Netherlands

$58,061.0
17.5M
Ranking
66/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

81/ 388
Executive partner
Expert Forum
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

27%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

29%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

4%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, the Netherlands had a GDP per capita of US$58,061 and a total population of 17.53 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 36,500, people (not including Chinese who are naturalized as citizens of host countries, or children born locally of Chinese descent).

The Netherlands established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1954. The Netherlands was ranked 28th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and free in Freedom House's 2021 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 97/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    8.3% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    47.7% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    15.9% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    38.6% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    40.9% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    13.6% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    2.3% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. https://www.worldchinesemedia.com/

Supplementary Notes

The website worldchinesemedia.com mentions 3 outlets: United Times, New Holland Chinese Network and Overseas Chinese New World (used the website with googles machine translation). The Chinese names of three media are: 1. 新荷兰中文网 2. 联合时报 3. 华侨新天地

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Skip

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Not Found

    1. http://cn.brnn.com/414904/414908/index.html

    Supplementary Notes

    A Dutch NGO, RNW Media, largely funded by the Dutch ministry of foreign affairs is listed on the BRNN website. The CEO seems to have addressed a session of Media Cooperation Forums on the Belt and Road. The NGO is active with media projects in China, but is not a dutch media organization: the status of RNW Media is not very clear, and it is based in Hilversum, the Netherlands.

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2386673-dit-is-wat-we-niet-mogen-zien-in-tibet

      Supplementary Notes

      Last year the Dutch correspondent for the main national news broadcaster NOS went on a PRC organized tour called "中外记者新疆采风行" to Xinjiang. The story he made was very open about what it meant to go on a tour like this. In general, it would not be accepted as independent journalism if not accounted for. The same national broadcaster journalist also visited Xinjiang after an invitation, but his reporting was extremely critical. The title of the article is in the same spirit: 'Filming is allowed at the Uyghurs, but the message seems to be: 'go away'.' Link

      1. https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2353006-filmen-bij-de-oeigoeren-mag-maar-de-boodschap-lijkt-opsodemieteren

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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      4.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      3 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      37 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      16 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      2 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      10 countries chose this answer

      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      No sources found, but with increased sensitivity over this topic it seems unlikely

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Skip

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

          1. https://leidenasiacentre.nl/onderzoeksrapport-chinas-invloed-en-de-chinese-gemeenschap-in-nederland-van-prof-dr-frank-pieke/
          2. http://www.crtv.nl/radio/
          3. https://baike.baidu.hk/item/%E4%B8%AD%E5%9C%8B%E5%A0%B1%E9%81%93%E7%B6%B2%E7%B5%A1%E9%9B%BB%E8%A6%96/8481144

          Supplementary Notes

          No official PRC media. See comments at indicator 6 for Dutch-Chinese owned media. See domain 7, indicator 7: the english version of CGTN is broadcasted by one large operator. CRTV exists in the country, which normally is under The State Council of the People's Republic of China, as a tool to spread propaganda, but we were not able to find direct links between CRTV and the PRC in English or Dutch sources. The report states it was set up by graduates in Amsterdam in 1996, 'to connect Chinese and Western culture and society through various media channels.' Their latest reports on their website date from 2019 (see URL2 above). However when we Baidu it, it shows that in the PRC there is a network called CRTV that belongs to The State Council of the People's Republic of China. CRTV can be found worldwide. It is to be supposed that CRTV in the Netherlands is also related to the PRC government like CRTV in other countries. They all share similar purposes (see URL3 above). So the situation remains uncertain for the moment

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

            1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/chinese-media-in-nederland?share=R6xHQpqBkncxFXUxacKzXFUs%2FTk7G91pPgQoBtbjU6xekleUOVGXWsJzmJf2uo8%3D
            2. https://leidenasiacentre.nl/onderzoeksrapport-chinas-invloed-en-de-chinese-gemeenschap-in-nederland-van-prof-dr-frank-pieke/

            Supplementary Notes

            The only available information is on the influence of PRC on chinese language media in the Netherlands. A think tank report argues the PRCs influence is limited. An investigative journalism website interpret the result of this report differently, they argue that chinese language media in the Netherlands are 'walking on Beijings leash' and are not reporting critically anymore. Still the influence of these media are limited

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

              1. https://nos.nl/artikel/2332437-diplomatie-of-politiek-ambassadeurs-roeren-zich-in-de-coronacrisis

              Supplementary Notes

              See comment at indicator 8

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                1. https://www.bnr.nl/nieuws/internationaal/10409413/open-brief-ambassadeur-moet-china-vrijpleiten
                2. https://nos.nl/artikel/2332437-diplomatie-of-politiek-ambassadeurs-roeren-zich-in-de-coronacrisis

                Supplementary Notes

                The Chinese ambassador in the Netherlands in 2020 wrote an open letter that was published as advertisment. Multiple media reported on this, which shows that it is very unusual

