc.com/en/belt-and-road-initiative/cooperation-mechanisms
                                                            3. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10971475.2020.1809817?journalCode=mces20
                                                            4. http://ph.china-embassy.org/eng/sgdt/t1653564.htm

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            In my country a lot of businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, and Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce. There are many articles that mentioned Philippines as a member and beneficiary of the said alliance. This is to boost economic and foreign relationship with other countries such as PRC.

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              7.
                                                              Pressure

                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                              Yes

                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Hide
                                                              8.
                                                              Pressure

                                                              In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not Found

                                                              1. https://globalnation.inquirer.net/195173/ph-biz-groups-to-china-stop-acting-like-colonizer
                                                              2. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/politics/article/3132259/philippine-diplomat-says-sorry-twitter-rant-against-china-told
                                                              3. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1120146

                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                              There is no known event that local businesses in the country were harassed due to their opinion that is unacceptable to PRC government. A lot of people has been vocal regarding to their concerns such as the increasing number of Chinese workers who are ‘stealing’ jobs from the locals and dispute on the South China Sea. There has been a high ranking government official who apologised to China for posting a comment against them on social media.

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide
                                                                9.
                                                                Effect

                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Hide
                                                                10.
                                                                Effect

                                                                In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                1. https://psa.gov.ph/psa-press-release-tags/foreign-investments#:~:text=in%20Q1%202019-,Total%20foreign%20investments%20(FI)%20approved%20in%20the%20first%20quarter%20of,the%20Authority%20of%20the%20Freeport
                                                                2. https://boi.gov.ph/investments-promotion/map-of-ipas/
                                                                3. http://www.peza.gov.ph/index.php/press-release/139-peza-s-investment-promotion-global-links-widens

                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                There are around 19 Investment Promotion Agencies in the Philippines including PEZA and BOI among others. These agencies provide special incentives for foreign investors. China is one of the top foreign investors among others in the country.

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  11.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                  1. https://www.cnnphilippines.com/news/2021/3/3/Philippines-debt-trap-pandemic-China-AIIB.html
                                                                  2. https://www.rappler.com/business/lambino-rejects-china-debt-trap-fears
                                                                  3. https://www.dof.gov.ph/provisions-in-phl-china-loan-accords-standard-in-all-other-agreements/

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  There is no known scenario where PRC connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land due to failure to pay debts in a timely manner. There are agreement signed by China and the Philippines that are standard in all other loan accords and is similar even with multilateral institutions such the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB).

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide

                                                                    Society

                                                                    The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                    1.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    49 countries chose this answer

                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      No articles on such organizations

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        2.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          No information on organizations in PH associated with UWCA

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            3.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              There are no articles indicating labor union exchnages to ACFTU.

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                4.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Visiting personnel from the “Overseas Chinese Affairs Bureau” (Qiaowu Shiwu Ju, 侨务事务局)—newly organized as the Tenth Bureau of the CCP United Front Work Department—meet with representatives of an educational center for ethnic Chinese during a visit to the Philippines, November 2018 Link

                                                                                1. https://jamestown.org/program/reorganizing-the-united-front-work-department-new-structures-for-a-new-era-of-diaspora-and-religious-affairs-work/

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                Limited data

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  5.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                    No articles, website, or information

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      6.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Catholics in mainland China have collected US$84,000 to buy rice and other food for the poor in slum areas of Philippine capital Manila who are struggling because of the Covid-19 lockdown. …Most donations have come from the Diocese of Wenzhou, while others came from Catholics in Guangzhou, Tianjin and Fujian…. Link Our Filipino-Chinese community, especially the FFCCCII, has been actively coordinating with the Chinese Embassy through Ambassador Huang Xilian for the Philippines’ traditional friend and ancient trade partner China to send us their humanitarian assistance of medical supplies donations whether from the Chinese government, companies like Huawei or TikTok and philanthropists like Jack Ma. Link

                                                                                      1. https://www.ucanews.com/news/chinese-catholics-give-food-to-pandemic-hit-filipinos/87678#
                                                                                      2. https://www.manilatimes.net/2020/04/20/weekly/expat-diplomats/chinese-filipino-organizations-raise-p265-m-to-help-fight-covid-19/716106

                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                      None

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        7.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Since officially commencing its global expansion in June 2019, iQIYI has attracted a large number of global users' in Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, North America and other regions. Link

                                                                                        1. https://tribune.net.ph/index.php/2021/01/31/chinese-dramas-gaining-viewership-in-the-philippines/
                                                                                        2. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/iqiyi-becomes-one-of-the-first-chinese-streaming-platforms-to-receive-iso27701-global-data-privacy-certification-301199587.html
                                                                                        3. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/iqiyis-reality-show-youth-with-you-season-3-becomes-global-hit-topping-twitter-trending-lists-in-multiple-countries-301264726.html

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        No exact number on followers of China entertainment product.

