Moldova

$5,314.5
2.57M
Ranking
63/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

82/ 388
Executive partner
Expert Forum
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

28%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

2%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

16%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Moldova has a GDP per capita of US $5,315 and a total population of 2.57 million people, with the Chinese population comprising up to 1,000 people (not including Chinese who are naturalized as citizens of host countries, or children born locally of Chinese descent).

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1949. After Moldova gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, the two countries established formal diplomatic relations in 1992. Moldova ranked 40th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Partly Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 62/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    9.1% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    15.0% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    2.3% / 23.6%
  • Military
    30.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    9.1% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    34.1% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    34.1% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    38.6% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

No such evidence could be found, on a media market which is tiny and contracting anyway. There is not much interest in Beijing to invest resources and effort in an audience which is dominated by the Russian-speaking media

      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      Yes

      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. http://en.brnn.com/n3/2019/1105/c415024-9629398.html

      Supplementary Notes

      We could not find info on the official list of BRNN, but a story from 2019 names Infotag director Alexandru Tanas among the participants in BRNN workshop in the PRC. Infotag is also the platform where the PRC Ambassador in Moldova publishes his occasional op-eds

        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        Yes

        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Not Found

        1. http://en.brnn.com/n3/2019/1105/c415024-9629398.html

        Supplementary Notes

        The URL links to a report about a BRNN workshop for journalists, including the director of a Moldovan news agency. The participants visited different regions of the PRC. To quote: „In just two weeks, the participants were divided into two teams and visited different parts of China separately. They saw, heard and felt on their journey, recording Chinese stories and getting a taste of China's colorful culture. “Seeing is believing. We have seen a prosperous China,” noted Alexandru Tanas, Director-General of Moldova’s News Agency Infotag”. We considered this evidence of a paid media tour in PRC.

          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          No data found for the period of interest

              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              5.
              Exposure

              In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

              No

              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              24 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              22 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              18 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              The local language is Romanian (called here Moldavian for political purposes) so whatever is re-distributed comes as a secondary product from the Romanian media market

                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  6.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  2 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  44 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  19 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  14 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  0 countries chose this answer

                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                  1. http://www.audiovizual.md/reports/15

                  Supplementary Notes

                  Not enough economic incentives for this kind of investment. The list of radio and TV media registered in Moldova is available at the link above

                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    7.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    22 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    21 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    6 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    23 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    The media market is fully dominated by free / cheap content provided by Russia

                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide
                        8.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        38 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        13 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        7 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        15 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        8 countries chose this answer

                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Market is not big and attractive enough for this type of political advertising effort

                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                            Hide
                            9.
                            Pressure

                            In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            57 countries chose this answer

                            4/ Yes

                            24 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Not Found

                            1. https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/2021-10/FotP_Moldova-2021_En_0.pdf

                            Supplementary Notes

                            We found no reports about Moldovan journalists being pressured by the PRC in any way. Moldovan media does not pay a lot of attention to China, so this kind of thing is unlikely to happen. The Freedom House report on media freedom in Moldova also found no such cases

                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              10.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              51 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              3 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                              1. https://cji.md/en/moldovan-press-status-index-for-2021/

                              Supplementary Notes

                              China is very rarely a subject on the mainstream media, or present on the pubic agenda and the Moldovan Press Status Index for 2021 does not list any such cases. However, media owned by pro-Russian politicians and businessman in general avoid covering stories that portray China in a bad light. This conclusion is based on our previous monitoring of pro-Russian media in Moldova.

                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                Hide
                                11.
                                Effect

                                In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                44 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                18 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                4 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                5 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                The subjects hardly get on the news, so VIPs have no incentive to address them

                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                    Hide

                                    Academia

                                    The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                    1.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                    1. https://prorectorat.utm.md/2020/03/09/acord-de-colaborare-utm-huawei/

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    Since 2020, the Technical University of Moldova has had in place a cooperation agreement with Huawei

                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                      Hide
                                      2.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      0/ No

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. http://cci.ulim.md/confucius-institute
                                      2. http://cci.ulim.md/assets/files/centre_internationale/confucius/statutul_institut_confucius.pdf

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      One of the lectors at the Free University of Moldova, which hosts the Confucius Institute, also heads the Moldova-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry. However the quality and consistency of the teaching is very much in doubt

                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        3.
                                        Exposure

                                        My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ Yes

                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                        1. https://mecc.gov.md/ro/content/invatamint-general

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        Chinese is not included in the national school curriculum. The main foreign languages taught are English, Russian and French. While there are some culturally specialized schools, such as a Moldovan-Italian or a Moldovan-Turkish high school, there is no equivalent Moldovan-Chinese institution

                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          4.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          We could not find any Moldovan institutions in the lists provided by the index authors, nor are we aware, as civil society members ourselves, of Belt and Road-affiliated think-tanks in Moldova. As for academic research centers, Moldovan academia is severely underdeveloped and does not play a significant role in society. As such, it is an unlikely target for PRC influence operations

                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              5.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Moldovan think-tanks and civil society as a whole are mostly dependent on Western donors and work with Western partners. There are some funded by Russia, but none by China, see also item 4 above

                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                  Hide
                                                  6.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Hide
                                                  7.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                  69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                  1. https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=3865326373505668&id=703286759709661
                                                  2. http://cci.ulim.md/mobilitate-staff-confucius/

