Paraguay

$5,400.1
7.21M
Ranking
82/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

34/ 380
Executive partner
Data Privacy Brazil
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

7%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

19%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

8%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Paraguay had a GDP per capita of US$5,400 and a total population of 7.21 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 800 people, or 0.011% of the total population. 

Paraguay does not have diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. Paraguay was ranked 96th in Reporters Without Borders’ 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Partly Free in Freedom House’s 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 65/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    0.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    4.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    0.0% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    11.4% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    15.9% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    0.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    20.0% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. https://worldchinesemedia.com/2016/06/01/54/

Supplementary Notes

No Paraguayan media appears in the list of members of the World Chinese Media

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Not Found

    1. http://brmc.chnpec.com/en/member.shtml
    2. https://brnalink.com/members.html

    Supplementary Notes

    No Paraguayan media appears in the list of members of the BRNA

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Interviews with a journalist of an important media holding and with an independent journalist. Both asked for source confidentiality. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to this.

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Interviews with a journalist of an important media holding and with an independent journalist. Both asked for source confidentiality. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to this.

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

              Hide
              5.
              Exposure

              In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              24 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              22 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              18 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Interviews with a journalist of an important media holding and with an independent journalist. Both asked for source confidentiality.

                Supplementary Notes

                Given the lack of information, I had to resort to interviews. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to this.

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                  Hide
                  6.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  2 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  44 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  19 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  14 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  0 countries chose this answer

                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                  Hide
                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  21 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  23 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Interviews with a journalist of an important media holding and with an independent journalist. Both asked for source confidentiality. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to this.

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                      Hide
                      8.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      38 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      13 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      7 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      15 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      8 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Interviews with a journalist of an important media holding and with an independent journalist. Both asked for source confidentiality. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to this.

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                          Hide
                          9.
                          Pressure

                          In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          57 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          24 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Interviews with a journalist of an important media holding and with an independent journalist. Both asked for source confidentiality. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to this.

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                              Hide
                              10.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              51 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              3 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Interviews with a journalist of an important media holding and with an independent journalist. Both asked for source confidentiality. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to this.

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                  Hide
                                  11.
                                  Effect

                                  In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  44 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Interviews with a journalist of an important media holding and with an independent journalist. Both asked for source confidentiality. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to this.

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                      Hide

                                      Academia

                                      The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                      1.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      0/ No

                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. https://www.uptp.edu.py/
                                      2. https://www.una.py/la-universidad/convenios-y-acuerdos/convenios-y-acuerdos-internacionales/
                                      3. https://www.universidadcatolica.edu.py/convenios-vigentes/

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      There is a university promoted by Taiwan in Paraguay. In addition, there is no relationship between the other universities and the PRC. As a reference, the agreements of the two main universities in the country are detailed.

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                        Hide
                                        2.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        0/ No

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        There is a Confucius Center in Paraguay, linked to a Taiwanese school which is in the process of closing.

                                        1. https://www.ultimahora.com/colegio-chiang-kai-shek-anuncia-cierre-definitivo-35-anos-n2889721.html
                                        2. http://www.trece.com.py/actualidad/embajada-taiwan-cierre-chiang-kai

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                          Hide
                                          3.
                                          Exposure

                                          My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                          1. https://www.mec.gov.py/cms_v2/adjuntos/5801
                                          2. https://www.lanacion.com.py/columnistas/2020/01/09/el-guarani-y-el-ingles-en-las-aulas/

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          The official languages are Spanish and Guarani. English is taught in schools as a foreign language.

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                            Hide
                                            4.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            40 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                            1. http://www.brsn.net/list/zhikujigou_en/index.html
                                            2. http://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/Members/Members.htm
                                            3. http://www.ucmsr.com/route

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            There is no evidence that Paraguayan think tanks participate in networks linked to the PRC.

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                              Hide
                                              5.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                              1. https://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1019&context=think_tanks
                                              2. https://paraguaydebate.org.py/relacion-entre-think-tanks-y-universidades-en-paraguay/

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              Considering the Global Go To Think Tank Index Report and other publications, it was verified that the main think tanks in the country do not have projects financed by PRC.