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                  1. https://www.independent.co.uk/sport/olympics/winter-olympics/dutch-tv-reporter-beijing-sjoerd-den-daas-b2009848.html

                  Supplementary Notes

                  No cases have been found. Usually this is a type of issue that would be flagged by the Dutch society/union for journalists (NVJ). The situation is different for correspondents in China, where the main correspondents are under the pressure of the PRCs censorship. This was a hot topic during the Olympic Games, when a Dutch journalist was assaulted around the opening ceremony

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                    10.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    51 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    No sources found, seems very unlikely

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                        11.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        2 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        44 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        18 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                        1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/chinese-media-in-nederland?share=R6xHQpqBkncxFXUxacKzXFUs%2FTk7G91pPgQoBtbjU6xekleUOVGXWsJzmJf2uo8%3D

                        Supplementary Notes

                        The only case found is a pamphlet in Chinese, criticising the parliaments decision to denounce the Uyghur genocide

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                          Academia

                          The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                          1.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                          More

                          0/ No

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          6 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          31 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          25 countries chose this answer

                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                          1. https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/detail?id=2020D53601&did=2020D53601
                          2. https://www.wur.nl/en/Research-Results/Research-Institutes/plant-research/show-wpr/Wageningen-University-Research-and-Tencent-announce-3rd-International-Autonomous-Greenhouse-Challenge.htm
                          3. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/f1-Netherlands

                          Supplementary Notes

                          The governent report shows huawei has partnerships with many universities (often the technical ones). Tencent cooperates with Wageningen University. Chinatechmap also lists several cooperations. Many new cooperations in recent years are being scrutinised in the press. Based on the China Tech Map (see URL3 above) , 5 importn universities in the country have signed with Huawei regarding reserarch partnerships: Netherlands Seeds for the Future University of Amsterdam Leiden University Eindhoven University of Technology University of Twente

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                            2.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                            More

                            0/ No

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            14 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            31 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            27 countries chose this answer

                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Not Found

                            1. https://www.ftm.eu/articles/university-groningen-confucius-institute?share=7BPsba2VJHC2srZxE1DFQ91BvADqbWR3NxBsp5hFpz6y3kXBSMWRwYhI3wge57s%3D
                            2. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2020-07/Rapport_politieke_beinvloeding_in_het_onderwijs_juni_2020.pdf

                            Supplementary Notes

                            This is one of the indicators that has most been discussed in Dutch media in recent years. There are two active Confucius Institutes in the Netherlands, in Groningen and Maastricht; in 2019 the institute in Leiden was closed. Think tank Clingendael considers the one in Groningen as 'very active', but considers it's reach and inlfuence as 'limited / non existent'

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                              3.
                              Exposure

                              My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              1 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              46 countries chose this answer

                              4/ Yes

                              35 countries chose this answer

                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                              1. http://www.brsn.net/jgcy-Institutions/zhiku_en/detail/20191009/1005000000038251570591790829589863_1.html

                              Supplementary Notes

                              The Conficius Institutes have 14 Classrooms/Teaching Points. These schools, plus a few others are part of the official Dutch Education 'Chinese Network'. Broadcaster VPRO estimated in 2018 that 2872 Dutch school children were learning Chinese, funded by PCR

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                4.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                40 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                17 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                7 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Not Found

                                1. http://www.brsn.net/jgcy-Institutions/zhiku_en/detail/20191009/1005000000038251570591790829589863_1.html

                                Supplementary Notes

                                The only found source is the Leiden Asia Center featuring on the BRSN website, but no mention on the think tanks website

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                  5.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Not Found

                                  1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/china-science-investigation-overzicht?share=6odrzwFmKFHvHdmJrwSIzW9s67ddtnHHykEUvEawsSwsSTZzYs9KOmSyaOmvyTE%3D
                                  2. https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/detail?id=2020D53601&did=2020D53601

                                  Supplementary Notes

                                  See the report discussed under indicator 1, plenty of cooperations. In a large investigation released in May 2022, investigative journalists of website Follow the Money reveal that Dutch scientist cooperate with Chinese funded scientists in developing technology that is interesting for the Chinese army. One other recent development should be noted. The Free University in Amsterdam closed its Cross Cultural Human Rights Centre. It was paid for by the Southwest University of Political Science and Law in Chongqing (250.000-300.000 euro). An investigative committee concluded that the scientific methods used were not good and uncritical of the PRC. They also concluded, however, that there was no proof that 'opinions were bought'. This is a new example useful for indicator 5. It shows again. that the PRC is active in the Dutch academia, although the closing it also shows there's increasesd attention for the issue.

