Peru

$6,692.25
33.35M
Ranking
5/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

219/ 396
Executive partner
Fundación Andrés Bello - Centro de Investigación Chino Latinoamericano
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

62%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

25%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

56%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Peru had a GDP per capita of US $6,692 and a total population of 33.4 million people.

Peru established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1971. Peru was ranked 77st in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 72/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    68.2% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    52.3% / 34%
  • Economy
    54.5% / 33.6%
  • Society
    72.7% / 23.6%
  • Military
    63.6% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    45.5% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    29.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    56.8% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    54.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 3 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

There are two main outlets that utilize the network's products, but they don't have a local correspondent or an office.

  1. https://www.observatorioasiapacifico.org/es/noticias/item/inauguran-centro-de-prensa-china-america-latina-y-el-caribe.html
  2. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-peru-participa-programa-inmersion-para-periodistas-china-710088.aspx
  3. https://www.datosperu.org/empresa-la-prensa-peruano-chino-sociedad-anonima-cerrada-la-prensa-peruano-chino-sac-20601118697.php
  4. https://www.wearebn.com/zh/archives/2550

Supplementary Notes

Through Centro de Prensa China-Latinoamerica y el Caribe (CLACPC) inaugurated in 2018, latinamerican governmental media joined the World Chinese Media. Since then, in the case of Peru, the news related to China and published by Agencia Peruana de Noticias ANDINA, who belongs to the Peruvian government, usually use as source, XINHUA news, which is the official media of the PRC.

    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Not Found

    1. https://thediplomat.com/2019/10/what-is-the-belt-and-road-news-network/

      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://www.thedialogue.org/analysis/chinas-state-media-in-latin-america-profile-and-prospects/
      2. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-cooperacion-entre-china-y-america-latina-avanza-a-un-ritmo-vertiginoso-710820.aspx

      Supplementary Notes

      Many Peruvian journalists have been visited Beijing invited by the PRC in order to attend short seminars about China and also for sightseeing. For many of them, this trip was the best trip of their whole life due to the luxury facilities and special attention that they received during the trip.

        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Hide
        5.
        Exposure

        In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

        Yes

        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        1 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        24 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        22 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        7 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        18 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Not Found

        1. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/
        2. https://zaichina.net/2019/09/los-antiguos-inmigrantes-chinos-al-peru-la-beneficencia-y-el-barrio-chino/
        3. http://www.findglocal.com/PE/Lima/541727219183506/Revista-China-Hoy-Peru

        Supplementary Notes

        In Chinatown – Lima, everybody can find Chinese newspaper in local language. This newspaper is usually distributed to Peruvian businesses located nearby.

          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          6.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          2 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          44 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          19 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          3 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          0 countries chose this answer

          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

          1. https://asociacionchina.net/
          2. http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/hoy/2009n/s2009n11/p62.htm

            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            7.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

            Yes

            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            22 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            21 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            6 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            23 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            7 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Hide
            8.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

            Yes

            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            38 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            13 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            15 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            8 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Hide
            9.
            Pressure

            In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            57 countries chose this answer

            4/ Yes

            24 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Chancellor of Peru said that Peru needs the Chinese vaccine and Peruvian media needs to be very careful in order to deliver opinion about China.

            1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nkge90jIzS4

              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              10.
              Effect

              In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

              Yes

              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              4 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              51 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              11 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              9 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              4 countries chose this answer

              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

              Hide
              11.
              Effect

              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              44 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              18 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              4 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              9 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              5 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              No evidence found.

                Supplementary Notes

                Environmental local NGO, Dar Peru, protests against China´s human rights abuses practices with emphasis in Peru.