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                Hide
                                                6.
                                                Exposure

                                                In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  No evidence was found regarding Paraguayan experts who participate in this type of program. Considering the approach of the Thousand Talents Program, the possibility that this type of recruitment has been carried out in Paraguay is limited.

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                    Hide
                                                    7.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                    Yes

                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                    69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Hide
                                                    8.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                    1. https://www.lanacion.com.py/ahora/2020/03/31/covid-19-ex-becarios-de-taiwan-en-contra-de-acuerdo-con-china-popular-para-recibir-cooperacion/

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    There is no evidence of the existence of this type of group linked to the PRC in the country. This type of group is however, linked to other countries, such as Taiwan, for example.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                      Hide
                                                      9.
                                                      Pressure

                                                      In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Although no information is found in this regard in the consultations carried out, it is not possible to rule out that this has occurred.

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                          Hide
                                                          10.
                                                          Effect

                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            The curricula in initial, basic and secondary education are designed by the government, which does not have diplomatic relations with the PRC. There is also no evidence of a relationship between the PRC and the universities in the country.

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                              Hide
                                                              11.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              The URL shows that education is a topic of cooperation between Taiwan and Paraguay. There is even an Education Counselor and "academic, cultural and educational exchanges are offered within the framework of selecting scholarship holders, inviting teachers or authorities in the educational/cultural field to visit Taiwan, cultural events and, among others, cooperative matters between both academic institutions of both nations". Many teachers participate in these activities, so it is unlikely that they will be censured for speaking positively about Taiwan's independence.

                                                              1. https://www.roc-taiwan.org/py_es/post/12143.html

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                Hide

                                                                Economy

                                                                The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                1.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                1. https://www.economia.gov.py/application/files/3916/1116/3825/RCE_-_Diciembre_2020.pdf
                                                                2. https://www.economia.gov.py/application/files/9916/1902/1289/RCE_Marzo_2021.pdf

                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                The PRC is Paraguay's number three trading partner. But if only the imports are taken into consideration, China would lead the ranking.

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  2.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                  1. https://www.economia.gov.py/application/files/9016/2196/0351/Estadisticas_Deuda_Publica_ABR_2021_version_publicacion_VF_.xlsx

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  Until 2019 Paraguay had a debt with China trust of Taiwan. Since 2013 Paraguay has issued bonds on international markets.

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    3.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    20 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        4.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://www.abc.com.py/edicion-impresa/economia/2019/08/24/empresas-chinas-en-asuncion/
                                                                        2. https://www.eby.gov.py/
                                                                        3. https://www.itaipu.gov.py/

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        Representatives from China Harbor Engineering Company Ltd (CHEC) visited Paraguay in 2019 to study investment opportunities in infrastructure. Other companies have also shown interest in participating in different infrastructure projects. One of the hydroelectric plants that operate in Paraguay is entirely owned by the Paraguayan state. There are also two plants jointly owned with Argentina and Brazil.

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          5.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            6.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. http://www.srcic.com/silk-road-members/?page=1
                                                                            2. https://dialogochino.net/es/infraestructura-es/26121-la-franja-y-la-ruta-la-nueva-cara-de-china-en-america-latina/

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            The list of members of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce could not be accessed.

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              7.
                                                                              Pressure

                                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              8.
                                                                              Pressure

                                                                              In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Businessmen involved in meat and soy bean production claim that maintaining relations with Taiwan prevents their products from entering the PRC.

                                                                              1. https://www.lanacion.com.py/negocios_edicion_impresa/2019/09/20/exportadores-piden-establecer-relacion-comercial-con-china/
                                                                              2. https://www.ultimahora.com/productores-piden-apertura-oficina-comercial-china-continental-n2855601.html

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                9.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                1. https://www.mre.gov.py/tratados/public_web/tratados.aspx
                                                                                2. https://www.economia.gov.py/application/files/6914/6584/2891/01_Convenio_MH-UCITC_Sistema_SIVECA.pdf

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                Due to the recognition of Taiwan, Paraguay cannot sign treaties with the PRC. When certain interaction is needed, other actors are employed, such as the Paraguayan Cultural, Industrial, Technological and Commercial Union - China.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  10.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                  1. http://www.rediex.gov.py/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/GUIA-INVERSIONES-INGLES_BAJA.pdf
                                                                                  2. https://www.abc.com.py/edicion-impresa/economia/2019/08/24/empresas-chinas-en-asuncion/

                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                  The Paraguayan government took various measures to encourage FDI. But the Chinese companies are not the main aim, despite the interest shown by some of them.