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                    6.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                    1. https://www.eur.nl/esl/nieuws/prof-dr-martin-de-jong-benoemd-tot-hoogleraar-dynamics-inclusive-prosperity
                                    2. https://www.universiteitleiden.nl/en/staffmembers/aart-kleijn#tab-1

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    The only few examples found are the professors mentioned in these sources

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                      7.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LVUs82nNzwQ
                                      2. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/nieuwe-banden-met-chinese-staat-op-nederlandse-scholen?share=E8sr1y9%2FBjdKlQqJbZuOFqSty5dqJjXbkhdHnpRAcluvv0O4UkVwV7v0ywHOLzY%3D

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      Only one example is mentioned in media, a study trip of high school principals. The Groningen Confucius has made a promo video about this trip

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                        8.
                                        Pressure

                                        In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                        1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/acssnl-chinese-studentenvereniging-controle?share=1l0edZc6o1kkTnqIhl7TFKOYUV8dIxan%2BNxXn32iS%2B5Ebf6j84Zy08thpCRvaqc%3D
                                        2. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2020-07/Rapport_politieke_beinvloeding_in_het_onderwijs_juni_2020.pdf
                                        3. https://nos.nl/artikel/2369102-studenten-in-nederland-vrezen-china-sommigen-durven-hun-mond-niet-open-te-doen

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        Several universities have student societies that are part of the Dutch CSSA (ACSSNL) Reports show that the ties between this society and the Chinese Embassy are strong and that members are spying on the activities of Chinese students. These reports argue in brief that this leads to self-censoring

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                          9.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                          1. https://www.vpro.nl/argos/lees/onderwerpen/china/2021/china-academici.html
                                          2. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2020-07/Rapport_politieke_beinvloeding_in_het_onderwijs_juni_2020.pdf

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          No examples have been found, but a think tank reports that it's the strategy of the chinese embassy to create self censorship. In a news item on this type of diplomacy and hostage diplomacy, there's also no concrete dutch cases, but there are academics saying they fear they would probably not get one. There are no concrete names of academics that have been denied visa to the PRC, but the scholars in the sources argue that they know it is common practice for the PRC to deny visa. Whether they refer to foreign colleagues, or Dutch colleagues that have not talked to media is not certain. The grade depend also on how heavy self-censorship weighs into the picture. Some scholars are not applying for visa as they fear they won't get it.

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                            Hide
                                            10.
                                            Effect

                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                            No

                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ Yes

                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            Not Found

                                            1. https://nos.nl/artikel/2369095-zorgen-om-banden-rug-en-china-hoogleraar-mag-imago-china-niet-beschadigen
                                            2. https://www.rug.nl/about-ug/latest-news/news/archief2021/nieuwsberichten/confucius-instituut-groningen?lang=en
                                            3. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2020-07/Rapport_politieke_beinvloeding_in_het_onderwijs_juni_2020.pdf

                                            Supplementary Notes

                                            The Groningen Confucius Institute used to fund (for 50%) the Groningen University chair in Chinese Language and Culture. A clause in the contract of this professor said he could not damage China's image in public. After uproar in media and politics, this arrangement ended in 2021

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              11.
                                              Effect

                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                              1. https://nos.nl/artikel/2369095-zorgen-om-banden-rug-en-china-hoogleraar-mag-imago-china-niet-beschadigen

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              No such reports were found. A professor in the submitted source, however, argues, that Hongkong and Chinese students don't want to participate in discussions related to the situation in Hongkong, in fear of repercussions

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                Hide

                                                Economy

                                                The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                1.
                                                Exposure

                                                The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                0/ No

                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ Yes

                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                1. https://www.clingendael.org/publication/dutch-views-china

                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                Germany is Netherlands' largest trading party, but a think tank report argues that China is Germany's largest training partner, and much goods travel through the port of Rotterdam

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                  Hide
                                                  2.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                  1. https://www.dnb.nl/nieuws-statistiek/snb-2020/nederlandse-beleggers-bezitten-minder-nederlands-staatspapier/
                                                  2. https://www.nu.nl/economie/6129711/wat-is-dat-nou-precies-de-staatsschuld-dit-moet-je-erover-weten.html

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  More than half the national debt is owned by Dutch investors and the European banking system

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                    Hide
                                                    3.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    0/ No

                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    20 countries chose this answer

                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                    1. https://www.eiti.nl/
                                                    2. https://www.cbs.nl/en-gb/background/2019/27/international-trade-in-gas-in-the-netherlands

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    Dutch gas is mainly used in the Netherlands, or exported to Germany

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                      Hide
                                                      4.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                      1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/2016_etnc_report.pdf
                                                      2. https://www.iai.it/it/pubblicazioni/constraints-engagement-china-dutch-ports-and-bri
                                                      3. https://www.rijkswaterstaat.nl/nieuws/archief/2019/12/nieuwe-editie-lichtkogel-de-invloed-van-china-op-onze-infrastructuur

                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                      A government infrastructure magazine discussed this topic in 2019. The Netherlans is an important trade partner of China and the infrastructure of airport Schiphol and, most importantly, the port of Rotterdam are important elements in the trade of the Belt and Road initiative, but China does not own them. Vulnerability to Chinese investment is a topic discussed in the media. A think tank report argues China doesn't consider NL a priority

