Pakistan

$1,537.9
225.1M
Ranking
1/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

242/ 380
Executive partner
Doublethink Lab
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

70%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

10%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

75%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Pakistan had a GDP per capita of US$1,538 and a total population of 225.19 million people. Reliable estimates of the Chinese population are unavailable.

Pakistan established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1951. Pakistan was ranked 157th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Partly Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 37/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    52.3% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    62.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    54.5% / 33.6%
  • Society
    43.2% / 23.6%
  • Military
    80.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    47.7% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    97.7% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    52.8% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    81.8% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Plenty of open source material suggests growing media cooperation between the two countries. However, no evidence found of specific Pakistani organizations having joined the 'World Chinese Media' network.

  1. http://www.ipcs.org/comm_select.php?articleNo=5695
  2. https://profit.pakistantoday.com.pk/2022/06/02/7th-china-pakistan-economic-corridor-cpec-media-forum/

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Not Found

    1. http://www.ipcs.org/comm_select.php?articleNo=5695

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Hide
      4.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

      Yes

      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      3 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      37 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      16 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      2 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      10 countries chose this answer

      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Chinese officials are reported to have organized trainings and visits of Pakistani journalists for greater exposure and understanding of China. However, because of the language barrier and media censorship in China, credible Pakistani journalists do not necessary look to China improve their reporting and journalistic skills. When training have been organized, they tend to target younger, inexperienced media persons -ostensibly to get favorable coverage of China and CPEC projects.

      1. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2022/09/08/chinese-pakistani-journalists-vow-to-counter-negative-propaganda-by-western-media/
      2. https://gotest.pk/education/news/chinese-universities-step-training-journalists-pakistan/
      3. https://www.app.com.pk/global/international-journalists-praise-facilities-objective-journalism-in-china/
      4. https://pakistan.asia-news.com/en_GB/articles/cnmi_pf/features/2022/01/27/feature-01

      Supplementary Notes

      Not enough info available at the moment

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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        5.
        Exposure

        In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

        Yes

        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        1 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        24 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        22 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        7 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        18 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        China Radio International dominates MW frequencies in north Pakistan. Their powerful boosters just across the border send strong signals. The penetration started more than 15 years ago. So strong was their signal that it drowned out the BBC Urdu/Hindi MW frequency at 1413. I know this from my days at BBC in London. Besides, Xinhua news service has been feeding PRC perspective in major privately-owned (but often state-controlled) Pakistani media outlets, including Dawn, Jang Group and Express Group.

        1. https://urdu.cri.cn/
        2. https://en.dailypakistan.com.pk/27-Dec-2019/dr-firdous-seeks-media-s-role-to-counter-anti-cpec-propaganda
        3. https://en.dailypakistan.com.pk/27-Dec-2019/dr-firdous-seeks-media-s-role-to-counter-anti-cpec-propaganda

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          6.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          2 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          44 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          19 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          3 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          0 countries chose this answer

          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not much evidence of Chinese ownership of any significant media outlets. Some fringe websites may be indirectly funded to promote and protect PRC's interests, but direct ownership of local media outlet by PRC-related entities is unlikely. The only exception we've come across is a small media named "Huashang News" owned by a PRC citizen with a very limited outreach and circulation. (links below)

          1. http://www.ipcs.org/comm_select.php?articleNo=5695
          2. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-silkroad-pakistan-softpower/china-boosts-soft-power-in-pakistan-via-film-and-social-media-idUSKCN1VW0LJ
          3. http://www.huashangnews.cc/resource/other/about.html

          Supplementary Notes

          No evidence of direct Chinese ownership of media outlets, except one small outlet reported a few years ago.

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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            7.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

