Panama

$14,516.5
4.38M
Ranking
23/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

141/ 352
Executive partner
Fundación Andrés Bello - Centro de Investigación Chino Latinoamericano
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

45%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

14%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

40%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Panamá has a GDP per capita of US$14,517 and a total population of 4.38 million people. There is no information available on the Chinese population in the country.

Panamá established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 2018. Panamá was ranked 74th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 83/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    36.4% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    25.0% / 34%
  • Economy
    30.0% / 33.6%
  • Society
    45.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    14.3% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    44.4% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    47.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    67.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    42.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Si bien un medio firmó acuerdos de cooperación con entidades culturales chinas el mismo pertenece al estado panameño.

  1. https://bit.ly/38u0CLI

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    En los enlaces sugeridos en el enunciado de la pregunta no se pudo apreciar información que indicase la pertenencia perodistas o medios panameños en las organizaciones del BRI.

    1. http://en.videochina.org.cn/2017/0417/4741.shtml
    2. http://cn.brnn.com/414904/414908/index.html

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      En el 2017 un grupo importante de periodistas panameños realizó una visita- pagada por el gobierno de la RPC- por varias ciudades de China. De igual manera, los comunicadores istmeños se reunieron con autoridades del Estado chino, así como funcionarios del PCCh.

      1. https://www.laestrella.com.pa/economia/170721/reune-china-prensa-panamena-autoridades

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Not Found

        1. https://bit.ly/3t0Ba7m
        2. https://bit.ly/3NAGeao

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Hide
          6.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          2 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          44 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          19 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          3 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          0 countries chose this answer

          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

          1. https://bit.ly/3lPyohg
          2. https://bit.ly/3z3EL8A

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

            Hide
            7.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

            Yes

            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            22 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            21 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            6 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            23 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            7 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Hide
            8.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

            Yes

            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            38 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            13 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            15 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            8 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Hide
            9.
            Pressure

            In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            57 countries chose this answer

            4/ Yes

            24 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Varios periodistas panameños han expresado sus críticas al sistema chino sin que se conozcan de intentos de censura en su contra.

            1. https://twitter.com/sabribacal/status/1324841231114031105

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              10.
              Effect

              In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              4 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              51 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              11 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              3 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              9 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              4 countries chose this answer

              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              No se pudo identificar ningún caso concreto de censura por parte de un medio en este sentido.

              1. https://bit.ly/38wh520

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                11.
                Effect

                In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                18 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                4 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                9 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                5 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                1. http://spanish.peopledaily.com.cn/n3/2021/0318/c31619-9830200.html

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide

                  Academia

                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                  1.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                  More

                  0/ No

                  9 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  11 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  31 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  25 countries chose this answer

                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                  1. https://utp.ac.pa/utp-y-huawei-inauguran-academia-tic#:~:text=La%20Universidad
                  2. https://utp.ac.pa/utp-firma-convenio-con-china-construction-america

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    2.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                    More

                    0/ No

                    5 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    14 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    5 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    31 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    27 countries chose this answer

                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                    Hide
                    3.
                    Exposure

                    My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    46 countries chose this answer

                    4/ Yes

                    35 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Hide
                    4.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    2 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    40 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    17 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    14 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    2 countries chose this answer

                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Aunque existe un think tank denominado Centro de Estudios Estratégicos de Panamá no pudo ser vinculado a ninguna de las entidades señaladas.

                    1. http://www.brsn.net/list/zhikujigou_en/index_5.html
                    2. http://www.ucmsr.com/route

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      5.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      10 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      21 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      19 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      10 countries chose this answer

                      72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Si bien existen ‘thinks tanks’ de este tipo no se comprobó de que fueran financiados por entidades chinas. En el caso del think tank que se nombra en el vínculo llama la atención que su presidente sea un funcionario del servicio exterior de la cancillería panameña.

                      1. https://ceeasia-panama.com/2019/09/

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide
                        6.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        3 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        47 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        6 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        10 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        En Panamá solo se han dado algunos concursos de talento organizados por entidades como el Instituto Confucio. No se conoce de un programa de reclutamiento.

                        1. https://mire.gob.pa/el-instituto-confucio-de-la-universidad-de-panama-como-puente-importante-para-fortalecer-las-relaciones-con-china/

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          7.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                          Skip

                          More

                          Skipped

                          13 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          17 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          15 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          12 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          14 countries chose this answer

                          69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                          1. https://utp.ac.pa/delegacion-del-consejo-de-becas-de-china-en-la-utp
                          2. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Y1DPV9Y2UbMkZHkTITjiOtmwFZBwmcfN/view

                          Supplementary Notes

                          Aunque se han dado acercamientos entre entidades chinas y universidades locales y de que existen acuerdos suscritos entre ambos países que posibilitan el intercambio de delegaciones académicas, no hay casos que permitan establecer con certeza que el escenario descrito en la pregunta sea una realidad.