                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide

                  Academia

                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                  1.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                  More

                  0/ No

                  9 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  11 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  31 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  25 countries chose this answer

                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                  Hide
                  2.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                  More

                  0/ No

                  5 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  14 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  5 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  31 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  27 countries chose this answer

                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                  1. https://confucio.pucp.edu.pe/
                  2. https://www.usmp.edu.pe/index.php?pag=novedades&sec=nov_93

                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    3.
                    Exposure

                    My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    46 countries chose this answer

                    4/ Yes

                    35 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Hide
                    4.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    2 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    40 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    17 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    14 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    2 countries chose this answer

                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                    Hide
                    5.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    10 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    21 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    19 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    10 countries chose this answer

                    72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    The link 1. (page 14/28) indicates that the Center for Peru-China studies at Del Pacifico University has been relatively successful despite financial resource constraint. There is no evidence that academic research centers received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities, therefore we confirm our answer.

                    1. https://www.ned.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Chapter3-Sharp-Power-Rising-Authoritarian-Influence-Peru.pdf

                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      6.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      47 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      6 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      10 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      We found a link of recruitment for the 1000 Talents in Peru but it is from 2022, will update when the Index renew.

                      1. https://www.gob.pe/institucion/embajada-del-peru-en-mexico/noticias/579981-convocatoria-de-las-becas-sre-huawei-mil-talentos-para-el-desarrollo-digital-de-las-mujeres-en-america-latina-y-el-caribe

                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide
                        7.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        13 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        17 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        15 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        12 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        14 countries chose this answer

                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        The event mentioned was sponsored by two PRC universities and the Peruvian academic invited, Carlos Aquino, is one of the most renowned academics in the country who studies China Peru relations.

                        1. https://issuu.com/carmenpazoszavala/docs/centro_de_estudios_peru-china
                        2. https://vrip.unmsm.edu.pe/simposio-internacional-sobre-cooperacion-entre-china-y-america-latina-en-la-gobernanza-global/

                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          8.
                          Pressure

                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          64 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          6 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          No evidence found.

                            Supplementary Notes

                            Based on experience, there is no evidence that this has happened.

                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              9.
                              Pressure

                              In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              7 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              64 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              1 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              0 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              6 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              No evidence found.

                                Supplementary Notes

                                Based on experience, there is no evidence that this has happened. In the supposed case, this would have been made public or had claimed, however we didn’t find this situation. By this reason, we validate the answer.

                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  10.
                                  Effect

                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Hide
                                  11.
                                  Effect

                                  In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                  77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  No evidence found.

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    There is no evidence that this has happened, therefore we confirm our answer.

                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide

                                      Economy

                                      The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                      1.
                                      Exposure

                                      The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      0/ No

                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Hide
                                      2.
                                      Exposure

                                      PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. https://elperuano.pe/noticia/132229-el-peru-coloca-por-primera-vez-bonos-sostenibles

                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        3.
                                        Exposure

                                        The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        0/ No

                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ Yes

                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                        1. http://www.lasbambas.com/notas-de-prensa/resultados-de-produccion-del-cuarto-trimestre-de-2020
                                        2. https://somosperiodismo.com/shougang-hierro-peru-mineros-fallecieron-de-covid-19-por-incumplimiento-de-protocolos-de-bioseguridad-y-explotacion-laboral/

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        1. In 2021 the copper price is very high, but the Chinese industry needs this raw material to build electric vehicles, according to its 2030 Plan. 2. Bambas, the most important copper mine in Peru, has as principal partner is China Minmetals Corporation (CMC). Shougang is the principal iron mine in Peru. Both Chinese companies have labor conflicts and contamination problems

                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          4.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          0/ No

                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          1.The PRC is building the first port in Latinamerica in Chancay with a budget of 3,000 millions USD. 2.Yangtze Power bought LUZ DEL SUR energy company for US$ 3,590 millions

                                          1. https://www.unav.edu/web/global-affairs/detalle/-/blogs/el-primer-puerto-de-china-en-latinoamerica-se-construye-en-peru
                                          2. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-empresa-china-adquiere-luz-del-sur-pagando-3590-millones-794441.aspx#:~:text=Cabe%20destacar%20que%20a%20fines,.%2C%20Limited%20(CYP)

                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            5.
                                            Exposure

                                            My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            0/ No

                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ Yes

                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Peru becomes China-led AIIB prospective member (23/3/2017) Link.