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          8.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Caroline Hau, a prominent Japan-based scholar of overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, notes the intimate link between the changing representations of Chinese and China in cultural products in the Philippines and the rise of PRC. She notes the popularity of films and TV shows portraying Filipino-Chinese as well as their networks in China in a positive light. This is a recent change considering that many of the cultural products on the Filipino-Chinese and their families in China tend to portray them negatively or stereotypically. Elite families, especially the Filipino-Chinese, have also put up cultural shows (exhibits, gallery, etc.) showing/discovering/tracing their roots to mainland China. In short, Hau generally finds evidence that the rising strength of PRC spurred a revival of Chineseness in the Philippines including in culture.

                                                                                          1. https://www.spot.ph/newsfeatures/50270/cinema-china-10-pinoy-movies-go-chinese
                                                                                          2. https://brill.com/view/book/9789401207089/B9789401207089-s008.xml
                                                                                          3. https://www.jstor.org/stable/42633851
                                                                                          4. https://nuspress.nus.edu.sg/products/the-chinese-question

                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                          Most films or tv shows in the Philippines made use of Chinese themes due to the long history and culture of the Chinese and Chinese-Filipinos in the country. It is by no means made to portray China in a positive light.

                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            9.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              There are no Filipino celebrities sharing Chinese propaganda narratives.

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  There are no accessible data showing local government units in the Philippines sharing Chinese propaganda.

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                    In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    When asked which country to support if ASEAN were forced to support either US or China, the Philippines chose US from 2020 and 2021 at 82.5% and 86.6%, respectively. Link 59.7% of the Philippine respondents viewed China as revisionist power and intend to turn Southeast Asia into its sphere of influence. Link

                                                                                                    1. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/The-State-of-SEA-2021-v2.pdf
                                                                                                    2. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/The-State-of-SEA-2021-v2.pdf

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    None

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                      Military

                                                                                                      The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      China has also supplied the Philippines with small arms on favourable terms (Balana and Ramos, 2016), and since 2016 at least USD 22 million worth of small arms have been transferred to the Philippines from China (Zheng, 2017), including at least 6,000 assault rifles, hundreds of sniper rifles, 30 rocket-propelled grenade launchers, ammunition, and other unspecified small arms. Despite these overtures the AFP rejected these weapons and they were passed to the police (Fonbuena, 2017; Mogato, 2018). (Page 67) Link In May 2017 a letter of intent was signed with China on possible orders worth up to $500 million. This was followed in June by a Chinese aid shipment of 3000 rifles worth PHP 370 million pesos ($7.3 million), as the Philippine armed forces fought rebel forces over Marawi City (Page 33 and 35) Link

                                                                                                      1. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/S-Trade-Update/SAS-Trade-Update-2019.pdf
                                                                                                      2. https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2019-12/1912_arms_flows_to_south_east_asia_wezeman.pdf

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      None

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        China is a very important market for the Philippines. Electronic products are the major exports of the Philippines to China. More specifically, they are automatic data-processing machines (Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) product no. 752), cathode valves and tubes (SITC 776), and accessories for office machines and data-processing machines (SITC 759). (Page 116) Link

                                                                                                        1. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/186810341203100305

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        Automatic data-processing machines, cathode valves and tubes are usual components of military and law enforcement equipment

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) is equipped with a mix of imported weapons systems, particularly second-hand equipment from the US; since 2014, its top weapons suppliers are Indonesia, South Korea, and the US (2020) Link

                                                                                                          1. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/field/military-equipment-inventories-and-acquisitions/

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          There are no accessible data showing that Philippines and China collaborated on the development of military or law enforcement equipment.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            The dispute erupted last month when Manila lodged a diplomatic protest with Beijing and demanded the withdrawal from the Julian Felipe (Whitsun) Reef of more than 200 Chinese maritime militia vessels. The military reported that 44 of them were still moored at the reef last week and nearly 200 more were scattered around other reefs and Pag-asa (Thitu), the biggest island occupied by Filipinos within the country’s 370-kilometer EEZ. Link

                                                                                                            1. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1414787/dnd-chief-china-intent-on-occupying-west-ph-sea

                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                            China is forcing its way to SCS by building bases within the EEZ of the Philippines without bilateral agreement between two parties.