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                        Hide
                                                        5.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                        1. https://nos.nl/artikel/2044123-nederland-ondertekent-oprichting-chinese-investeringsbank
                                                        2. https://www.rvo.nl/onderwerpen/buitenlandnetwerk/internationale-organisaties/asian-infrastructure-investment-bank-aiib

                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                        Netherlands is participating member since the start

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                          Hide
                                                          6.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                          Yes

                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                          1. https://sinopsis.cz/en/rolland-bri-influence-operations/#fnref120
                                                          2. https://www.bricaistanbul.com/overview/about-brica/

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          The Netherlands Council for Trade Promotion is member of BRICA, but the role of this organization in the Dutch economic life is unclear

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                            Hide
                                                            7.
                                                            Pressure

                                                            My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. https://www.dw.com/en/chinese-sanctions-threaten-eu-investment-pact/a-56995389
                                                            2. https://ecfr.eu/article/chinese-sanctions-how-to-confront-coercion-and-avoid-a-squeeze-on-europe/

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            The only relevant information deals with the Chinese-European investment deal being iced over the sanctions put on government officials. No specific stories deal with the Netherlands

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                              Hide
                                                              8.
                                                              Pressure

                                                              In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not Found

                                                              1. https://fd.nl/economie-politiek/1380740/dwangarbeid-oeigoeren-brengt-ook-nederlandse-bedrijven-in-het-nauw
                                                              2. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/nederlandse-bedrijven-worstelen-met-de-oeigoerenkwestie?share=hgHNQNAWpqKcWrnWdCdhk5jMz2z5qr%2BzglaN%2BgqFiUONVNvPVOtjfU7T10eFAcw%3D
                                                              3. https://www.cpb.nl/economische-verwevenheid-met-china-via-handel-twee-kanten-van-een-medaille

                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                              Investigative journalism platform FTM asked Dutch multinationals for a reaction when Chinese customers started boycotting H&M. The article doesn't mention any Dutch companies being boycotted. There's some pressure the other way around, with Dutch customers encouraging companies to stop activities in Xinjiang. What is more, in June 2022 the government's influential bureau for economic policy analysis (CPB) published an extensive report on the economic connections with the PRC. It highlights both the advantages and dangers on the trade. As a trading nation, the Netherlands profits from the trade, but it also makes it very vulnerable to Chinese boycots.

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                Hide
                                                                9.
                                                                Effect

                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                1. https://policy.trade.ec.europa.eu/eu-trade-relationships-country-and-region/countries-and-regions/china_en

                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                These are topics dealt with by the European Union

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  10.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                  1. https://www.rvo.nl/onderwerpen/landen-en-gebieden/china/handel
                                                                  2. https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/blg-883780.pdf
                                                                  3. https://longreads.cbs.nl/im2020-2/de-handels-en-investeringsrelatie-tussen-nederland-en-china/

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  No mentions are found in any documents on Dutch-Chinese trade relations

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    11.
                                                                    Effect

                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    76 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not such things are possible in the Netherlands

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                        Hide

                                                                        Society

                                                                        The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                        1.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                        Yes

                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        49 countries chose this answer

                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://leidenasiacentre.nl/wp-content/uploads/2021/04/Chinas-influence-and-the-Chinese-community-in-the-Netherlands-F.N.-Pieke.-Machine-translation..pdf

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        There's a section of the China Council for the Promotion of Peaceful Unification in the Netherlands, which has 100 members and focuses its comments mostly in chinese language media

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          2.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          Three names are mentioned in the UWCA list

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            3.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. https://www.fnv.nl/mondiaal-fnv/nieuws-mondiaal-fnv/archief/chinese-werknemers-aangevallen-en-gearresteerd-van
                                                                            2. https://www.fnv.nl/nieuwsbericht/algemeen-nieuws/2021/02/fnv-bezorgd-over-lot-hongkongse-vakbondsleider-lee

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            There are some records of Dutch unions visiting Dutch companies in China in the 2000s. In 2021, the the by far biggest Dutch labour union, FNV, considered to be left wing, joined ITUC in condemning the situation in Hong Kong

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              4.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                              1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/chinese-media-in-nederland?share=R6xHQpqBkncxFXUxacKzXFUs%2FTk7G91pPgQoBtbjU6xekleUOVGXWsJzmJf2uo8%3D

                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                              Not much found. One of the Dutch Chinese newspapers (United Times) publishes articles of organisations that are liaised to the United Front

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                5.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                1. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2021-04/Report_ETNC_Chinas_Soft_Power_in_Europe_Falling_on_Hard_Times_2021.pdf
                                                                                2. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2021-03/Barometer_Alert_Dutch_views_%20of_China_March2021.pdf