                                            1. https://andina.pe/Ingles/noticia-peru-becomes-chinaled-aiib-prospective-member-659554.aspx
                                            2. https://dialogochino.net/en/trade-investment/39049-explainer-latin-america-aiib-the-asian-infrastructure-investment-bank/

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            In 2017 Peru applied to join the Bank, but was not accepted because of its lack of money to pay the initial quote of 5 USD Millions.

                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              6.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              0/ No

                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Peru or a peruvian companies do not appear on the websites: Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce Link Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce Link

                                              1. https://srcic.org/
                                              2. https://www.brgcc.hk/

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              In the academic field, BRI is an expression of opportunities. However, in the practice, China´s founding interest are not in line with Peruvian interest. The train road project proposed by China is related to a road that connect Peru and Brazil and passes through Bolivia. The project is stopped because this doesn’t provide guarantee to Peru. In this sense, China needs left-wing government leadership in Brazil and Peru to close the deal.

                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                7.
                                                Pressure

                                                My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                1. http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1870-46542014000100007
                                                2. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-que-impacto-tendria-el-peru-mayor-escalada-guerra-comercial-751427.aspx

                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                During the commercial war between PRC and USA, Peruvian export declines because PRC didn’t buy minerals to Peru

                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                  Hide
                                                  8.
                                                  Pressure

                                                  In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  PRC embassy in Peru delivered a press note about COVID 19.

                                                  1. http://www.embajadachina.org.pe/esp/sghd/t1737727.htm

                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    9.
                                                    Effect

                                                    My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                    Yes

                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    0/ No

                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Peru is the second economic partner of PRC in Latin America.

                                                    1. http://www.sice.oas.org/Trade/PER_CHN/PER_CHN_s/PER_CHN_text_s.asp
                                                    2. http://www.sice.oas.org/TPD/PER_CHN/PER_CHN_s.ASP#:~:text=El%204%20de%20abril%20de,el%20acuerdo%20en%20Beijing%2C%20China

                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      10.
                                                      Effect

                                                      In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Hide
                                                      11.
                                                      Effect

                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      76 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      No evidence found.

                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                        There is no evidence, for this reason we support the answer. However due to Brazil infrastructure companies’ impediments and the region sanitary and economic crisis, local and regional governments in Peru will require to satisfy infrastructure needs (roads and hospital constructions) needs. Surely they will try to negotiate infrastructure projects with PRC entities.

                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide

                                                          Society

                                                          The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                          1.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                          1. http://www.embajadachina.org.pe/esp/sghd/t1811546.htm

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          There is no evidence, therefore we support our answer.

                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            2.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. https://asociacionchina.net/zh/noticias/page/2
                                                            2. http://inews.ifeng.com/50297454/news.shtml?&back

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            …..

                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              3.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                A Peruvian accountant who deals with Chinese community in Peru said that in Peru, Chinese workers federation is not allowed because of the Chinese Embassy influence and that most of these workers, are illegally working in Peru. By this reason, labor unions in Peru have no relation with Chinese association.

                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  4.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  At least two Peru-China friendship groups, two organizations for Peruvians of Chinese descent, and one youth federation are active in Chinese diaspora community events and activities. Peru is by far the country with the largest UF activities we've encountered in the region. Including: Centro de la Amistad Peruano Chino, Fundación Amistad Peruano China, Asociación Peruano China - APCH, Sociedad Central de Beneficencia China Ton Huy Chong Koc, and Asociación Juvenil Jiangmen Wuyi en el Perú. (The last one still active but no public website)