            Yes

            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            22 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            21 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            6 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            23 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            7 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            June 12, 2020 23:31 IST | ANI Press Release AddThis Sharing Buttons Share to Facebook Share to TwitterShare to LinkedInShare to TelegramShare to More Tennis player James Blake Chinese flag You would like to read Cannot impose lockdown in Pakistan with 25 pc population living on daily wages: Imran Khan Pakistan losing precious time to act decisively on Covid-19 outbreak Pak media raps PM Khan for all-round failures, imperious haste in passing Army Act Imran Khan wants to 'talk solutions to end conflicts' with India Islamabad, [Pakistan] June 12 (ANI): A researcher has warned that Chinese inroads into Pakistan's mainstream media, and state-level bilateral cooperation on telecommunications infrastructure and surveillance is growing, which poses a threat to people's freedom of speech in the country. Nowmay Opalinski, a research intern with the Centre for Internal & Regional Security (IreS), IPCS explores the potential implications of the steadily increasing Sino-Pak state-to-state collaboration in Pakistan's media and telecommunications sector. He said, "These developments are taking place against a backdrop of Pakistani state's growing attempts to censor online content domestically. How does this set of circumstances favour China? Where does China's big picture media strategy fit into this?" He found that since 2012, the government of Pakistan has been attempting to implement a national firewall to tighten control over content shared online. The introduction of the Pakistan Electronic Crime Act in 2016 was supposed to regulate harmful content like terrorist propaganda. However, it has also been used to censor opposition leaders and critics of the government. Nowmay Opalinski said, "January 2020, Pakistan adopted a new set of regulations framed under the Citizen Protection (Against-Online Harm) Rules, which entails plans for the Ministry of Information Technology and Communication to appoint a national coordinator in charge of online content regulation. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan and the Pakistan Federal Union of Journalists denounced this move, and have argued its unconstitutionality". Reporters Without Borders and legal experts highlighted that the vague definitions of harmful contents leave room for arbitrary removal of content. Application of Article 6(s) also enables potential deactivation of user data encryption as it enforces social media companies to deliver extensive information, including "subscriber information, traffic data, content data, and any other information or data. This new regulation includes an obligation for all social media companies to open offices in Pakistan, where strict supervision of their ability to remove or block content will be enforced. It empowers the national coordinator to ask online platforms to surrender all information, private or public. These measures could lead to international social media platforms to re-evaluate their operations in Pakistan, as the Asia Internet Coalition (AIC) highlighted in their statement to Prime Minister Imran Khan. However, these new measures could also play in favour of Chinese social media platforms as an alternative in the country. Chinese content censorship on its online platforms is uniformly applicable, irrespective of whether an application is being used domestically or abroad. They could thus easily adapt to Pakistan's new regulations, and Beijing could even work with Islamabad to define the extent of internet censorship in Pakistan. Nowmay Opalinski said, "While such a cooperation has not yet taken place, China's growing footprint in Pakistan's telecommunication infrastructure could enable its occurrence. For example, the new cross-border fiber-optic cable which goes from Xinjiang to Rawalpindi via Khunjerab will involve the routing of internet traffic through China's regulated network. This could facilitate the exportation of the Chinese firewall system to Pakistan through a direct linkage. China has already exported social media surveillance tools to several countries. It is also showcasing its model of internet control in UN-mandated working groups on international cyber-norms by challenging "Internet freedoms and its multi-stakeholder governance." In December 2019, Firdous Ashiq Awan, Pakistan's then special assistant to the prime minister on information, urged Pakistan's local media to play an active role in promoting the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and to counter "negative propaganda." Her statement came a month after US Assistant Secretary of State for South Asia, Alice Wells, criticised China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and CPEC. The researcher said, "Since then, China and Pakistan have continued to reiterate the need for closer media cooperation. This is already taking shape, with China's state-run Xinhua news agency signing an MoU with local Pakistani media, which includes the provision of free content in both English and Urdu to their Pakistani counterparts. While the provision of content might be perceived as a good opportunity for the country's shrinking media industry, it could also be a step towards standardization of mainstream media information to promote BRI projects in Pakistan". There is a broader strategy at play here. China is now exporting news production through institutions such as the Belt and Road News Network. It has developed 'flooding' strategies, which involve publishing large volumes of online content through various state-sponsored channels. In a recent interview, state-run Pakistan Television Corporation officials reported that a "Rapid Response Initiative System" will be implemented to coordinate the efforts of China Economic Net (a Beijing-based online news organisation) and Pakistan China Institute (an Islamabad based pro-Beijing think-tank) to systematically counter negative views against CPEC. Subsidised trips for Pakistani journalists with training sessions in China are also being organised on a frequent basis. Beijing wishes to promote a new model of journalism across the world, and is holding international conferences such as the Belt and Road Journalists Forum and the China-Pakistan Media Forum to get the word out. Beyond content-related issues, China's investment in the media sector mainly favours state-owned outlets over independent and/or private entities.

            1. https://www.app.com.pk/global/7th-cpec-media-forum-eyes-fruitful-results/
            2. https://www.business-standard.com/content/press-releases-ani/expert-warns-of-china-s-inroads-into-pakistan-s-mainstream-media-and-telecommunications-120061200692_1.html

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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              8.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              38 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              13 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              15 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              8 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Yes, Ads promoting Pakistan-China friendship, CPEC projects, Chinese aid in times of Covid and natural disasters is heavily projected through media campaigns.