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    11.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                    1. https://www.economia.gov.py/application/files/9016/2196/0351/Estadisticas_Deuda_Publica_ABR_2021_version_publicacion_VF_.xlsx

                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                    There are no reports on the matter in the public or private sector.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                      Society

                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                      1.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        No evidence was found that local groups promote reunification.

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          2.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          There are no members and member organisations of the United World Chinese Association in Paraguay.

                                                                                          1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            3.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                            1. https://undeca.cr/wp-content/uploads/media/uploads/documents/report-of-action-2011-2016_esp_web.pdf

                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                            There is no evidence of cooperation or direct exchange. However, the Clasist Trade Union Action of Paraguay and the ACFTU are part of the World Federation of Trade Unions, so the interaction between the two cannot be ruled out.

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                              1. https://www.adndigital.com.py/ano-nuevo-lunar-el-ano-del-buey/
                                                                                              2. https://www.abc.com.py/tag/ano-nuevo-chino/

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              It was not possible to find evidence on this link. Reports on traditional Chinese festivals are based on the activities of the Taiwanese Embassy.

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                1. https://www.sindicatodeperiodistas.org.py/somos/
                                                                                                2. https://web.archive.org/web/20200101010000/http://www.sep.org.py/historia.php

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                There is no evidence of a direct relationship between the Paraguayan professional organisations and their counterpart in the PRC.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                  1. https://www.ultimahora.com/ante-aumento-templos-decretan-la-obligacion-registrar-entes-religiosos-n1130769.html
                                                                                                  2. https://www.paraguay.com/nacionales/mec-solicita-registrar-entes-religiosos-en-el-viceministerio-de-culto-173511

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  There are no reports on this. However, it is important to mention that the registry of cults in the country has certain deficiencies.

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Given the lack of information, It was needed to resort to interviews. The people consulted stated that there is no reference to PRC government or PRC-connected entities distributing entertainment products in Paraguay. (Interview with journalist of the important media holding)

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                        Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                        1. http://www.cultura.gov.py/2021/06/es-designado-primer-director-ejecutivo-del-instituto-nacional-del-audiovisual-paraguayo-inap/
                                                                                                        2. https://dspace.unila.edu.br/bitstream/handle/123456789/1434/Congresso%20Com_228-237.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        Paraguayan cultural products, especially audiovisual ones, are very scarce. In this general references to the PRC differences are not appreciated. If "Chinese" characters appear, they are considered general stereotypes, without differentiating between the PRC and Taiwan.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                          1. https://infonegocios.com.py/nota-principal/oscar-acosta-lidera-el-ranking-de-los-periodistas-paraguayos-en-twitter-5-mujeres-en-el-top-10
                                                                                                          2. https://starngage.com/app/global/influencer/ranking/paraguay

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          Paraguayan celebrities are not known to advertise a narrative favorable to the PRC.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                            In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            There are no reports on this. Although municipalities and governorates have a certain level of autonomy, it would be very strange for them to be related to a country with which the central government has no formal relation.

                                                                                                            1. https://www.cm.gov.py/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/constitucion-nacional-PARA-INCISO-C.pdf

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                Although there are voices in favor of the relationship with the PRC, there is no evidence about the opinion of the majority of the Paraguayan society on the subject. For this reason, it was decided not to answer the question.

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  The imports records and the list of registered official importers are specified.

                                                                                                                  1. https://apps.bcp.gov.py:8444/
                                                                                                                  2. http://dimabel.mil.py/index.php/download_file/view_inline/343

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                    1. https://apps.bcp.gov.py:8444/

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    The records of export are specified.