                                                                  1. https://patronato.pe/
                                                                  2. https://panamericana.pe/24horas/locales/245032-san-isidro-realizo-presentacion-instituto-estudios-asia-pacifico
                                                                  3. https://www.universidadperu.com/empresas/amistad-peruano-china.php
                                                                  4. https://www.apch.com.pe/
                                                                  5. http://www.scbcperu.com/es/
                                                                  6. https://www.sohu.com/a/273446527_99952528
                                                                  7. http://gd.ifeng.com/a/20200214/8368225_0.shtml

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  We didn’t find any evidence related to UFWD, therefore we support our answer. However, the Asociación de Beneficia China received funding from different sources, and UFWD could be one of this, but there is no evidence.

                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    5.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                    Yes

                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    33 countries chose this answer

                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://asociacionchina.net/zh/secciones/caligrafia-pintura/
                                                                    2. https://kknews.cc/zh-tw/culture/ppl8p32.html

                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      6.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://asociacionchina.net/zh/responsabilidad-social/

                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        7.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        38 countries chose this answer

                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          A source provider of services to Chinese community told us, that some entertainment products are distributed among the Chinese community and also inside the left-side political parties.

                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            8.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            9.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. https://cosas.pe/tag/erasmo-wong/
                                                                            2. https://rpp.pe/famosos/celebridades/javier-wong-el-tusan-que-no-celebra-el-ano-nuevo-chino-noticia-1105546

                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              10.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              54 countries chose this answer

                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              11.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                              1. https://www.lampadia.com/analisis/comercio-internacional-y-desarrollo/las-inspiradoras-enseanzas-de-jack-ma/
                                                                              2. https://home.kpmg/pe/es/home/insights/2020/04/covid-19-la-respuesta-china-y-las-lecciones-sobre-como-responder-a-una-pandemia.html
                                                                              3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33758434/

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              Peruvian citizens don’t know about PRC, but about Chinese product and its powerful economy.

                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide

                                                                                Military

                                                                                The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                1.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                1. https://elpais.com/economia/2018/05/31/actualidad/1527759344_963392.html
                                                                                2. https://www.infodefensa.com/latam/2017/01/05/noticia-nuevamente-sistemas-armas-chinos-juicio.html

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                NORINCO is the main armament supplier for Peru military. Ammunitions for rifles and mortars, terrain artillery systems and military bei ben trucks are key demanded armament for Peru. In 2016, Peru bought German trucks to replace the defective Chinese trucks due to poor quality.

                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  2.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                    Peru doesn’t have military industry. All the weapons and military materials are brought from international markets.

                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      3.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        Peru doesn’t have coo-participation with Chinese military industry.

                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          4.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                          1. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-buque-hospital-china-llego-al-callao-y-atendera-gratuitamente-a-mas-2-mil-pacientes-590441.aspx

                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                          The Chinese investment in the Port of Chancay (small city located 78 km north of Lima) and the continuously Chinese delegation visits to the Chinese naval hospital ship located in Callao Port, could show true intention to build a navy base in Chancay. They have signed contract with high rank navy officers in retirement. This statement is just an unconfirmed personal supposition.

                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            5.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                            1. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-buque-hospital-chino-atendio-a-2000-pacientes-peruanos-seis-dias-591327.aspx
                                                                                            2. https://www.gob.pe/institucion/mininter/noticias/307651-ministerio-del-interior-recibio-de-china-650-mil-mascarillas-para-la-policia

                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                            In 2015, Chinese navy and Hospital Ship “ Peace Ark” helped Peru through humanitarian relief. In 2020, PRC donated masks.

                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              6.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                  1. https://busquedas.elperuano.pe/normaslegales/autorizan-viajes-de-oficiales-de-la-marina-de-guerra-del-per-resolucion-ministerial-no-1156-2019-demgp-1804546-1/

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  Peruvian navy Commander Victor Ibañez Valencia speaks Chinese and is married with Chinese citizen.