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              After Typhoon Haiyan (also referred to as Typhoon Yolanda) struck the Philippines in 2013, Beijing’s response included dispatching the PLA’s Peace Ark hospital ship, although it initially only offered a small aid contribution and waited until international pressure mounted before extending any offer of relief personnel or equipment. Most observers linked the minimal and delayed response to tensions with Manila over South China Sea sovereignty claims. The deployment of the Peace Ark, with its 300 hospital beds and more than 120 medical personnel, was the first time China had sent any naval ship on a disaster relief mission abroad. Link

                                                                                                              1. https://www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/Research/USCC%20Staff%20Report_The%20Chinese%20Military%E2%80%99s%20Role%20in%20Overseas%20Humanitarian%20Assistance%20and%20Disaster%20Relief_7.11.19.pdf
                                                                                                              2. https://www.cnbc.com/2013/11/11/china-yet-to-deploy-substantial-navy-to-aid-philippines.html

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              None

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  There are no agreement with Philippines and China on establishing a base and deployment of PLA.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      There are no accessible data

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          There is no data

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              There are no accessible information on retired military officers receiving benefits from China in the Philippines.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                  There are no articles showing Philippine high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the PLA

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    China-ASEAN Joint Maritime Exercise in 2018 with Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, Vietnam, the Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Burma Page 25 Link China's armed forces have sent military personnel to participate in multilateral engagements including the ADMM-Plus Experts' Working Group Table-Top Exercise on Peacekeeping Operations in the Philippines in February 2014/ Link

                                                                                                                                    1. https://fas.org/man/eprint/dod-china-2019.pdf
                                                                                                                                    2. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-09/18/c_139376725.htm

                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                    None

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                      Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                      The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.scmp.com/topics/china-philippines-relations
                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.oecd.org/site/adboecdanti-corruptioninitiative/39787494.pdf
                                                                                                                                      3. http://legacy.senate.gov.ph/15th_congress/treaties/ratification_of_treaty_rp_china_mutual_legal_assistance_criminal_matters.pdf

                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                      There are treaties that are currently maintain by China and the Philippines like the Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters between Hong Kong, China and the Philippines. Even with the West Philippines Sea issue, China still vows to continue providing assistance in the country amidst the pandemic.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael-Logan/publication/338843062_Terrorism_in_the_Philippines_and_Its_Influence_on_Great_Powers/links/5e2f21594585152d156daa75/Terrorism-in-the-Philippines-and-Its-Influence-on-Great-Powers.pdf
                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.doj.gov.ph/news_article.html?newsid=671
                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/politics/article/3094433/criticising-china-could-be-terrorism-under-philippines-anti

                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                        There are some signed cooperation between the two countries against combatting terrorism. In recent event, The Philippines congress passed the Anti-Terror Bill address the issue of terrorism and all allied activities. The critics of the bill argued that this will be subject to abused of power and that it be can used for China’s advantage as it was observed that the current administration favours them.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369801X.2020.1863839
                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/economics/article/3043542/chinese-crime-wave-hits-dutertes-philippines-pogos-grow
                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/triads-behind-drug-trade-in-philippines-duterte/920361

                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                          During the pre-pandemic in the Country, one of the biggest issue is the war on drugs. The increasing number of POGO grows unchecked and become the ‘haven for Chinese criminals and criminal syndicates’.

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. https://business.inquirer.net/321952/imported-medical-wear-cost-3500-local-jobs
                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.reuters.com/world/china/philippines-duterte-defends-purchase-chinese-covid-19-vaccine-2021-01-13/
                                                                                                                                            3. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/asiapacific/2021-02/22/c_139758425.htm

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            Amidst the COVID pandemic and increasing debts of the country. It was controversial that the government choose to import medical equipment and even vaccine from China. The purchase of PPEs and testing kits cost a lot more than the locally made and resulted to loss of jobs to many local manufacturers. Another issue is that there was a delay in the purchase of vaccine. And even If other brands offered a lower cost for the covid vaccine, the administration still choose to still get those manufactured from China even if China itself will not used the same vaccine.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.manilatimes.net/2017/05/25/news/national/china-vietnam-behind-cyber-attacks-ph-asia/329196
                                                                                                                                              2. https://manilastandard.net/business/economy-trade/347961/cyberattacks-from-china-threaten-ph-economic-interests.html