              1. https://twitter.com/TheDailyCPEC/status/1570703486282788866?s=20&t=TGg6Ki-kgltjmTE48PwKUA
              2. https://twitter.com/TheDailyCPEC/status/1570120351618830336?s=20&t=pXyh3eQJTUcwAtmBYlHoDA

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                9.
                Pressure

                In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                57 countries chose this answer

                4/ Yes

                24 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Pressure is exerted on journalists to give positive coverage and avoid criticism of China. But this is done by Pakistani civil military officials, not by PRC directly.

                1. Pressure is exerted on journalists to give positive coverage and avoid criticism of China. But this is done by Pakistani civil military officials, not by PRC directly.

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                  10.
                  Effect

                  In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  4 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  51 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  11 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  9 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  4 countries chose this answer

                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  That's because China is seen as an strategic ally by the military and all the major political parties.

                  1. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2277757/media-an-engine-for-cpec-development

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                    11.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    2 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    44 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    18 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    5 countries chose this answer

                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    It's a topic Pakistani leaders and media personalities deliberately avoid talking about because they don't want to upset China. Pakistan is a muslim majority nation. Very few people would actively/openly deny the violation of human rights in China.

                    1. http://en.people.cn/n3/2021/0224/c90000-9821697.html

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                      Academia

                      The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                      1.
                      Exposure

                      In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                      More

                      0/ No

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      6 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      31 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      25 countries chose this answer

                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      About 6,000 Pakistanis were working on their PhDs in China in 2018. Scientific and technological collaboration has grown rapidly, according to Journal Nature. With nearly 3,000 papers jointly authored and published by Chinese and Pakistani researcher, China has become one of Pakistan's top partners in scientific collaborations, according to an analysis of co-authored papers from Elsevier’s Scopus database. China is co-sponsoring a range of research centers in Pakistan that are studying topics from rice agriculture to artificial intelligence and railway engineering.

                      1. https://www.southasiainvestor.com/2019/05/growing-china-pakistan-collaboration-in.html

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                        2.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                        More

                        0/ No

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        14 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        31 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        27 countries chose this answer

                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                        1. https://www.thenews.com.pk/latest/958534-all-confucius-institutes-are-operational-in-pakistan-chinese-envoy

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          3.
                          Exposure

                          My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          46 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          35 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          The three main elements of Chinese educational support for Pakistan and other developing countries are university scholarships, vocational training programs, and Chinese language courses. Many Pakistanis think it would be economically beneficial to learn Mandarin or study in Chinese institutes. It has happened at all educational levels, including middle schools, high schools, colleges, and universities. China has continued to sponsor and open Confucius Institutes and classrooms throughout the country, often responding to requests from Pakistani universities. Private schools across the country, even in smaller cities, have begun offering Mandarin classes. Examples include the City School, one of the largest private school networks in Pakistan, with at least 150 schools in nearly fifty cities serving a total of 150,000 students. Another is the Roots School System that offers Chinese language courses. Not entirely clear whether these private schools receive subsidized books and/or other financial support from PRC for this.

                          1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-08/28/c_138345891.htm.
                          2. https://thecityschool.edu.pk/chinese-language-classes/
                          3. https://www.rootsschool.edu.pk.

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                            4.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            40 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            17 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            7 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            14 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Pakistan-China Institute The China Study Center, SDPI Islamabad

                            1. https://issi.org.pk/report-1st-pakistan-china-think-tank-forum-evolving-regional-situation-and-pakistan-china-cooperation/
                            2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjbxw/202109/t20210910_9712527.html

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr Ammar Malik

                              Hide
                              5.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              10 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              21 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              19 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              10 countries chose this answer

                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Pakistan today owes 30 per cent of its foreign debt to China, acc to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). China has invested in virtually every segment of the economy. To safe-guard its investments it must also invest media, research and think-tanks to help create a favorable intellectual capital. So, while there is no open-source evidence available of Chinese funding of think tanks in Pakistan, we have seen mushrooming of China experts in Pakistan who visit China regularly, have great access to Chinese diplomats and they champion PRC's view points and interests in Pakistan. None of this would be possible without the Chinese money. Pakistan is too cash-strapped to fund such activities.