                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                    1. https://www.gob.pe/institucion/mindef/normas-legales/180899-688-2014-de-mgp

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    [Doublethink Lab]: Also see Link

                                                                                                    1. http://eng.mod.gov.cn/news/2021-08/02/content_4890942.htm

                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                    1. https://www.colliers.com/es-pe/articulos/puertochancay
                                                                                                    2. https://www.gob.pe/institucion/rree/noticias/68619-cancilleria-realiza-la-reunion-informativa-establecimiento-de-un-hub-portuario-tecnologico-e-industrial-en-chancay

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    Admiral Carlos Tejada Mera was the commander in chief of Peruvian Navy in 2014 to 2017. Also, Admiral Gonzalo Rios Polastri was the commander in chief of Peruvian Navy in 2017 to 2018. Now, both officers are employees of high rank in COSCO Chinese company, they are building the port of Chancay, in the north part of Lima.

                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      According to a service provider source, Colonels from the Chinese armed force have visited Peru to support the Peruvian armed forces and police.

                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                          1. https://elperuano.pe/noticia/100450-promover-la-cooperacion-entre-china-y-peru-en-defensa-de-la-paz-y-estabilidad-mundial

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          In the last 10 years, PLA has cooperated with the Peruvian Armed Forces. Usually, through military assimilated to medical units.

                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                            Law Enforcement

                                                                                                            The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                            1. https://www.pj.gob.pe/wps/wcm/connect/aae76c80495455b989a7f9cc4f0b1cf5/Tratado+de+Extradici%C3%B3n+Per%C3%BA-China.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
                                                                                                            2. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-peru-extradita-a-china-banquero-requerido-robo-500-millones-dolares-718928.aspx

                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                            The case of Chinese citizen Won Ho Wing was the first extradition case to PRC.

                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    From LABORATORY SINO PHARM, China sent to Peruvian government vaccines of low quality, however the contract considers high prices each vaccine. Peru bought a package of one million vaccines at 30 dollars each vaccine.

                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                      1. https://portal.andina.pe/edpespeciales/2018/ciberataques-peru/index.html
                                                                                                                      2. https://web.archive.org/web/20220322080408/https://cdn.www.gob.pe/uploads/document/file/911157/Alerta_integrada_de_seguridad_digital_N__086-2020-PECERT.pdf

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      According to Peruvian government press sources, in 2017 Peru ranked number 1 in Latin America for being a victim of the cybercrime called "ransomware" (data hijacking). In addition, on the report named "Integrated Digital Security Alert" issued by the Peruvian government (LINK 2 page 5 of 14), it was identified that there are at least 10 threat actors (such as "malware") all connected to China, dedicated to espionage activities that use Plug X, as a toll to cause destruction and damage to the business sector and the community.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                        In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        No evidence found.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.infodefensa.com/texto-diario/mostrar/3127447/policia-peru-encarga-hytera-mantenimiento-sistema-tetra

                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                            In 2017, the Chinese government donated 4,000 computers to the Ministry of Justice in Peru.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                In Peru, Chinese mineral companies signed up Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with local police in order to support the Chinese companies to solve social conflicts.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                  1. https://idehpucp.pucp.edu.pe/notas-informativas/cidh-presenta-caso-de-ciudadano-chino-contra-el-estado-peruano-ante-la-corte-interamericana-de-derechos-humanos/

                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                  Because of the lack of evidence, we support our answer.

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                    My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                      There is no reported evidence, so we support our answer.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                        My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.corteidh.or.cr/corteidh/docs/casos/articulos/resumen_297_esp.pdf
                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.corteidh.or.cr/docs/casos/wong/contest.pdf

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                          Technology

                                                                                                                                          The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Peru has four (04) companies that provide telecom services: Telefonica (Spain), Claro (Mexico), Entel (Chile) and Bitel (Vietnam). In 2015, Telefonica and China Unicom agreed to share their international data center capabilities as a first step towards broader and larger scale cloud cooperation