                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                              The Philippines already filed about 60 diplomatic protests against China under the Duterte administration. Cyberattacks from China along with its growing business influence and military presence in the Philippines are posing a threat to the Philippines’ economic interests. The main concern of Senator Grace Poe is the government’s questionable capability to counter Chinese cyberattacks especially with the new DITO Telecom operating in the country which is co-owned by a Chinese national

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/fast-facts-chinese-triads-organized-crimes

                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                There are no available public information discussing triad action in the Philippines recently. However, the triad influence is still rampant in the country which has been the suspect for many criminal activities.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                  My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  2019 article regarding the government use of Chinese equipment for internet surveillance system: Link

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/FP_20200428_china_surveillance_greitens_v3.pdf
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.reuters.com/article/philippines-telecoms/china-backed-telecom-firm-says-wont-spy-on-philippines-idINL4N2GE1IN
                                                                                                                                                  3. https://cnnphilippines.com/news/2019/11/22/DILG-Chinese-CCTV-Manila-Safe-Philippines.html

                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                  Even during the pre-pandemic situation, there is a tight tie between China and the Philippines wherein the country has been using the China provided surveillance and security system. The recent project was the DITO Telecom that aims to provide completion to the telecom duopoly in the country. Even with criticism, the government and even China assures that the communications equipment it will install at military camps will be used no be used for spying.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Article from 2019 regarding proposal to have PRC police force in the country: Link

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/geopolitics/article/3024757/police-philippines-china-plan-collaboration-foil-casino

                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                    There has been a proposal that the Philippines and China will collaborate to solve crimes committed by Chinese nationals against their compatriots but there are no news or article discussing that the plan was pushed through especially since the pandemic hits the country.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                      My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/southeast-asia/article/3134131/philippines-coronavirus-missteps-could-make-it-asias
                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.rappler.com/nation/hillary-clinton-fears-philippines-become-heavily-influenced-china
                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/jun/15/maria-ressa-rappler-editor-found-guilty-of-cyber-libel-charges-in-philippines

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      There are no known or direct request from PRC to detained a Filipino citizen for being involved on movements or activism against Hong Kong or Xinjiang. However, Maria Ressa, the co –owner and founder of Rappler has been found guilty of cyber libel was very vocal about his criticism about the government’s “corruption and extra judicial killings” and for being in favour of China. In addition, a giant tv network that shares news and opinions opposing the current administration’s action and how it seems to be favourable towards China’ administration despite many allegations was also been targeted resulting to the cancel of its licence and franchise to operate.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/4/30/philippines-backs-down-on-demand-for-taiwan-to-deport-worker
                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.vice.com/en/article/wxew4z/filipino-caregiver-taiwan-deportation-duterte-critic-democracy

                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                        There are no known public records and proofs that the Philippines deported Taiwan citizen to the PRC to face prosecution. Although, the opposite has happened when the current administration wanted Taiwan to deport a Filipino citizen for criticising the Duterte administration and which Taiwan as a democratic country decline.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                          My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://newsinfo.inquirer.net/1324905/moreno-seeks-deportation-for-2-chinese-owners-of-items-tagging-manila-as-part-of-china
                                                                                                                                                          2. https://news.abs-cbn.com/news/08/21/20/isko-wants-2-chinese-deported-for-province-of-china-tag
                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.onenews.ph/philippines-province-of-china-is-fake-news-roque-says

                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                          Manila’s current mayor has requested for the deportation of 2 Chinese business owners because of the label in their products stating Philippines as a province of China. This was national concern when the President commented and “joke” that why not make the country a province of China wayback in 2018.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                            Technology

                                                                                                                                                            The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Telecommunication/China-backed-telco-launches-service-to-take-on-Philippine-duopoly
                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1113235

                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                            The DITO Telecom is owned by Dennis Uy and China Telecom. It was formerly known as Mindanao Islamic Telephone Company, Inc. during 1998-2019. DITO began its commercial operation last March 08, 2021.