                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                No sources have been found. With the current opinion on China being quite negative, it seems unlikely that professional branch organisations will enter cooperations with their chinese counterparts. The Dutch journalists association NVJ is critical of press freedom in China

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  6.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  No sources for this have been found, very unlikely

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      7.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                      1. https://www.ziggo.nl/televisie/zenders/cgtn

                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                      The second largest tv provider in the Netherlands (Ziggo) broadcasts the English CGTN chanel for no additional cost

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        8.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                        1. https://www.vpro.nl/programmas/door-het-hart-van-china/kijk/afleveringen/door-het-hart-van-china-7.html
                                                                                        2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VsfY_k4ISNo
                                                                                        3. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2021-03/Barometer_Alert_Dutch_views_%20of_China_March2021.pdf

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        A major think tank concluded that opinions on China are 'unfavorable and deteriorating', no examples prove otherwise. There is a succesful documentary series (4 series, 20+ 45-minute episodes) by journalist Ruben Terlou who travels through China. He acknowledges that he can't be too negative about the PCR regime in order to keep doing his work, but definitely doesn't paint a positive picture of the PCR government. This is the most extreme situation one can find in the country

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          9.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                          1. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2021-03/Barometer_Alert_Dutch_views_%20of_China_March2021.pdf

                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                          No examples found, and with the negative opinion on China it is not very likely that celebrities are keen to do this

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            10.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            No examples found

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                1. https://www.clingendael.org/publication/dutch-views-china

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                Recent prominent think tank report on public opinion and China is called 'Unfavorable and deteriorating'

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                  1. https://sanctionsmap.eu/#/main/details/10/?search=%7B%22value%22:%22%22,%22searchType%22:%7B%7D%7D
                                                                                                  2. https://www.rvo.nl/onderwerpen/landen-en-gebieden/china/sancties-china

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  There's a sanction banning weapons imports since 1989

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                    1. https://www.rvo.nl/onderwerpen/landen-en-gebieden/china/sancties-china
                                                                                                    2. https://sanctionsmap.eu/#/main/details/10/?search=%7B%22value%22:%22%22,%22searchType%22:%7B%7D%7D
                                                                                                    3. https://open.overheid.nl/repository/ronl-70204774-bfe5-47fc-8c79-cdb15367de74/1/pdf/het-nederlandse-exportcontrolebeleid-2020.pdf

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    There's a sanction banning the export of weapons since 1989. Latest reports show that there is export of dual-use goods, but these exports are scrutinized

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                      1. https://www.ftm.eu/articles/china-science-investigation-launch?share=9eZicWfkXHmjT3yehoTCN6OS0OqFAiQLUwZqrMwoXoEMgLc6V5AlryZbCfU52JU%3D

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      With the existing embargo and NATO membership that seems unlikely. Nevertheless, a May 2022 report by investigative journalists shows that some Dutch scientists may be cooperating with Chinese colleagues in creating technology that could be used by the PLA

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        The Netherlands is part of NATO, so this is ruled out

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            No indication that mask donation in early Covid months came from PLA

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                The Netherlands is part of NATO

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Difficult to trace, but the Netherlands is part of NATO, so it is very unlikely

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Difficult to trace, but the Netherlands is part of NATO, so it is very unlikely

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              No information can be found, but this seems unlikely. In general old military personnel don't play a very big role in Dutch public life, with the exception of the current crisis in Ukraine

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                No sources found, seems unlikely

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                    My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.nu.nl/politiek/3744286/nederland-zet-eerste-stappen-militaire-samenwerking-china.html
                                                                                                                                    2. https://magazines.defensie.nl/defensiekrant/2014/08/hennis-in-china

                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                    No information can be found. It does not fall under this indicator, but might be a good place to mention that the Netherlands and China did cooperate in some missions. Chinese military guarded the Dutch camp on their mission in Mali, and they cooperated in the anti piracy mission in Somalia. The Dutch defence minister visited China in 2014 and said it would be the start of closer cooperation, but little seems to have come of this

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                      Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                      The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.hongkongwatch.org/all-posts/2020/10/23/hong-kong-watch-welcomes-irelands-decision-to-suspend-its-extradition-treaty-with-hong-kong-and-calls-for-eu-members-to-now-go-further-and-suspend-extradition-with-china
                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.reuters.com/article/hongkong-security-agreements-int-idUSKBN27Q23F

                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                      The Netherlands had an extradition treaty with Hong Kong, but this was suspended in 2021. See the map on the website of Hong Kong Watch for a european overview of extradition treaties

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        No sources, but this would probably be an EU issue. Also the Chinese definition of terrorism matches poorly with the Dutch parliaments observation that the PCR commits genocide in Xinjang