                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.telefonica.com/en/web/press-office/-/telefonica-and-china-unicom-collaborating-in-joint-procurement-of-smartphones

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. https://elcomercio.pe/tecnologia/tecnologia/5g-en-peru-que-permitira-hacer-la-tecnologia-que-acaba-de-ser-autorizada-en-el-pais-mtc-noticia/
                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.entel.pe/postpago-5G/

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            Peru has four (04) companies that provide telecom services: Telefonica (Spain), Claro (Mexico), Entel (Chile) and Bitel (Vietnam). All these companies sell mobile phones of HUAWEI. The promotion of 5G technology has been observed since 2021. [Doublethink Lab]: Also see Link

                                                                                                                                            1. https://contxto.com/en/peru/huawei-rolls-out-5g-tests-in-peru/

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. https://lexlatin.com/noticias/consorcio-chino-peruano-suscribe-creditos-para-llevar-banda-ancha-zonas-rurales

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              There is no evidence, therefore we confirm our answer.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.miraflores.gob.pe/miraflores-alista-plan-para-utilizar-camaras-biometricas-con-reconocimiento-facial/

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                  There is no evidence, therefore we support our answer. It should be mention that Peru was negotiating to install Smart Cities with South Korea government, however due to the pandemic, this project was stopped.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://newsbeezer.com/perueng/unmsm-students-win-the-finals-of-the-huawei-world-competition/

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                            All are global application and not any just coming from China. Because there is lack of evidence, we support our answer.

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                Because there is lack of evidence, we support our answer.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                  Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                  The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://spanish.xinhuanet.com/2018-07/21/c_137339026.htm
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.ucsm.edu.pe/ciudad-hermana-de-chengdu-rindio-homenaje-arequipa-por-su-479-aniversario

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  1.Shangai city is the sister city of Lima, the capital of Peru. Because of the importance of Shanghai, the second most important bank of Peru has an office in this place Link, or Link. 2. Chengdu city is the sister city of Arequipa, the second most important city of Peru. 3. Official document issued by the Peruvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs listing the sister cities of Peru Link. 4. Link Report includes geopolitical actions of sisters’ cities between PRC and Latin America.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://interbank.pe/oficina-en-china
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://elmirador.pe/economia-y-empresas/pymes-y-mypes/586-interbank-y-bank-of-china-crean-un-china-desk-en-peru.html
                                                                                                                                                                  3. http://www.rree.gob.pe/politicaexterior/Documents/Acuerdos%20de%20hermanamiento.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                  4. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/777/77751033009.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-cooperacion-entre-china-y-america-latina-avanza-a-un-ritmo-vertiginoso-710820.aspx
                                                                                                                                                                  2. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/101565/1/Mendez_la_conexi_n_china_en_la_Pol_tica_Exterior_del_Per_en_el_Siglo_XXI_published.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  Politicians related to different parties in Peru have been invited by PRC to China in order to see economic advancements.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/esp/wjb/zzjg/ldmzs/xwlb/t1775706.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://elcomercio.pe/politica/gobierno/ppk-califico-viaje-china-mision-exitosa-259952-noticia/

                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                    1. Ex Peruvian President Martin Vizcarra contacted President Xi Jiping by phone requesting support for obtaining COVID 19 vaccines (2020/04/30) 2. Ex Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuckzynski visited PRC, as his first official trip 3. Link

                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.embajadachina.org.pe/esp/sghd/t1810254.htm

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.pj.gob.pe/wps/wcm/connect/cortesuperiorlimasurpj/s_csj_lima_sur_nuevo/as_inicio/as_imagen_prensa/as_noticias/csjls_nota+de+prensa+015_oip_csjls

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                        1. Ex Peruvian president Martin Vizcarra received secret COVID vaccination from Chinese laboratory 2. PRC Embassy in Peru didn’t know about these vaccines