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                              27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.cfr.org/blog/china-huawei-5g
                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.fvaconsultancy.com/best-pocket-wifi-in-the-philippines/

                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                              There are few articles that disclosed where Telecom providers in the country get their hardware or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular network. However, most of the Telecom player in the Philippines such as Smart and Globe get their gadgets from China such as Huawei, ZTE and other PRC enterprises. At present most of the technology is 4G compatible and Globe has deployed 5G capabilities through their internet broadband service.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://dict.gov.ph/ph-to-improve-telco-services-to-meet-new-normal-demands/
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://business.inquirer.net/269921/ph-china-firms-to-launch-nationwide-wi-fi-digital-tv-services

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                DITO Telecom which started operating in the country was a PRC-connected entities that provide internet/wifi infrastructure projects. For a few months since DITO started operating, it is now expanding its coverage from Mindanao to Luzon where that National Capital Region is located.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/chinas-backdoors-in-philippine-military-camps-inquirer-columnist
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.reuters.com/article/philippines-security-telecoms-idUSL4N2H42CY

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  The DITO Telecom is one of the most controversial project in the Philippines supported it explaining that the risk of China spy in the country is very low. As what they said, telecom firm part-owned by a Chinese state company posed no national security threat, and said equipment it will install in army camps will be tightly scrutinised.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1127882

                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                    There are twelve projects are under implementation, in which the Philippine-Sino Center for Agricultural Technology-Technical Cooperation Program Phase III, two China-aid bridges project over the Pasig River and the Chico River Pump Irrigation Project is expected to be completed by the end of 2021. On the other hand, very few articles mentioned government collaboration with China such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardware.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.ifsec.events/philippines/visit/news-and-updates/itemized-list-ph-projects-covered-chinas-15-b-investment-pledges-duterte
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/673441/sdwp-071-smart-city-pathways-developing-asia.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                      3. http://www.peza.gov.ph/index.php/press-release/171-peza-to-celebrate-26th-anniversary-with-state-of-peza-address-to-build-partnerships-with-bsp-and-banks-for-credit-facilities-for-ecozones

                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                      There are cities who signed contracts with PRC related entities to established smart city systems. They were mostly registered with BCDA and PEZA, both a government owned controlled corporations.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.bsp.gov.ph/PaymentAndSettlement/FAQ_PhilPaSS.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-01-17/RMB-clearing-bank-launched-in-the-Philippines-X7qjlqEZEs/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                        There are different system used on the country, but there are no direct information that shows that CIPS is currently being used.

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://businessmirror.com.ph/2021/02/28/phls-chinas-st-agencies-launch-8-joint-rd-projects/
                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://business.inquirer.net/313538/china-emerges-as-phs-most-important-source-of-investments
                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://asiasociety.org/sites/default/files/2020-09/Weaponizing%20the%20Belt%20and%20Road%20Initiative_0.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          PRC is one of the TOP foreign investors in the country and one their focus is the technology sector. There are many projects in partnership with PRC and Philippines through Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and China’s Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) Joint Research Program (JRP) which covers health, agriculture and renewable energy.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://beijingpe.dfa.gov.ph/list-of-bilateral-agreements/84-phl-chn-relations

                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                            There are many MOUs signed between the country and PRC however, there are no recent data showing that there are companies who publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development.

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://digitalmarketingphilippines.com/comprehensive-look-on-the-top-7-social-media-platforms/
                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://technoladyinmanila.wordpress.com/tag/filipino-women-wechat-users/#:~:text=The%20Philippines%20is%20in%20the,over%20100%20million%20registered%20accounts.&text=%E2%80%9CThe%20Philippines%20is%20a%20hyper%20social%20community.
                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.onenews.ph/tiktok-still-the-most-downloaded-entertainment-app-in-phl-retains-global-popularity-despite-controversies

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              Most of the top social media used in the country is not from China such as Yuotube and Facebook. However, there are still many China-based social media app used in the country like Wechat, Tiktok and iQIYI. Despite the data privacy controversy, Tiktok remains the most downloadable app not only in the Philippines but also in the global users.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-11/27/c_139547563.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                Companies from different ASEAN countries including the Philippines signed three agreements outlining cooperation in the application of the BDS system. It was also reported that the Apple giant will be using Beidou system on their new Iphone 12 which is also a big seller brand in the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                  Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                  The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  A case of illicit investments is the illegal extraction and smuggling of minerals. In the Philippines, these investments funded artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) infrastructures because of the South China Sea dispute and the weak regulatory capacity of Philippine institutions. In broad terms, other foreign investors and Chinese entities can have illicit capital ventures in logging, agriculture, and many other sectors. It is still possible to infer that illicit capital proliferated because local governments were given the power to oversee ASM licensing and safeguarding. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-017-0033-0