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.ad.nl/amsterdam/nederlandse-criminelen-in-top-misdaad-op-de-wallen~a84552f0/
                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.uva.nl/binaries/content/assets/subsites/amsterdam-research-institute-for-legal-studies/bonger-instituut-voor-criminologie/2009/pdf---slangenkoppen-en-tijgerjagers.pdf
                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.crimesite.nl/chinese-maffiaclan-in-nederland-opgerold-voor-drugs-via-postpakketten/

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            There are various reports that deal with the long history of Chinese criminal organizations in the Netherlands. Recent news item relate to the uncovering of a drugs network in 2021 and a report that the 'chinese maffia' is active in Amsterdam massage salons. There is no reason to think there's not still activity in this field

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                              1. https://nos.nl/artikel/2368169-veiligheidsdiensten-willen-meer-geld-vanwege-spionage-uit-china-en-rusland
                                                                                                                                              2. https://nos.nl/artikel/2377101-rapport-over-kpn-bevestigt-jarenlange-geruchten-over-spionage-china
                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.aivd.nl/onderwerpen/jaarverslagen/jaarverslag-2019/spionage-en-ongewenste-buitenlandse-inmenging

                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                              There are plenty of examples. In their (relatively short) year report, the Dutch intelligence services single out China as the biggest danger for economic espionage, claiming Dutch companies are and have been targeted. They mentioned Chinese espionage as main reason to ask for extended funding

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                1. https://eenvandaag.avrotros.nl/item/aivd-honderden-cyberaanvallen-door-rusland-en-china/
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.volkskrant.nl/nieuws-achtergrond/chinese-staatshackers-drongen-binnen-bij-nederlandse-overheid-dankzij-wereldwijd-citrix-lek~b27bb767/
                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-eu-cyber-idUSKBN2AY0F1

                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                In an interview in 2017, the head of the Dutch intelligence services claimed there had been 'hundreds' of cyber attacks from China, Russia and Iran on Dutch government organizations and companies. Chinese state hackers conducted a hack on government services in 2021. The issue is becoming increasingly serious

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.trouw.nl/nieuws/chinese-dissident-vreest-ongeluk-in-nederland~b8ade6e4/
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.amnesty-international.be/nieuws/oeigoeren-zijn-nergens-veilig

                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                  Little information found, but it is not unlikely. Amnesty International noted intimidation against Uyghurs in the Nethterlands by the PRC. One old story found, in 2005 Chen Yonglin cancelled a visit to the Netherlands fearing he would be harmed. Role of triads unclear, but is involved in violent activity (see item 3)

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                    My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.parool.nl/nieuws/politie-gaat-nauwer-samenwerken-met-china~b1bd305f/

                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                    Few sources on this are available. In 2014, the head of the Dutch police travelled to China to initiate closer cooperation to counter international drug trafficking, but there don't seem to be follow ups, nor stories of joint patrols

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                      My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      No sources found, but unlikely with the Dutch parliaments stance on Xinjiang and the lack of extradition treaty

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                          My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          No cases found, and they are unlikely due to the lack of extradition treaty

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                              My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              No cases found, and they are unlikely due to the lack of extradition treaty

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                  Technology

                                                                                                                                                                  The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.chinatelecomeurope.com/
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.acien-nl.com/member-en/chinaunicom

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  Some companies (C Unicom & C Telecom) have offices in The Hague, providing international services. They don't seem to offer telecom services to individuals however. Netherlands is often used as a business hub by companies from outside the EU

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://fd.nl/ondernemen/1384291/huawei-verdwijnt-uit-de-kern-van-nederlandse-telecomnetwerken
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://leidenasiacentre.nl/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Chinas-Role-in-Digital-Standards-for-Emerging-Technologies-1.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                    Huawei's participation in the development of a Dutch 5G network became a big political topic. Some telecom providers (KPN, T-Mobile) active in the creation of a 5G network signed deals with Huawei, but the government then decided Huawei would be banned from developping any 'sensitive' parts of the network. Afterwards, Huawei was howerver an important partner, and is still allowed to deliver antenna and radio services

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://nos.nl/artikel/2374551-huawei-had-onbeperkt-toegang-tot-miljoenen-klantgegevens-van-telfort
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2021/apr/19/huawei-may-have-eavesdropped-on-dutch-mobile-networks-calls

                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                      See 2. In addition, there are reports that Huawei in the past had access to customer data, without the provider (KPN) knowing about it. We are not sure how to grade this situation on the scale

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/overheid-ontbeert-inventaris-hikvision-dahua?share=b63ZxUtERSrJMDw3T3q%2Bd0gO2St%2BRGBqGG7mlNBH1x8U6J6Tdt9kcmcnUE73Z64%3D
                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/de-ogen-van-chinees-staatsbedrijf-hikvision-zijn-overal?share=ep4xsMX6IrCLZ1rowMjT6aLEqMCksdGb64tD3G2oLVfrUh0nwtHmpV1kwz%2B%2B2YM%3D

                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                        Investigative journalists revealed in February and March 2022 that Chinese companines Hikvision and Dahua supply local governments with security cameras. The journalists blame a lack of government oversight