                              1. https://issi.org.pk/report-1st-pakistan-china-think-tank-forum-evolving-regional-situation-and-pakistan-china-cooperation/
                              2. https://issi.org.pk/press-release-2nd-pakistan-china-think-tank-dialogue/
                              3. https://www.southasiainvestor.com/2019/05/growing-china-pakistan-collaboration-in.html
                              4. https://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/About_UASR/Members.htm

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                6.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                3 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                47 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                10 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                There's plenty of collaboration in higher education and university exchanges. But not enough evidence available to suggest specific programs aimed at bringing Chinese experts living in Pakistan to return to their country.

                                1. https://www.hec.gov.pk/english/scholarshipsgrants/lao/CSC/Pages/default.aspx
                                2. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/960241-chinese-scholarships-for-water-conservancy-professionals
                                3. https://www.southasiainvestor.com/2019/05/growing-china-pakistan-collaboration-in.html

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  7.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Not Found

                                  1. https://www.chinesescholarshipcouncil.com/fully-funded-cultural-exchange-scholarships-program-for-pakistani-students.html

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                    8.
                                    Pressure

                                    In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                    1. No evidence of it found

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    Chinese officials, students or scholars have not been overtly in conflict with Pakistani activists over human rights abuses, etc. Their interest in Pakistan is primarily financial, strategic and at best cultural. They are careful not to get entangled in activism, politics and media.

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      9.
                                      Pressure

                                      In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                      Skip

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        Most Pakistanis who go to China go there on business, student, tourist visas or official business. Journalists have also been taken there with the aim of "educating" them about all the "good work" China is doing in Pakistan. If it happens, it would usually be concerns over applicant's involvement with Islamic groups. Human rights activists in Pakistan have not really sought to go to China to investigate things there.

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          10.
                                          Effect

                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Most probably not

                                          1. Unlikely, because Pakistani schools do not really focus much on East Asian history.

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                            Hide
                                            11.
                                            Effect

                                            In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                            77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Discussion over these issues is avoided because the country as a whole is increasingly dependent on China and doesn't want to upset Beijing. Most Pakistanis would be forgiven for not knowing much about PRC's stance on Taiwan and Hong Kong. Islamist and right-wing institutions like to champion the cause of Muslims the world over, except in China.

                                            1. These are generally treated as China's internal matters, esp in govt universities and state-controlled private media

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide

                                              Economy

                                              The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                              1.
                                              Exposure

                                              The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              0/ No

                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              China is Pakistan's 2nd biggest trading partner after the US

                                              1. https://www.worldstopexports.com/pakistans-top-import-partners/
                                              2. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2363463/economic-future-of-pakistan

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr Ammar Malik

                                                Hide
                                                2.
                                                Exposure

                                                PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                In May 2022, Pakistan said it owes $18.4 billion or one-fifth of its external public debt to China, which is not only $4 billion higher than the officially reported figures but is also the highest lending by any single country or financial institution.

                                                1. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/cash-strapped-pakistan-says-china-agreed-to-rollover-4-2-billion-debt/articleshow/90405622.cms?from=mdr

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr Ammar Malik

                                                  Hide
                                                  3.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  0/ No

                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Copper and gold in Balochistan province Coal in the desert region of Thar in Sindh province

                                                  1. https://unpo.org/article/21986
                                                  2. http://cpec.gov.pk/project-details/4
                                                  3. https://oec.world/en/profile/country/pak

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr Ammar Malik

                                                    Hide
                                                    4.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                    Yes

                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    0/ No

                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Chinese trade and industrial concerns are operating throughout the country, with joint and wholly-owned interests in textile factories, cement plants, power producers, steel mills, housing projects and telecommunication concerns, the Pakistan-China Joint Chamber of Commerce and Industry’s (PCJCCI) website shows. Examples: Gwadar Sea Port and Thar Coal power project

                                                    1. https://www.dw.com/en/china-pakistan-investment-ties/a-58734281
                                                    2. https://asiatimes.com/2021/02/chinas-pakistan-investments-a-double-edged-sword/

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr Ammar Malik

                                                      Hide
                                                      5.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Hide
                                                      6.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      China and Pakistan are allies in the multi-billion dollar CPEC project, which is a part of OBOR. Major Pakistani businesses have partnered with PRC entities for projects in infrastructure development, energy and other sectors. Not enough info available to confirm whether Pak businesses are also member of the three organisations named in the question.