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  None

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    On December 3, 2019, Ilocos Sur, Philippines and Hubei Province, China established Sister-Province relations in Vigan, Ilocos Sur Province. Link Both existing sister cities from the People’s Republic of China, namely, Jinjiang Municipal People’s Government and Nanning Municipal People’s Government were prompt to send medical and personal protective equipment to Davao City. Link On August 13, 1982, Baguio City, Philippines and Hangzhou City, China established Sister-City relations in Hangzhou. On October 20, 2002, Ilocos Norte, Philippines and Shandong Province, China established Sister-Province relations in Jinan, Shandong Province. On October 25, 2005, Laoag City, Ilocos Norte and Laibing City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region established Sister-City relations in Nanning. On August 21, 2009, Pangasinan, Philippines and Sichuang Province, China established intent of Sister-Province relations in Sichuang Province. The local government of Quezon City and Shenyang Municipal People’s Government of China renewed their sister-city ties on Monday (May 20 2019) at the Bulwagang Amoranto in Quezon City Hall. Link The Sangguniang Panlungsod (SP) passed a resolution authorizing Mayor Jose Espinosa to sign the agreement for and on behalf of the Iloilo city government to forge a friendly relationship with China’s Quanzhou City in Fujian Province. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://laoag.china-consulate.org/eng/yhwl/spc/t339056.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.davaocity.gov.ph/covid-19/sister-cities-help-bodes-well-in-davao-citys-foreign-ties/

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                    None

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Ruling party PDP-Laban made an agreement with the Communist Party of China to send party officials and members to China for policy training and party education. Then Senate President Aquilino Pimentel III, along with other members of PDP-Laban, attended the CPC provincial party school in Fujian. Since 2016 to present, they have also attended several gatherings of CPC-allied parties in China. This is the first formalized party-to-party relationship between the Philippines and PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://globalnation.inquirer.net/158865/pdp-laban-learn-ideology-communist-party-china
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1088178
                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/ISEAS_Perspective_2021_53.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                      No accessible data available

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Since Duterte took office in 2016, the Philippines’ ties with China have been warming. Duterte’s visit to China — from Aug. 28 to Sept. 1 — is his fifth in three years. Link VISITS TO CHINA BY PHILIPPINE PRESIDENTS: President Ferdinand E. Marcos: 7 June 1975 President Corazon C. Aquino: 14 April 1988 President Fidel V. Ramos: 25 April 1993 President Joseph E. Estrada: 16 May 2000 President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo: 29 October 2001; • 1-3 September 2004; 27 October-2 November 2006; • 21 April 2007; 5-6 June 2007; 1-2 October 2007; 30 March -1 April 2008, • 7-10 August 2008; 23-27 October 2008, 8-9 June 2010 President Benigno S. Aquino III, 30 August – 2 September 2011; 9-11 November 2014 (APEC Economic Leaders' Week) President Rodrigo Roa Duterte, • State Visit,18-21 October 2016 • Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, 13-15 May 2017 • Bo’ao Forum for Asia Annual Conference, 08-11 April 2018 • 2nd Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, 25-27 April 2019 • Official Visit, 28-30 August 2019 VISITS TO THE PHILIPPINES BY CHINESE PRESIDENTS/ PREMIERS: Premier Zhao Ziyang:6 August 1981 Premier Li Peng:13 December 1990 President Jiang Zemin:23 November 1996 Premier Zhu Rongji: 26 November 1999 President Hu Jintao: 26-28 April 2005 Premier Wen Jiabao: 15-16 January 2007 President Xi Jinping: 17-19 November 2015 (APEC Economic Leaders' Week) Premier Li Keqiang: 15-16 November 2017 President Xi Jinping: 20-21 November 2018 Link

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.cnbc.com/2019/08/28/philippines-duterte-in-china-meets-xi-jinping-to-talk-south-china-sea.html

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        None

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          China and Philippines agree to resume the Foreign Ministry Consultations, Consular Consultations, Joint Commission on Economic and Trade Cooperation, Annual Defense Security Talks, combat transnational crimes, including telecommunications fraud, on-line fraud, cybercrimes, drug trafficking, trafficking in persons and wildlife trafficking. Link Since 1975, China and Philippines have concluded almost 100 bilateral agreements that cover a wide spectrum – political, defense, trade and investments, judicial cooperation… Link Agreement on Cooperation Between the National Prosecution Service of the Department of Justice of the Republic of the Philippines and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate of the People’s Republic of China. Signed in Beijing in October 2000. Link ASEAN-China Cooperation on law enforcement. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/dfa-releases/10748-joint-statement-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-and-the-people-s-republic-of-china
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://beijingpe.dfa.gov.ph/84-phl-chn-relations
                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://beijingpe.dfa.gov.ph/84-phl-chn-relations
                                                                                                                                                                                          4. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/https://asean.org/storage/2012/05/ASEAN-Document-Series-on-Transnational-Crime-FINAL-with-link2.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                          None