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                      1. http://dimabel.mil.py/index.php/institucion/dpto-planta-industrial
                                                                                                                      2. https://www.paraguay.com/nacionales/se-reactiva-fabrica-de-material-belico-76272

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      The only ammunition factory is owned by the State. Due to the lack of diplomatic relations with the PRC, this type of link would not be possible.

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                        1. https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-47414783

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        There are no reports on the PRC's intentions to establish military bases in Paraguay. This is unlikely because the two countries do not have diplomatic relations. In addition, due to the type of relationship with the United States and in the current context, it is not seen as probable.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                          1. https://www.mre.gov.py/index.php/noticias-de-embajadas-y-consulados/paraguay-y-taiwan-celebran-63-anos-de-intenso-y-positivo-relacionamiento-bilateral

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          Due to the existing link with Taiwan, this is not possible.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.mre.gov.py/index.php/noticias-de-embajadas-y-consulados/paraguay-y-taiwan-celebran-63-anos-de-intenso-y-positivo-relacionamiento-bilateral

                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                            Due to the existing link with Taiwan, this is not possible.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                              1. https://www.mre.gov.py/index.php/noticias-de-embajadas-y-consulados/paraguay-y-taiwan-celebran-63-anos-de-intenso-y-positivo-relacionamiento-bilateral

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              Due to the existing link with Taiwan, this is not possible.

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                1. https://www.mre.gov.py/index.php/noticias-de-embajadas-y-consulados/paraguay-y-taiwan-celebran-63-anos-de-intenso-y-positivo-relacionamiento-bilateral

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                Due to the existing link with Taiwan, this is not possible.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                        It was not possible to find information about this aspect.

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Due to the existing link with Taiwan, this is not possible.

                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.mre.gov.py/index.php/noticias-de-embajadas-y-consulados/paraguay-y-taiwan-celebran-63-anos-de-intenso-y-positivo-relacionamiento-bilateral

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                            Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                            The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.embapartwroc.com.tw/convenios_bilaterales_es

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            Paraguay does not have diplomatic relations with the PRC, but rather recognizes Taiwan. For this reason, it signs this type of treaty with Taipei.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                              1. http://www.embapartwroc.com.tw/convenios_bilaterales_es

                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                              Paraguay does not have diplomatic relations with the PRC, but rather recognizes Taiwan. For this reason, it signs this type of treaty with Taipei.

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.antilavadodedinero.com/fiscales-de-paraguay/
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.ultimahora.com/fabian-marti-declaro-el-caso-que-investiga-clonacion-lineas-n2890485.html

                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                There are no reports regarding corporate espionage in the country. The latest reported case of espionage is related to political issues.

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.cert.gov.py/application/files/7616/1521/7981/Informe_Ciberseguridad_Paraguay_2020_-_final-2.pdf

                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                  The main destinations from which cyber attacks come is not the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    There are reports that members of the Chinese mafia enter, operate and transit through Paraguay to neighboring countries.

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.extra.com.py/actualidad/brasil-caen-mafiosos-chinos-made-in-paraguay-n1548732.html
                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.infobae.com/sociedad/2016/11/23/mafia-china-la-insolita-historia-del-capo-de-los-cinco-alias-preso-en-misiones/

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.embapartwroc.com.tw/convenios_bilaterales_es

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      Paraguay does not have diplomatic relations with the PRC, but rather recognizes Taiwan. For this reason, this kind of cooperation it is no possible.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.embapartwroc.com.tw/convenios_bilaterales_es

                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                        Paraguay does not have diplomatic relations with the PRC, but rather recognizes Taiwan. For this reason, this kind of cooperation it is no possible.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                          My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                            It was not possible to find information about this aspect.

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                              My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              Paraguay does not have diplomatic relations with the PRC, but rather recognizes Taiwan. For this reason, this kind of cooperation it is no possible.

                                                                                                                                                              1. http://www.embapartwroc.com.tw/convenios_bilaterales_es

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                1. http://www.embapartwroc.com.tw/convenios_bilaterales_es

                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                There are no reports of this type of action.