                                                      1. http://dev.srcic.com/news/experts-call-for-greater-cooperation-under-china-proposed-bri/
                                                      2. http://cpec.gov.pk/
                                                      3. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/?page=3
                                                      4. https://www.bricaistanbul.com/overview/brica-members/

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr Ammar Malik

                                                        Hide
                                                        7.
                                                        Pressure

                                                        My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        No publicaly known evidence available of PRC's coercion

                                                        1. No publicaly known evidence available of PRC's coercion

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          8.
                                                          Pressure

                                                          In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          No evidence of that available yet

                                                          1. No evidence of that available yet

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            9.
                                                            Effect

                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Hide
                                                            10.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                            Yes

                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            47 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. https://www.pide.org.pk/psde/pdf/AGM32/papers/Special-Economic-Zones-SEZs.pdf

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr Ammar Malik

                                                              Hide
                                                              11.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              76 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not true, even though China is frustrated over unpaid capacity payments in the coal plants it has set up under CPEC. Those outstanding payments by the government of Pakistan run in billions of rupees. But the Chinese have been patient and not threatened to invoke retaliatory claims. The two sides are trying to sort this out through negotiations, instead of arm-twisting.

                                                              1. https://www.brecorder.com/news/40159772
                                                              2. https://www.dawn.com/news/1709308

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                Hide

                                                                Society

                                                                The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                1.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                1. PRC affliated groups and usually do not lobby on this issues in Pakistan

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  2.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  United World Chinese Association isn't well known or active in Pakistan.

                                                                  1. No evidence to show the association has presence in Pakistan

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    3.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not really

                                                                    1. NO evidence to suggest cooperation between labour unions

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      4.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      No such reporting available locally. Reason could be that most Chinese workers live in closed and secure housing away from local communities. Their interaction is often minimal with the local communities. No way to know how they mark events and activities like Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc.

                                                                      1. https://www.wikiwand.com/zh-mo/%E5%86%9C%E8%9E%8D
                                                                      2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/web/gjhdq_676201/gj_676203/yz_676205/1206_676308/1206x2_676328/202102/t20210207_7972683.shtml

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        5.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        33 countries chose this answer

                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Pakistani and Chinese culture have little in common. One is highly religious, the other isn't. Their heritage, language and sensibilities are also very different. Not much has been done to bridge the cultural divide, except for promotion of Mandrian in Pakistan (mainly for economic reasons).

                                                                        1. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2300003/pakistan-china-urged-to-exchange-cultural-experiences

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          6.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not really. Religious ties between the two people are almost non-existent

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              7.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              38 countries chose this answer

                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Culturally, Pakistan is much closer to its arch-rival India. Indian content is still popular in Pakistan despite ban on import and censorship. China and Pakistan have started promoted each others films and entertainment content, but there is a long way to go.

                                                                              1. http://www.china.org.cn/opinion/2018-11/04/content_69450390.htm
                                                                              2. https://dailyoutcome.pk/five-movies-from-pakistan-screened-in-china/
                                                                              3. https://variety.com/2020/film/news/china-pakistan-first-film-parwaaz-hai-junoon-1234814657/
                                                                              4. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-silkroad-pakistan-softpower-idUSKCN1VW0LJ

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                8.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                Yes

                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                1. Since these are joint ventures on govt to govt level, the idea so to promote each others' countries in positive light.

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  9.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Really

                                                                                  1. Pakistani celebrities do not usually look to China for inspiration. Not many are known to get entagled in Chinese propaganda.

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    10.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    The Pakistani govt usually prefers to speak up for PRC in routine statements. Statements by PRC govt and embassies get prominent coverage in Pakistan's state and private media.

                                                                                    1. Pakistan govt routinely issues statements supporting China's stance on major issues.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      11.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Yes, China is regularly hailed for its economic success, low tolerance for corruption and as a self-respecting nation by Pakistani leadears. Educated Pakistanis understand that China has supported Pakistan against India and the US. They overlook PRC's alleged human rights abuses and its conflicts in East Asia as the country's internal matters. Pakistanis generally look up to China because of its economic power and military support against India. Some in the business community do resent how cheap imports from the PRC have destroyed local manufacturing.

                                                                                      1. https://uscpublicdiplomacy.org/sites/uscpublicdiplomacy.org/files/CPEC_Twitter_Discourse_Analysis_China_Pakistan_Ahmed_Rojratanakiat_Taekasem.pdf
                                                                                      2. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/FP_20200615_china_pakistan_afzal_v2.pdf
                                                                                      3. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202202/1251538.shtml
                                                                                      4. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202210/06/WS633e8e1aa310fd2b29e7b223.html

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                        Military

                                                                                        The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                        1.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        China has cemented its place as Pakistan’s largest supplier of major arms, including fighter aircraft, warships, submarines and missiles, according to a report by Sweden’s Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) published in March 2022.