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                            Hide
                            8.
                            Pressure

                            In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            64 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            6 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            3 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            3 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            En Panamá no se ha confirmado la existencia de organizaciones escolares de este tipo.

                            1. https://twitter.com/treporta/status/1225767803275399168

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              9.
                              Pressure

                              In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              7 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              64 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              1 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              0 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              6 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              En la base de datos del Servicio Nacional de Información no se encontró información que permita sustentar esta hipótesis.

                              1. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IwWSElzchv8iFk1X6z0fiR2ikjHTaeHr/view

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide
                                10.
                                Effect

                                In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                64 countries chose this answer

                                4/ Yes

                                16 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Los acuerdos firmados por las entidades de educación de Panamá y China no incluyen modificaciones al currículo educativo.

                                1. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1P6zUQu4XYmUT16uBrwiIYiuRuBZTMUuG/view

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  11.
                                  Effect

                                  In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                  77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  No existen reportes que sugieran que se hayan dado debates sobre estos temas políticos en las escuelas.

                                  1. https://www.diaadia.com.pa/el-pais/estudiantes-debatieron-sobre-china-y-panama-678686

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                    Hide

                                    Economy

                                    The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                    1.
                                    Exposure

                                    The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ Yes

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Al sumar el valor en dólares de las importaciones y exportaciones que tuvieron lugar entre los años 2020 y 2021 los Estados Unidos se ubican como el principal socio comercial, aunque seguido muy de cerca por China.

                                    1. https://bit.ly/3Ndx6Jh
                                    2. https://bit.ly/3ah7OeK
                                    3. https://bit.ly/3t9KJBk
                                    4. https://bit.ly/3aCpJfZ

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      2.
                                      Exposure

                                      PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. https://www.aiddata.org/publications/banking-on-the-belt-and-road
                                      2. https://bit.ly/3a8X6qD

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        3.
                                        Exposure

                                        The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        0/ No

                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ Yes

                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                        1. https://bit.ly/3lTIyOd
                                        2. https://bit.ly/3wYiYwr

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          4.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          0/ No

                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                          1. https://elfaro.net/es/202106/columnas/25552/Pese-a-EE-UU-China-ha-aumentado-su-presencia-en-Centroam%C3%A9rica.htm

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            5.
                                            Exposure

                                            My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            0/ No

                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ Yes

                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                            1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              6.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              0/ No

                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                              1. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=3
                                              2. https://www.bricaistanbul.com/overview/brica-members/

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                7.
                                                Pressure

                                                My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                0/ No

                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Las exportaciones panameñas a China han ido en aumento y no existen reportes de coerción.

                                                1. https://bit.ly/3GBQFsi

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                  Hide
                                                  8.
                                                  Pressure

                                                  In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                  Skip

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    No existe evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      9.
                                                      Effect

                                                      My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3z7zjl3
                                                      2. https://bit.ly/3aaokgf

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        10.
                                                        Effect

                                                        In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        47 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        No ha sido necesario relajar o remover ventajas fiscales, debido a que a través del régimen de sedes de empresas multinacionales se han atraído compañías tanto de China como de Estados Unidos, que buscan sacar ventaja de los numerosos incentivos fiscales.

                                                        1. https://elcapitalfinanciero.com/trece-sem-chinas-han-desembarcado-en-panama/
                                                        2. https://elcapitalfinanciero.com/multinacionales-de-china-y-ee-uu-invertiran-24-millones-en-panama/

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          11.
                                                          Effect

                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                          Yes

                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          76 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Revisar la página 26 del primer enlace; revisar la página 27 del segundo enlace.

                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3NMGMKp
                                                          2. https://bit.ly/3zaW47I

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide

                                                            Society

                                                            The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                            1.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Hide
                                                            2.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              3.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              No hay información de que la visita a la que alude la nota periodística anterior haya respondido a una invitación del ACFTU.

                                                              1. https://bit.ly/3abM9oc

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide
                                                                4.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                No hay reportes que sugieren la presencia de grupos vinculados al UFWD en estas celebraciones.

                                                                1. https://twitter.com/RojasPardini/status/1488584977629470727
                                                                2. http://www.hkcd.com/hkcdweb/content_p/2022/01/30/content_129631.html

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  5.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Aunque se han incrementado los intercambios entre artistas y profesionales no se comprobó que los mismos se den a nivel gremios o asociaciones.