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Chinese-Filipino businessmen funded campaign of Duterte. Link There are allegations of China-funded campaigns however there are no accessible or recorded data on sources of campaign funds from foreign government in the Philippines.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://news.abs-cbn.com/focus/12/05/16/p334m-from-only-13-donors-funded-dutertes-presidency

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              China’s party-to-party ties with Philippine party precedes the current administration. Since the early 2000s, the CPC has already engaged, albeit informally, with the biggest and most influential parties in the Philippines including: Liberal Party (LP), Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats (Lakas-CMD), Nationalist People’s Coalition (NPC), Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (LDP), and the Partido ng Masang Pilipino (PMP). There is limited information, however, on the nature of the exchange and support attached to these party-to-party ties.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://globalnation.inquirer.net/21671/chinese-communist-party-says-it-has-disowned-local-rebels#ixzz6lz9YxykU
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/ISEAS_Perspective_2021_53.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  There are no articles or information showing public statements from UFWD. Given the tensions between China and Philippines in the disputed SCS, Filipinos are exhibiting anti-Chinese sentiment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte announced his “separation” from the United States on Thursday, declaring he had realigned with China as the two agreed to resolve their South China Sea dispute through talks. “I’ve realigned myself in your ideological flow and maybe I will also go to Russia to talk to (President Vladimir) Putin and tell him that there are three of us against the world - China, Philippines and Russia. It’s the only way,” Duterte told his Beijing audience. Link Duterte jested in a speech at the Fiesta Pavilion of Manila Hotel “If you want, you can make us a province like Fujian, Philippine province of China, then there will be no problem. Link President Rodrigo Duterte rejected an expletive-laced tweet by Foreign Affairs Secretary Teodoro Locsin Jr. demanding China remove its ships from Philippine-claimed territories in the South China Sea. “China remains our benefactor,” Duterte said in a televised address on Monday. “We have many things to thank China for — their help in the past and their help now.” Link Enrile (Former Senator) supported Duterte’s bilateral approach to resolve the maritime dispute with China – a turnaround from the former senator’s position when he backed former president Benigno Aquino III’s decision to internationalize the issue. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-philippines-idUSKCN12K0AS
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://globalnation.inquirer.net/164413/rodrigo-duterte-jest-making-ph-chinese-province
                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1853726/world
                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/in-depth/juan-ponce-enrile-political-comeback-2021

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    : None

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        There are no articles or information on former politicians benefitting from PRC connected individuals. But this may have happened indirectly without evidence in the public domain.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Any bilateral agreement with China regarding contracting security services would have media coverage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                              The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No agreements, information or data indicating joint parliamentary friendship group or committee with PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Both sides will encourage exchange of visits of high-ranking governmental delegations and leaders at the local level, legislative organs, political parties, and civil organizations, and increase interactions and communications. (Joint Statement of the Republic of the Philippines and the People's Republic of China (2016)) Link Both sides will encourage exchange of visits of high-ranking governmental delegations and leaders at the local level, legislative organs, political parties, and civil organizations, and increase interactions and communications. (Joint Statement of the Republic of the Philippines and the People's Republic of China (2016)) Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/dfa-releases/10748-joint-statement-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-and-the-people-s-republic-of-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.thinkchina.sg/chinas-cpc-deepens-ties-philippine-political-parties

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  None

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Over the past 40 years, Philippines-China bilateral relations are multi-faceted and involve the three branches of government – executive, legislative and judiciary, and the various sectors of society. Since 1975, the two countries have concluded almost 100 bilateral agreements that cover a wide spectrum – political, defense, trade and investments, judicial cooperation… consular cooperation… people to people exchanges. Link Both sides will encourage exchange of visits of high-ranking governmental delegations and leaders at the local level, legislative organs, political parties, and civil organizations, and increase interactions and communications. (Joint Statement of the Republic of the Philippines and the People's Republic of China (2016)) Link Visiting President Xi Jinping has called on legislative bodies from China and the Philippines to further exchange experience in state governance and push forward multilevel, multiform cooperation for the development of the two nations' bilateral ties. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://beijingpe.dfa.gov.ph/84-phl-chn-relations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/dfa-releases/10748-joint-statement-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines-and-the-people-s-republic-of-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2018-11/21/c_137622120.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    none