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                  Technology

                                                                                                                                                                  The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.conatel.gov.py/conatel/registro-n-s-t/

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  No entities linked to the PRC are observed.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.ultimahora.com/la-tecnologia-5g-arribaria-al-pais-los-proximos-3-anos-n2831574.html

                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                    5G technology does not yet operate in Paraguay. On the other hand, it is appreciated that Huawei has projects with telephone companies in Paraguay.

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Huawei-related company signed a contract with the National Fiber Optic Network.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.lanacion.com.py/destacado_edicion_impresa/2020/12/04/mec-se-suma-a-compras-huawei-con-licitacion-de-g-46429-millones/
                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://celexx.com.py/

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        It can be seen that a company linked to Huawei signed a contract to provide the National Fiber Optic Plan.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.lanacion.com.py/destacado_edicion_impresa/2020/12/04/mec-se-suma-a-compras-huawei-con-licitacion-de-g-46429-millones/
                                                                                                                                                                        2. http://celexx.com.py/

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.embapartwroc.com.tw/convenios_bilaterales_es

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          Paraguay does not have diplomatic relations with the PRC, but rather recognises Taiwan. For this reason, this kind of cooperation is not possible.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.roc-taiwan.org/py_es/post/15251.html

                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                            There are no reports on this. Although municipalities and governorates have a certain level of autonomy, it would be very strange for them to be related to a country with which the central government has no formal relation. There is evidence of the relationship of organisations linked to Taiwan with sub-national governments.

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Paraguayan banks operate with different correspondents. These agents in turn have different links worldwide. But it cannot be verified that Paraguayan banks operate directly with CIPS. (Request to local banks)

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Due to the nature of the Paraguayan market, the financing of this type of activity is focused on public institutions and cooperation organisations. The emergence of private platforms for this type of activity is also observed, but their development is still incipient.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        No reports of this type of collaboration are registered. (Interviews with people linked to the sector)

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.mitic.gov.py/noticias/el-972-de-la-poblacion-paraguaya-usa-internet-para-mensajeria-instantanea
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://elpais.com/internacional/2016/12/30/actualidad/1483055106_448456.html
                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://www.latamclick.com/estadisticas-de-las-redes-sociales-en-paraguay-2019/

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                          The most popular social networks in Paraguay are WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Linkedin. None of them are linked to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/sistemas-de-navegacion-satelital
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.lanacion.com.py/gran-diario-domingo/2021/02/28/el-satelite-paraguayo-abre-posibilidades-de-desarrollo-cientifico-incalculables/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                            There are no reports on this type of collaboration, only on an interaction event between experts in the Latin American area. Satellite development is very incipient in the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                              Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                              The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.cm.gov.py/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/constitucion-nacional-PARA-INCISO-C.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://archive.ph/MgJM6
                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://archive.ph/cWJc9
                                                                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.taiwanembassy.org/py_es/post/14554.html

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              There are no reports on such agreements. Although municipalities and governorates have a certain level of autonomy, it would be very strange for them to be related to a country with which the central government has no formal relation. There is evidence of the relationship of organisations linked to Taiwan with sub-national governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://recursos.mec.edu.py/kiwix/wikipedia_es_all_maxi/A/Lista_de_ciudades_hermanas_en_Paraguay
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anexo:Ciudades_hermanas_en_Paraguay

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                A list of sister cities found recorded in the page of the Ministry of Education is detailed, but it comes from a third source related to the "Wiki" environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.apachin.org/conozcanos/visitantes-de-la-republica-popular-de-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  A list of Paraguayan politicians who visited the PRC between 1989 and 2008 is published on the internet. However, the origin of the funds for carrying out this type of trip is not specified.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The local expert stated that there is no evidence that Paraguayan politicians have visited PRC, but it cannot be ruled out that meetings may have taken place. Mainly because a Paraguayan political party received donations directly from the PRC Consulate in Sao Paulo (Brazil).