                                                                                        1. https://nationalinterest.org/blog/reboot/china-helped-build-pakistans-military-these-five-weapons-199357
                                                                                        2. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2361207/pakistan-china-vow-to-step-up-defence-cooperation-despite-challenges

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          2.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Pakistan is an importer of Chinese weapons technology. For arms export, the military has been trying to graduate well beyond just a manufacturer of small weapons and improve its ability to produce advanced weapons. But given its economic constraints, Islamabad has had limited success. In recent years, it has sold weapons to budget-minded countries like Turkey, Nigeria and Myanmar. (Pakistan sold three JF-17s to Nigeria. In 2017, Turkey contracted to buy 52 Super Mushshak training aircraft. A year later, Ankara agreed to buy 1,000 PK-83 general purpose bombs.)

                                                                                          1. https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/With-China-as-its-mentor-Pakistan-triples-arms-exports
                                                                                          2. https://www.brecorder.com/news/543001

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            3.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            4.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            There are reports that China is building naval security presence in Gwadar, Balochistan. China is building a deep sea port there as a part of CPEC (OBOR). These reports are denied by Pakistani officials.

                                                                                            1. https://www.forbes.com/sites/hisutton/2020/06/02/chinas-new-high-security-compound-in-pakistan-may-indicate-naval-plans/?sh=2a2157691020
                                                                                            2. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/pakistan-hasnt-offered-any-military-bases-to-china-in-gwadar/articleshow/88184647.cms

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              5.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              China has helped Pakistan with humanitarian efforts in times of floods, earthquake, etc. But it's unclear whether this was PLA effort under HADR. Not enough reporting available to confirm this yet.

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                Not enough reporting available to confirm this yet.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Pakistan army and PLA have a very close strategic relationship. The Pakistani army chief recently described the People's Liberation Army (PLA) and the Pakistan Army as "brothers in arms". But there's little evidence that PLA military personnel are deployed in Pakistan.

                                                                                                  1. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2312839/china-vows-to-always-stand-together-with-pakistan-in-all-challenges

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                    MoreHide
                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Yes, joint military training exercises, including peacekeeping as well as anti-terrorism operations.

                                                                                                    1. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2320355/pakistan-participates-in-first-china-hosted-multinational-peacekeeping-drill
                                                                                                    2. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2323273/pakistan-china-joint-anti-terrorist-exercise-concludes

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Most probably yes. The army effectively leads Pakistan's strategic ties with PRC. The deals and negotiations are often secretive and not subject to parliamentary or media scrutiny. Pakistani generals are known to have enriched themselves by taking favors from friendly Arab countries. Given the strategic alliance and growing dependence on China, it would not be surprising if serving and retired commanders have received personal benefits and rewards from the PRC or its entities. However, in the absence of proof, this would be a speculation that would fit the overall pattern of the military leadership has benefited from being in control of the country.

                                                                                                      1. Not enough information available to substantiate this perception

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Yes, because they are convinced that in the regional dynamics and balance of power vis a vis India, Pakistan has to rely on Chinese military for support and strength.

                                                                                                        1. Retired military officials often stay in the media glare as defense experts. A wide majority fully supports and makes a case for closer ties with PLA against India.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Yes, regularly

                                                                                                          1. https://pakobserver.net/pak-china-military-ties/

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                            Law Enforcement

                                                                                                            The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                            1. https://www.dawn.com/news/84923/pakistan-china-agree-to-sign-extradition-treaty

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                              1. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2316852/anti-terror-cooperation-with-pakistan-to-continue-china

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                So such evidence

                                                                                                                1. No such evidence available

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not really, given the tight state to state relations between the two sides.

                                                                                                                  1. No such evidence avaialble

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  Not really, given the tight state to state relations between the two sides.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not really. Pakistan has suffered cyber attacks from India, but not much from China. Indian media accuses Pakistan of acting as China’s proxy against India.

                                                                                                                    1. https://www.orfonline.org/research/pakistan-emerges-as-chinas-proxy-against-india/
                                                                                                                    2. https://therecord.media/chinese-apt-groups-targeting-india-pakistan-and-more-with-sophos-firewall-vulnerability/

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                      In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest that

                                                                                                                      1. No evidence exists to suggest that

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      No evidence exists to suggest that

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Pakistan and China have a lot of information and intelligence sharing, but it's not discussed in the public domain. It includes internet traffic, video, etc.