                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3t535Dw

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    6.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                    Yes

                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    7.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                    Yes

                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    38 countries chose this answer

                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://bit.ly/3LZyIor
                                                                    2. http://big5.www.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.gov.cn/xinwen/2018-12/05/content_5345884.htm

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      8.
                                                                      Effect

                                                                      Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/3z9P0IM
                                                                      2. https://bit.ly/3lVnPcP

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        9.
                                                                        Effect

                                                                        In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://twitter.com/limyueng/status/1378887678595375109
                                                                        2. https://www.cibelesdefreitas.com/blog/china-sorprendente-lo-increible-lo-bueno-y-lo-no-tanto/

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          10.
                                                                          Effect

                                                                          In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          54 countries chose this answer

                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3N5ayKH
                                                                          2. https://bit.ly/3GvhgqR

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            11.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Hide

                                                                            Military

                                                                            The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                            1.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/3m5tm0p
                                                                            2. https://bit.ly/3x55hgt

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              2.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                              Skip

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              74 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                No se encontró evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  3.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                    No se encontró evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      4.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      5.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Tradicionalmente la única fuerza militar extranjera que participa en este tipo de operativos es el Comando Sur.

                                                                                      1. https://www.lavanguardia.com/politica/20201106/49270479616/tres-helicopteros-y-un-equipo-de-eeuu-se-suman-a-rescate-en-panama-tras-eta.html
                                                                                      2. https://www.laestrella.com.pa/nacional/201106/comando-sur-ee-uu-destina-tres-helicopteros-ayuda-panama

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        6.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        No hay presencia de tropas chinas en el territorio panameño.

                                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3a2Z3ol

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          7.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Panamá no cuenta con un ejército como tal, sino como Fuerzas Especiales adscritas al Ministerio de Seguridad. Tradicionalmente, los mandos superiores de estas unidades hacen parte de su formación en Estados Unidos.

                                                                                          1. http://www.senafront.gob.pa/nosotros/
                                                                                          2. http://www.aeronaval.gob.pa/?op=director

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            8.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Estados Unidos suministra entrenamiento y equipo a los estamentos de seguridad nacionales.

                                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/3GFsnNV

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              9.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                No existe evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    No existe evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                      My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Este tipo de actividades las realizan las fuerzas especiales panameñas con el Comando Sur de EEUU.

                                                                                                      1. https://pa.usembassy.gov/es/comando-sur-de-ee-uu-y-estamentos-de-seguridad-de-panama-realizan-ejercicio-panamax-para-la-proteccion-del-canal/

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                        1. https://english.court.gov.cn/2019-01/28/content_37449146.htm
                                                                                                        2. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1b7pVKGVZENGmmy1urv6LEuLkifAoixsj/view

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                          1. https://mire.gob.pa/acuerdos-panama-china/
                                                                                                          2. https://mire.gob.pa/panama-y-china-coordinan-proyectos-de-cooperacion-de-interes-nacional/

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Aunque el ultimo embajador de Estados Unidos en Panamá advirtió sobre la posibilidad de espionaje industrial por parte de China se desconoce si estas prácticas se han dado.

                                                                                                            1. https://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/nacion/john-feeley-panama-seria-un-centro-de-espionaje-para-china-1105854
                                                                                                            2. https://www.univision.com/noticias/america-latina/la-hormiguita-y-el-elefante-la-estrategia-del-presidente-de-china-con-panama

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Si bien el número de ciberataques aumentó durante la pandemia no se ha podido identificar a China como el país de procedencia.

                                                                                                              1. https://bit.ly/3lYUC0A
                                                                                                              2. https://bit.ly/38Tapv5

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Si bien hay registros de actividad delincuencial por parte de ciudadanos chinos no hay reportes acerca de intimidación contra disidentes.

                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/38YKO3M

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                  1. https://sertv.gob.pa/nacionalfm/presidente-varela-inaugura-centro-de-seguridad-y-emergencias-c2-en-colon/

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    En Panamá existe una Fuerza Marítima Conjunta integrada por estamentos de seguridad asesorados por agencias estadounidenses. Por esto es poco probable que se realicen patrullajes junto a fuerzas de seguridad de China.

                                                                                                                    1. https://arap.gob.pa/arap-y-senan-realizan-operaciones-conjuntas-con-el-servicio
                                                                                                                    2. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1wQ4EujIY7QxKdq2crIGgkmulLw5UbExQ/view

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                      My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        No existe evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                          My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                            No existe evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                              1. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1H8XO7a0FCPhz3BXbXTRlGq8wmj3nwELP/view

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                Technology

                                                                                                                                The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/data/

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Aunque la Autoridad de Servicios Públicos modificó el Plan Nacional de Atribución de Frecuencias para impulsar la implementación de esta tecnología en Panamá se desconoce si las empresas telefónicas han firmados acuerdos en este sentido.

                                                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3t75Xzs

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                      No existe evidencia suficiente para responder esta pregunta.