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/f3-Artificial%20Intelligence

                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                          No mentions on the China Tech Map, only connections are related to the smart city systems discussed at item 6

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2022-01/vriendschap-winnen.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/f1-Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                            A think tank report of January 2022 argues that various cities signed a smart city agreement with Huawei in 2015, in many cases to create open-access WLAN networks, but also to create automation in elderly homes and other care facilities. The report argues, however, that it is unclear to what extent these projects have been executed. The cities which signed contracts with Huawei include Den Haag, Tilburg, Groningen, Amsterdam, Amstelveen, Utrecht. Shouldn't the grading be "more than a few, but significant", since Den Haag and Amsterdam are both included?

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.cips.com.cn/cips/gywm/cipsxt/zjcyzmd/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              No connections found

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/f1-Netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                The China tech map lists various examples of MOUs between dutch and chinese companies

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://app.sensortower.com/android/rankings/top/mobile/netherlands/overall?locale=zh-CN&date=2022-05-17&show_store_dat=true
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2021-netherlands

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  There are different websites giving different numbers. In most, Tiktok is not in the top 5 yet (whatsapp, youtube, facebook, instagram, fb messenger), but Tiktok is systemically in the top5 of new downloads and might be in the top5 already at the end of 2022.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    No news sources has been found, but the EU has its own project so this seems very unlikely

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/steden-en-provinciebanden-met-chinese-tegenhangers-2?share=q7it7OA7KDmWcHxWXIIY2Q876cHhwxGRfd1GKRN5W6cE6jmZ5wK%2FtOsmfwuU8TY%3D
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2022-01/vriendschap-winnen.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        In the last years there were 14 agreements between Dutch and Chinese provinces, roughly half are dormant or inactive

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/steden-en-provinciebanden-met-chinese-tegenhangers-2?share=q7it7OA7KDmWcHxWXIIY2Q876cHhwxGRfd1GKRN5W6cE6jmZ5wK%2FtOsmfwuU8TY%3D
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.clingendael.org/sites/default/files/2022-01/vriendschap-winnen.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Media source has long list of 42 local government / city ties, some no longer active. Situation monitored by the government since recent years

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            No sources found and it seems unlikely

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.agroberichtenbuitenland.nl/actueel/nieuws/2022/03/24/virtuele-handelsmissie-china-met-minister-schreinemacher
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.nu.nl/buitenland/6180868/china-expert-nederlandse-boycot-van-winterspelen-heeft-weinig-zin.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                The Netherlands did not send representatives to the Beijing Winter Olympics, but the government emphasized that it was not a 'boycott'. In May 2022, the minister of trade conducted a 'digital trade mission' to China

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No sources found, but we don't see a way in which this would be possible

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/jaarverslagen/2021/11/03/overzicht-van-giften-aan-politieke-partijen-en-hun-neveninstellingen-2020

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Campaign donations are transparent in the Netherlands, no such donations found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/china-cda-kandidaat?share=OGJJEG7xlCeatiJn5KJFv%2BDwo06R3xDP3Qh%2FGK6J%2Bzq2RtQJLYEdxcLLDbIlaSo%3D

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is one story, dug up by investigative journalists, of a Chinese-dutch entrepreneur featuring very low on the lists for the Dutch Christian Democratic party (CDA), who owns a restaurant and hosted a CCP delegation, including heads of local UFWDs. No links to financial contributions and he only received 230 votes in the election, way short of getting a seat

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No examples found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.ftm.eu/articles/european-parliament-china-friendship-group?share=JiMpPiYk97Et%2F8ryy%2BIV6DEP38tn2N3bfT8t3J70E7MNIuG5MSVZi%2FfhrlKec60%3D
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.ifri.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/etnc_2022_report.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Most political parties increased their criticism on China, no sources of openly positive claims are found. A large majoity voted to declare the chinese policies in Xinjiang as genocide, so the general attitude is defenitely negative. Only (irrelevant) example can be found at item 7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No sources found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.ftm.nl/artikelen/overheid-ontbeert-inventaris-hikvision-dahua?share=vX2Ahcsbn9bbhh0TpW0MJEmOFJh3gbifsm%2BBG3yBTzAn7RN6LdIYxxvhLHJVrog%3D

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Only mentions of hardware products used by police and government (see domain 6 indicator 4, and domain 9, indicator 7)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.tweedekamer.nl/downloads/document?id=7ee015f4-76ed-449f-a456-43d83105952b&title=Stemmingen%20moties%20China.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.tweedekamer.nl/debat_en_vergadering/commissievergaderingen/details?id=2019A02939

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The parliament accepted all kinds of motions investigating Chinese influence in the Netherlands. In the latest strategic note on China by the government the tone is also more critical. This seems therefore unlikely. Some sort of exception is of course the Netherlands' participation in IPU