                                                                                                                        1. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/army-steps-up-deployment-of-ai-powered-surveillance-systems-on-borders-with-china-pakistan/articleshow/93402906.cms
                                                                                                                        2. https://theprint.in/world/china-installs-over-500-surveillance-cameras-in-gwadar-city-of-pakistan/1007442/
                                                                                                                        3. https://technologytimes.pk/2021/08/15/lahore-safe-city-launch-investigation-against-huawei-on-llegation-of-installing-back-door-data/
                                                                                                                        4. https://www.aboutpakistan.com/news/gwadar-safe-city-project-to-be-completed-in-next-six-months/

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        Pakistan and China have a lot of information and intelligence sharing, but it's not discussed in the public domain. It includes internet traffic, video, etc.

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                          In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          No evidence of joint policing in Pakistan

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                              My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                              1. https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/beijing-pakistan-uyghurs/31406166.html

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Pakistan does not recognize Taiwan as a state but as an integral part of the People’s Republic of China.

                                                                                                                                1. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/122536-Fresh-guidelines-issued-to-ministries-provinces-on-Taiwan

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                Pakistan does not recognize Taiwan as a state but as an integral part of the People’s Republic of China.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Pakistan was the first country to actively collaborate with Beijing in monitoring and extraditing Uyghurs to China, deporting 14 Uyghurs accused of being terrorists in 1997. They were all summarily executed.

                                                                                                                                  1. https://gandhara.rferl.org/a/beijing-pakistan-uyghurs/31406166.html

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                    Technology

                                                                                                                                    The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Huawei, Haier and Zong are among major Chinese investment companies in Pakistan's telecom sector.

                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.dw.com/en/china-pakistan-investment-ties/a-58734281
                                                                                                                                    2. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2363463/economic-future-of-pakistan

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Most likely yes, as the country is heavily reliant on Chinese technology for its telecom infrastructure upgrades.

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2022/07/09/chinese-telecom-carrier-helps-bridge-digital-gap-in-pakistan/
                                                                                                                                      2. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2345552/telecom-boom
                                                                                                                                      3. https://theprint.in/world/china-installs-over-500-surveillance-cameras-in-gwadar-city-of-pakistan/1007442/

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Pakistan relies and trusts China more than the US for its hi-tech needs. The two countries have a deep military cooperation on missile and nuclear program.

                                                                                                                                        1. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2361207/pakistan-china-vow-to-step-up-defence-cooperation-despite-challenges

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Fiber Optic Project under CPEC; not enough information available on data collection, voice and facial recognition cooperation.

                                                                                                                                          1. http://cpec.gov.pk/map-single/3
                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.nation.com.pk/29-May-2022/pakistan-s-first-ai-lab-nears-completion-under-cpec

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.brecorder.com/news/40128263

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.bolnews.com/latest/2021/12/pakistan-ushers-in-new-era-of-startups-chinese-official/

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Top 5 platforms: Facebook Youtube TikTok Snack Video Twitter

                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.phoneworld.com.pk/7-most-used-social-media-platforms-in-pakistan-2022/
                                                                                                                                                2. https://dailytimes.com.pk/938205/pakistans-pavilions-to-be-established-in-beijing-on-tiktok-to-promote-trade/

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  In 2020, Pakistan became the first country to join satellite navigation system of China

                                                                                                                                                  1. http://cpecinfo.com/pakistan-becomes-first-foreign-country-to-join-satellite-navigation-system-of-china/

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                    Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                    The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Pakistan has four provinces. They have constitutional autonomy over health, education, policing, mineral wealth, energy, etc. These provincial governments have routinely wooed Chinese govt/investors and signed several bilateral deals.

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/964797-mou-signed-on-setting-up-culture-education-exchange-centre
                                                                                                                                                    2. http://en.ce.cn/Insight/202206/28/t20220628_37811579.shtml
                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2022/06/13/first-batch-of-chinas-vocational-college-on-electric-engineering-inaugurated-in-sindh/

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.app.com.pk/global/pak-china-signs-agreement-to-establish-sister-provinces-cities-parks-lakes/

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Pakistan and China have a patron-client relationship. As a creditor and a financier, China helps keep Pakistani economy afloat. So while it may not directly fund many "official" trips, the budget is indirectly financed by PRC.

                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.ft.com/content/6250c214-cfdc-4b4f-85b3-876666d01ff4

                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                        Skipping this question because of a lack of evidence to support well established public perception that PRC and Chinese entities sponsor strips of politicians and govt officials in an attempt to promote China's interests in Pakistan.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          All the time. Summits and bilateral visits.