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.embapartwroc.com.tw/convenios_bilaterales_es

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Because diplomatic relations are not maintained with the PRC, the possibility of this type of action occurring is remote, both at the central and sub-national government levels.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The latest report regarding available political financing does not show contributions from the PRC. However, it relates to 2015 and it could be seen that, during the pandemic, the PRC Consulate made a donation to a political party.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.tsje.gov.py/informes-sobre-contribuciones-y-donaciones.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.lanacion.com.py/politica/2020/06/18/republica-popular-china-envio-la-primera-donacion-a-paraguay-informo-frente-guasu/

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The latest report regarding available political financing does not show contributions from the PRC. However, it relates to 2015 and it could be seen that, during the pandemic, the PRC Consulate made a donation to a political party.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.tsje.gov.py/informes-sobre-contribuciones-y-donaciones.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            This type of contribution is not observed in the accountability of the parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.swissinfo.ch/spa/coronavirus-paraguay_senado-paraguayo-rechaza-por-segunda-vez-acercamiento-con-china/46461072

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              There are no reports of groups with a link to the United Front Work Department (UFWD).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.swissinfo.ch/spa/coronavirus-paraguay_senado-paraguayo-rechaza-por-segunda-vez-acercamiento-sanitario-con-china/46461058
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://aguajero.com/senado-paraguayo-rechaza-por-segunda-vez-acercamiento-sanitario-con-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.efe.com/efe/america/politica/la-iniciativa-de-acercamiento-con-china-es-rechazado-por-el-senado-paraguayo/20000035-4224587

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Despite the existence of a proposal to establish relations with the PRC, it was not accepted by the majority in Congress.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    It was not possible to find information about this issue.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.senado.gov.py/index.php/noticias/noticias-generales/5954-bancada-del-fg-entrego-insumos-medicos-al-ministerio-de-salud-2020-06-22-18-19-03

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There are no reports of official meetings, but a group of legislators received donations from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.stp.gov.py/v1/gobierno-de-taiwan-ofrece-beca-a-distancia-para-funcionarios-publicos/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.stp.gov.py/v1/gobierno-de-taiwan-ofrece-beca-total-sobre-entrenamiento-en-liderazgo-y-recursos-humanos/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.adndigital.com.py/china-taiwan-ofrece-becas-funcionarios-publicos/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Only Taiwan offers this type of training to diplomats or civil servants in Paraguay.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Paraguay and the PRC do not have diplomatic relations. For this reason, there are no embassy of PRC in Paraguay and it is not possible to check the visa issue

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Due to the relationship with Taiwan, it is evident that Paraguay did not publicly supports the candidacies presented by the PRC. However, it cannot be ruled out that on some occasion a PRC candidate has been voted for by Paraguay. There is no access to a complete record of the voting in which Paraguay participated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.lanacion.com.py/politica/2020/07/10/taiwan-y-paraguay-celebran-63-anos-de-relaciones-diplomaticas/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Because of its relationship with Taiwan, Paraguay generally supports their initiatives. Because of this, it is not feasible that these types of claims be supported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.lanacion.com.py/politica/2020/07/10/taiwan-y-paraguay-celebran-63-anos-de-relaciones-diplomaticas/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Due to its relationship with Taiwan, Paraguay generally supports its initiatives. Paraguay also exhibits great alignment with the United States in its foreign policy, which has already spoken out on the issue. But no evidence could be found to condemn the PRC's actions towards the Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.lanacion.com.py/politica/2020/07/10/taiwan-y-paraguay-celebran-63-anos-de-relaciones-diplomaticas/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://focustaiwan.tw/politics/202104230015
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://thediplomat.com/2019/05/taiwan-voices-support-for-uyghurs-in-china/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. https://www.dw.com/es/eeuu-presiona-a-china-sobre-taiw%C3%A1n-y-origen-de-la-pandemia/a-57860300

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No report could be found regarding Paraguay's position. From the background, it is to be hoped that it does not support the position of the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://tibetpolicy.net/tsai-ing-wens-ambiguity-over-tibet/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No report could be found regarding Paraguay's position. Due to the antecedents and the relationship with Taiwan and the United States, it is to be expected that it does not support the position of the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://py.usembassy.gov/joint-statement-on-hong-kong/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://tibetpolicy.net/tsai-ing-wens-ambiguity-over-tibet/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 2 anonymous experts.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
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