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte surprised some observers when he announced during a state visit to China in October 2016 that he has “separated” from the US to be “dependent” on China “for a long time.” It would also help the Philippines avoid becoming a collateral damage following an intensified China-US rivalry in the South China Sea. Link Duterte’s pivot to China has commercial considerations with total of $24 billion in economic deals put on the table. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.fsi.gov.ph/the-philippines-pivot-to-china-a-review-of-perspectives/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.cfr.org/blog/duterte-and-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      At the outset, Philippine President Duterte has been vocal about the change in PH foreign policy in consideration of building better bilateral relations with China and securing funds for PH infrastructure projects. The evidence suggests towards Duterte taking positions in media moving away from US allegiance towards implied preference of China. On the South China Sea dispute while the international tribunal ruling has been in favour of Philippines, Duterte has not taken serious measures to stop Chinese occupation of the contested islands.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are few cases of Filipinos being illegally detained in China for isolated cases from political issues. There are no case or news that pertains to hostage diplomacy as Philippines enjoy relatively good bilateral relations with China unlike US, Canada, EU, and Australia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Philippine president-elect Rodrigo Duterte has welcomed the government’s “new southbound policy” and said he hopes that Taipei and Manila can deepen bilateral exchanges. Link In 2017, the Philippines and Taiwan inked an updated investment deal in Makati, the Philippines’ financial hub. The PRC government filed protests against the Philippines to stop the agreements, nonetheless, the agreements were signed on schedule. A poll in 2017 noted a huge increase in Filipino support towards Taiwanese independence from mainland China. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2016/06/19/2003648971
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://thediplomat.com/2017/12/taiwans-new-southbound-policy-scores-win-in-the-philippines/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No specific information on whether Philippines voted against Taiwan’s right to participate in the WHO. History has shown that PH maintained favourable bilateral cooperation with Taiwan as provided in supporting evidence. 70% on confidence rating as Philippine government is careful in directly acknowledging Taiwan as separate state with China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Philippines backed PRC candidate at the International Court of Justice.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.scmp.com/news/asia/article/3108968/philippines-back-chinas-candidate-world-court
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.pna.gov.ph/articles/1121143

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Philippines refused to recognize China's "unilateral imposition" of a "fishing moratorium" in the South China Sea (SCS) from May 1-Aug. 16, 2021, the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) said in a statement. Link The Philippines asserts ownership of the Spratly archipelago and the Scarborough Shoal, which is now occupied and controlled by China. Link After four years of flip-flopping, the Philippine President voiced strong support for a Hague ruling rejecting most of China’s claims to disputed waters. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.manilatimes.net/2021/05/18/news/ph-refuses-to-recognize-china-fishing-ban-in-disputed-sea/873937/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://theaseanpost.com/article/megaphone-diplomacy-and-south-china-sea
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://thediplomat.com/2020/09/in-un-speech-duterte-stiffens-philippines-stance-on-the-south-china-sea/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                None

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  On Friday a diverse group of states — including Russia, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Algeria and North Korea -- replied on Beijing's behalf. "We commend China's remarkable achievements in the field of human rights," said the letter, also signed by Myanmar, the Philippines, Zimbabwe and others. Echoing China's defense of the camps, Friday's letter described them as "vocational education and training centers." Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://news.abs-cbn.com/overseas/07/13/19/philippines-36-other-countries-defend-china-over-xinjiang-in-un-letter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  While Filipino social media users, academics and civil organization has shown negative stance against China’s treatment of Uyghurs, the PH government signing the letter shows a substantial evidence supporting China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The delegate from the Philippines in the UN General Assembly declared: "[I]t is clear that on the eve of the invasion in 1950, Tibet was not under the rule of any foreign country." Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.culturalsurvival.org/publications/cultural-survival-quarterly/legal-status-tibet

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Article dates back to 1988, thus current stance may not be the same. There are no articles showing more current views of PH on China’s treatment of Tibet

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      China, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahrain, Belarus, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Comoros, Congo-Brazzaville, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominica, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, UAE, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Opposing: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belize, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Germany, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Marshall Islands, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the U.K. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-07-03/More-countries-support-China-s-national-security-legislation-for-HKSAR-ROQbNU2PK0/index.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.axios.com/countries-supporting-china-hong-kong-law-0ec9bc6c-3aeb-4af0-8031-aa0f01a46a7c.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Philippines has not publicly announced its stance on National Security Law on Hong Kong

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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