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/zxxx_662805/202205/t20220523_10691130.html

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            These trainings take place regularly between PRC and Pakistan's federal and provincial governments.

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://ccls.lums.edu.pk/courses-offered
                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.radio.gov.pk/24-05-2018/judiciary-of-pakistan-fully-supports-cpec-cjp
                                                                                                                                                            3. https://finance.punjab.gov.pk/system/files/Tr-16072019.pdf

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr Ammar Malik

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              No significant allegations or reporting on Chinese campaign donations available. It is conceivable, given PRC's deep financial stakes, but there seems to be little evidence so far

                                                                                                                                                              1. Most major parties favour deeper engagement with China anyway. There are allegations that they recive kick-backs on major projects. But no major accusation of campaign financing. Pakistan's electoral laws bar candidates from receiving state funding of foreign governments.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                No evidence or need in Pakistan, where overall opinion is largely pro-PRC

                                                                                                                                                                1. No evidence. Seems not applicable in Pakistani context

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  1. No evidence. Seems not applicable in Pakistani context

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Pakistan's civil-military leaders are overwhelmingly pro-PRC as they depend on Beijing for military and economic support against India and the US.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.brecorder.com/news/40180236/pm-says-more-cooperation-with-china-is-win-win-situation
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.gulftoday.ae/news/2019/10/08/imran-all-praise-for-chinas--efforts-against-corruption
                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2022/05/28/chinas-economic-development-an-example-for-the-world-bilawal/

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                        Pro-Beijing think-tanks in Islamabad have popped up in the last decade or so. They ostensibly receive funding and support from PRC governments and diplomats to project advocate closer business and strategic ties with Beijing. Examples include: Pak-China Institute (PCI) led by Senator Mushahid Hussain and the China Study Center at Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI). Hard to name specific cases or individuals, though it is entirely possible given the close cooperation and business dealings between the two sides.

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Pakistan has rejected requests from Beijing to allow a Chinese private security company to operate in its territory.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://pakistan.asia-news.com/en_GB/articles/cnmi_pf/features/2022/06/21/feature-01

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                            Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                            The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://na.gov.pk/cpec/?q=press-releases

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              All the time

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.app.com.pk/global/7th-cpec-media-forum-eyes-fruitful-results/

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Training of Pakistani civil servants by the Chinese govt has been going on for several years.

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.finance.gov.pk/poverty/training_28032022.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.commerce.gov.pk/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Ftrain_China_EAD.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  PRC doesn't directly pressurize Pakistani politicians. It's the state of Pakistan that ensures everyone understands and supports the strategic alliance. Fair to say that PRC offers Pakistanis incentives for cooperation.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. China may quitely express displeaure over statements by local politicans critical of the Chinese involvement, but it doesn't and can't penalise them openly. That is left to the Pakistani security establishment and political leadership.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                    Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    No evidence available to support this

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. China and Pakistan's militaries have a close cooperation. If they arrest each others' nationals, it is not with the intention of indulging in hostage diplomacyin

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Pakistan fully supports China's position on Taiwan’s participation in the World Health Assembly

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Pakistan's supports One China policy
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/world-health-assembly-taiwan-becomes-a-hot-potato-again-71235

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        China and Pakistan have a long history of supporting each other's core interests in various UN bodies.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.dawn.com/news/1677586/china-thanks-pakistan-for-extending-support-in-un-body-polls
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.aa.com.tr/en/asia-pacific/china-pakistan-vow-to-support-each-others-core-interests-concerns/2594718

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                          Support

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Pakistan fully supports China on South China Sea, Taiwan, Xinjiang and Tibet.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-12-01/Pakistan-to-support-China-on-South-China-Sea-Taiwan-Xinjiang-Tibet-VS4tonaaTC/index.html
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.southasiamonitor.org/china-watch/pakistan-supports-beijing-south-china-sea-talks

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Support

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Pakistan, as a Muslim country,usually avoids talking about Uighurs. But this year a prime minister backed China's version on Uighurs, praised it's one-party system.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/7/2/pakistan-imran-khan-china-uighurs

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Support

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Pakistan's stated position on Tibet is that it is an inalienable part of China.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-12-01/Pakistan-to-support-China-on-South-China-Sea-Taiwan-Xinjiang-Tibet-VS4tonaaTC/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Pakistan is committed to One-China Policy and supports China on Taiwan, South China Sea, Hong Kong, Xinjiang and Tibet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.dawn.com/news/1583884
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. http://us.china-embassy.gov.cn/eng/zgyw/202202/t20220206_10639501.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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