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.sohu.com/a/245298061_796605
                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.cadal.org/informes/pdf/El-arte-de-hacer-amigos.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              We didn’t find evidence that this has happened. For this reason, we validate the answer.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  However just a few left-sides parties have expressed positive views of PRC government. In addition, outside the period of analysis, there have been pro-China governments, governments during which the FTA with China was signed.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.dw.com/es/vacunagate-en-per%C3%BA-m%C3%A1s-de-cien-personas-recibieron-vacunas-en-secreto/a-56709060
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-56101527
                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://elcomercio.pe/lima/sucesos/vacunas-contra-el-covid-19-cuanto-cuesta-la-dosis-de-sinopharm-y-por-que-es-importante-conocer-su-precio-noticia/

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                    High governmental authorities received free Chinese vaccines under the condition of buying expensive and low efficient vaccines for the Peruvian society.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-55352307

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                      There is no evidence that security services offered by private PRC companies contracted by Peru national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        The most influence congressman in Peru belonged to this group. The congressmen involved are Carlos Fernando Mesias Ramirez and Mariano Andres Yupanqui Miñano.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.congreso.gob.pe/ligasparlamentarias/2016-2021/ligaparlamentaria-peru-china
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://twitter.com/ilanegra/status/1362068731287986177
                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://andina.pe/agencia/noticia-integrantes-liga-parlamentaria-peruchina-declaran-no-haber-sido-vacunados-834334.aspx

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          There is the Peruvian-Chinese Parliamentary Friendship League that continuously meets with the Chinese embassy and seeks to bring closer relations between the Congress of Peru and the National People's Congress of China, to dialogue on issues of common interest, seeking the permanent exchange of information. and experiences of a parliamentary nature.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.congreso.gob.pe/ligasparlamentarias/2016-2021/ligaparlamentaria-peru-china
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/101565/1/Mendez_la_conexi_n_china_en_la_Pol_tica_Exterior_del_Per_en_el_Siglo_XXI_published.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                            The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            With the vaccines given and inoculated to the President Vizcarra and officials of the highest level of government in a secret way, the Chinese laboratory Sinopharm ensured their sale (Chinese vaccine) and managed to sabotage any other purchase from the government of Peru. That is why the negotiation with Pfizer was backfired on the grounds of "a matter of sovereignty".

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-56782583
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://ojo-publico.com/2501/vacunas-en-la-embajada-de-china-diplomacia-e-interes-publico
                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://actbistas.org/fue-soborno-escandalo-de-vacunas-peru-declaracion-aduanas/
                                                                                                                                                                                            4. https://elperuano.pe/noticia/115377-embajada-china-rechaza-calificaciones-de-vacunas-de-cortesia-donaciones-o-prebendas-en-caso-sinopharm

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                              Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Based on experience, there is no evidence that this has happened. But according to the support link, an ascendant of the ambassador of China in Peru, sent to APRA (Peruvian party), a clear warning, that if a protest against Xi occurred in Lima, none of the APRA allies would return to set foot in China.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.cadal.org/informes/pdf/El-arte-de-hacer-amigos.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://noticias.nat.gov.tw/news.php?unit=92,95,98,101&post=200894

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://en.cidca.gov.cn/2021-03/22/c_605333.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Peru among other countries received the Chinese vaccine, and indirectly support China as a leader partner who played a praiseworthy role in the global health security. However, there is no evidence, that my country was publicly supported to be officially the head of WHO or any intergovernmental organization. Therefore, as there is no evidence, we support our answer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Alan Garcia, ex Peruvian president signed up the Peru-China Free Trade Agreement with president Hu Jintao in 2009. Alan Garcia wrote the book “Confucius and globalization” (Edit. Titanium, 195 pages in 2013)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://idehpucp.pucp.edu.pe/notas-informativas/china-genocidio-de-los-uigures-y-politica-de-corrupcion-de-vacunas/

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://idehpucp.pucp.edu.pe/images/publicaciones/revista_memoria_7.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 2 anonymous experts, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

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