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                        1. https://bit.ly/3GN6cWl
                                                                                                                                        2. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1yVhT0OiKoDlUOdnbnGkubjlVCk_4mfRA/view

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3NL5kni
                                                                                                                                          2. https://bit.ly/3x0ng7T

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Los acuerdos firmados entre entidades bancarias panameñas y chinas no contemplan el uso de este sistema de pago.

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.cips.com.cn/
                                                                                                                                            2. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1tSxi3uMKIypNbhobk9lTBjZJza28OGOl/view

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Aunque Huawei anunció el lanzamiento de un programa de incentive para “startups” tecnológicas se desconoce la inversión realizada en Panamá en este sentido.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://bit.ly/3t5yvcE

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                El único acuerdo que pudo confirmarse fue el "Acuerdo Marco de Cooperación en materia de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación" entre los gobiernos de ambos países.

                                                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3NHufbg
                                                                                                                                                2. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1siy5Ez-Dx-85lt7npadM9bAiZHeQPkEf/view

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3LWjS1T
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.appbrain.com/dev/Adaric+Music/

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                    1. http://www.beidou.gov.cn/zt/gjhz/

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                      Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                      The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/38RUqNP
                                                                                                                                                      2. https://bit.ly/3z8bt98

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                        1. https://twitter.com/colonalcaldia/status/1343715235253858306?lang=ca
                                                                                                                                                        2. http://elsiglo.com.pa/espectaculos/aristides-urena-invitado-china/24117156

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Aunque figuras políticas del partido gobernante han visitado China es difícil establecer hasta qué punto se trata de una campaña para influenciar a la clase política.

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3N6JeMa

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/38xoX3f
                                                                                                                                                            2. https://bit.ly/3wUHyOY

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://english.court.gov.cn/2019-01/28/content_37449146.htm

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                El código electoral panameño prohíbe las donaciones procedentes de gobiernos extranjeros. Aun así, se han registrado donantes vinculados a filiales de empresas chinas.

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3t67whc
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://bit.ly/3N56aex

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  El grupo "Jóvenes Huadu de Panamá" mencionado en la 1ra URL está vinculado a UFWD.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://bit.ly/3xiATj3
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.iphe.gob.pa/Asociacion-Budista-de-Panama-realiza-donacion-al-IPHE-
                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://new.qq.com/rain/a/20210629A03P6800
                                                                                                                                                                  4. http://www.hthpa.com/noticia.php?regno=706

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Aunque sí ha habido señalamientos al partido gobernante, Partido Revolucionario Democrático, por haber enfriado las relaciones con China para complacer a Estados Unidos, no se ha establecido un vínculo entre estos críticos y el UFWD o el Partido Popular Comunista Chino, aunque sí con thinks tanks que promueven narrativas favorables a China.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.laestrella.com.pa/nacional/211010/caja-pandora-oculta

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/cgbelfast/eng/zgxw_1/t1494837.htm
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cepa//esp/zgyw/t1600216.htm

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          No existe evidencia para responder esta pregunta en el caso de Panamá.

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.laestrella.com.pa/nacional/181121/varela-primer-centro-inaugura-operaciones

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                              Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                              The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                              The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.metrolibre.com/cultura/117838-panamenos-se-capacitan-en-china-sobre-capacidad-para-trabajos-humanitarios.html

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                No se conoce de algún caso de presiones para modificar un punto de vista por otro más favorable a China.

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3GpmGUa

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                  Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Luego de la investigación realizada no ha sido posible obtener información para dar respuesta a este indicador.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      No se encontró evidencia de que esto sea así.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://bit.ly/38EAAFs

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        No existe evidencia de un apoyo público de Panamá en estas candidaturas.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1XAVrvFp2wU9_SVhcVH0dSTEuBxLZyur3

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                          Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hasta el momento el gobierno de Laurentino Cortizo se ha mostrado en extremo cauteloso en el avance de las relaciones con China, por lo que es improbable que se exprese un apoyo a los reclamos territoriales de este país.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://bit.ly/3z3FN4s

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            En la agenda de las relaciones entre Panamá y China predominan los temas de índole económica y no asuntos internos que le competen a los chinos.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://bit.ly/3t2mDIu

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              La posición actual del gobierno panameño es tratar de mantener un difícil equilibrio en las relaciones con China y Estados Unidos, evitando decantarse por uno u otro bando. En este escenario es poco probable que se dé un pronunciamiento con respecto a lo que es percibido como un conflicto interno de China.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://bit.ly/3z4rv3u

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Las autoridades panameñas se han expresado sobre temas de intercambio comercial y cultural, evitando abordar el cuestionable récord chino en temas de derechos humanos.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://bit.ly/3NFg1rj

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
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