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.eerstekamer.nl/nieuws/20191114/staten_generaal_ontvangt_chinese
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://nos.nl/artikel/2270843-groenlinks-na-werkbezoek-in-china-tegen-5g-netwerk-van-huawei
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.tweedekamer.nl/nieuws/kamernieuws/chinese-parlementaire-delegatie-bezoekt-tweede-kamer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Only official visits of Chinese officials have been found. A high delegation was hosted by the parliament and senate in 2019, Xi Jinping visited the Netherlands in 2014. The leader of the Green Left party visited China in 2019, but upon return argued that Huawei should be banned from the 5G network, and in 2021 argued against sending a Dutch delegation to the Beijing Winter Olympics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Difficult to find information, but seems very unlikely

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              MP Sjoerd Wiemer Sjoerdsma was sanctioned in terms of visiting the PRC: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of PRC has announced the sanction in 2021 (see URL1 below) .The case received considerable media attention. The former Dutch ambassador to the EU, Delphine Pronk, was sanctioned as well; she changed jobs afterwards. The Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs reacted by summoning the PRC ambassador to The Hague, calling the sanctions 'unacceptable'. Sjoerdsma himself called it an 'encouragement to European colleagues' to speak up against the Uyghur genocide (see URL2 below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/web/wjdt_674879/zcjd/202103/t20210322_9180639.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.trouw.nl/politiek/kamerlid-sjoerdsma-d66-en-hoge-nederlandse-diplomaat-op-sanctielijst-china~b9ea578e/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.vpro.nl/argos/lees/onderwerpen/china/2021/china-academici.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No known cases. The practice is mentioned in a news article, but no references to Dutch cases

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/detail?id=2020D25065

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Netherlands follows the ambiguous European stance on this topic. The Dutch parliament supported an investigation into the support of other european nations to include Taiwan in the WHO. In response to questions, the minister of foreign affairs stated in 2020 that the Netherlands 'is pushing for a meaningful participation of Taiwan in international organizations, without pushing for membership of organizations for which only sovereign states can be admitted'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://ipac.global/parliamentarians-raise-global-alarm-at-prc-interpol-election-bid/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Difficult to find information. Two parliamentarians of major coalition parties signed a letter opposing the candidacy of Hu Binchen for Interpol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.clingendael.org/publication/netherlands-and-indo-pacific-inclusive-not-value-neutral

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Netherlands denounced breaches of international law in the South Chinese Sea, following EU comments on this matter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://nos.nl/artikel/2370303-nederlands-parlement-spreekt-van-genocide-tegen-oeigoeren-het-voelt-goed-erkenning-te-krijgen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.tweedekamer.nl/kamerstukken/detail?id=2021Z03872&did=2021D08405
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2415717-vvd-zegt-als-laatste-coalitiepartij-wat-china-doet-met-oeigoeren-is-genocide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://www.government.nl/documents/diplomatic-statements/2022/06/14/joint-statement-47-countries-un-human-rights-council-situation-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Dutch parliament denounced the chinese actions as genocide in 2021. In 2022 also the main political party of the prime minister joined this verdict. The latest joint statement came out on June 14, 2022 (see URL4 above).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.government.nl/documents/diplomatic-statements/2022/06/14/joint-statement-47-countries-un-human-rights-council-situation-china
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.parool.nl/nederland/blok-botst-met-kamer-over-mensenrechten-china~bf4ce7707/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://savetibet.nl/nieuwsartikel/minister-blok-formuleert-scherper-tibet-beleid-in-brief-aan-de-tweede-kamer/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. https://www.trouw.nl/opinie/had-minister-blok-de-moed-kritisch-te-zijn-tegenover-zijn-chinese-collega~bdd210d3/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Dutch government says it raises human rights issues in bilateral meetings. There was some consternation in 2019, when the Dutch government did not mention Tibet in their new strategy regarding China. In a letter later that year, however, the minister of foreign affairs at the time did argue that the succession of the Dalai Lama should be a 'Tibetan affair' The latest joint statement came out on June 14, 2022 (see URL1 above).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/ah-tk-20202021-485.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.trouw.nl/buitenland/kabinet-maakt-zich-zorgen-om-hongkong~bf09b1f9/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/kamerstukken/2021/06/23/kamerbrief-inzake-het-verslag-van-de-hoge-vertegenwoordiger-en-de-europese-commissie-over-de-politieke-en-economische-ontwikkelingen-in-hong-kong-in-2020
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. https://www.government.nl/documents/diplomatic-statements/2022/06/14/joint-statement-47-countries-un-human-rights-council-situation-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In 2021, the minister of foreign affairs was asked by the parliament to reply to the European Commissions report on the state of Hong Kong. She did not denounce it herself, but says she acts along with the EU. A year earlier the (previous) minister shared the concern the EU voiced about the new security law. The latest joint statement came out on June 14, 2022 (see URL4 above).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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