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  We found evidence of PRC-funded trips to the PRC for medical staff (ref 1) and Confucius Institute students (ref 2), but the scale of these exchanges, at least at this stage, does not look like an ”influence operation targeting the intellectual community”

                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    8.
                                                    Pressure

                                                    In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    We did not identify any PRC-connected student groups at all, while the number of Chinese students in Moldova is insignificant

                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide
                                                        9.
                                                        Pressure

                                                        In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        We could find no reports of academics being denied PRC visas because of their critical views towards the PRC

                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            10.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                            Skip

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                            1. https://ulim.md/facultatea-de-litere/catedre/

                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                            The Free International University of Moldova, which hosts the Confucius Institute, has six Chinese academic assistants in the Asian language section. We would not rule out their involvement in curriculum design, even though there are no reports in this regard

                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              11.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              There are no public reports of teachers avoiding PRC-related sensitive political issues. The politics of East and South East Asia are simply not that present a topic in Moldova

                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide

                                                                  Economy

                                                                  The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                  1.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                  1. https://statistica.gov.md/newsview.php?l=ro&id=6916&idc=168

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  Yes for imports, no for exports: China is not in the top 10 for exports, but is the number one individual partner in terms of imports, where it barely edges out Romania and Russia with 11.9% of all Moldovan imports. In terms of trading blocs, the PRC lags behind the EU and the Commonwealth of Independent States

                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    2.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://docs.aiddata.org/ad4/pdfs/Banking_on_the_Belt_and_Road__Insights_from_a_new_global_dataset_of_13427_Chinese_development_projects.pdf
                                                                    2. https://www.bnm.md/files/05_DE_2021_q2.pdf

                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                    Yes for imports, No for exports: China is not in the top 10 for exports, but is the number one individual partner in terms of imports, where it barely edges out Romania and Russia with 11.9% of all Moldovan imports. In terms of trading blocs, the PRC lags behind the EU and the Commonwealth of Independent States

                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      3.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://www.resurseminerale.md/ro/sectorul-idustriei-extractive-din-republica-moldova-3364_90570.html

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      According to a 2019 report, 98% of Moldova's extractive industry production was consumed on the domestic market. The country does not have natural resources that would be of interest for the PRC

                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        4.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        46 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://anticoruptie.md/ro/stiri/investitie-chineza-la-criuleni-un-parc-fotovoltaic-de-patru-milioane-euro-ce-va-genera-venituri-anuale-de-cinci-milioane-lei

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        The PRC has invested in some projects, such as a small photovoltaic farm in Moldova, but the scale of these investments is insignificant. There was discussion at some point about larger infrastructure projects, but several governments have changed in Moldova since then and the projects nothing materialized

                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          5.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          Moldova is listed neither among current, nor among prospective members of AIIB

                                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            6.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            41 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. https://srcic.org/silk-road-members/

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            While we could not find information about individual businesses, the Moldovan Chamber of Commerce and Industry is a member of the Silk Road Chamber of Industry and Commerce, while Moldova also has a bilateral Moldova-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry, which comprises several well-known local companies

                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              7.
                                                                              Pressure

                                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              There are no documented cases of the PRC employing economic coercion against Moldova. There has no been no situation where such measures would make sense

                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  8.
                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                  In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Firstly, Moldovan businesses rarely take stances on international issues (with some exceptions such as the war in Ukraine) and PRC-related issues are not on their agenda. Secondly, the PRC does not have enough economic influence to harass businesses in Moldova even if they did take a stance on issues such as Tibet or Xianjiang

                                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      9.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                      1. https://gov.md/ro/content/moldova-si-china-interesate-de-semnarea-unui-acord-de-comert-liber

                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                      Negotiations regarding a free trade agreement between Moldova and the PRC have been underway since 2017, but there is no finality in sight. Moldova has FTA in place with the EU, has moved to obtain EU candidate status and is unlikely to sign any FTA with the PRC that would endanger its relations with the EU

                                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        10.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                        1. http://www.infotag.md/interview-ro/292315/

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        Moldova has several free economic zones, but none of them specifically target PRC entities. The Moldovan ambassador in Beijing however did advertise them to PRC businesses

                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          11.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          PRC entities did not seize any land or infrastructure in Moldova and this is unlikely to happen. Moldova does not have this type and level of exposure

                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                              Society

                                                                                              The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                              1.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                              1. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/
                                                                                              2. https://date.gov.md/ckan/ro/dataset/18516-date-din-registrul-de-stat-al-unitatilor-de-drept-privind-organizatiile-necomerciale

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              We checked the registry of NGOs and found no such organizations

                                                                                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                No UWCA members listed for Moldova, no other source found that this may be otherwise

                                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                  1. http://sindicate.md/conducerea-cnsm-a-avut-o-intrevedere-cu-reprezentantii-ambasadei-republicii-populare-chineze-in-republica-moldova/

                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                  The National Confederation of Trade Unions did meet the PRC Ambassador, but we did find any information on cooperation with the ACFTU, exchanges or visits to the PRC

                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                    1. http://bma.gov.md/sites/default/files/media/nr_strainilor_la_30.06.2021.pdf

                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                    The Chinese diaspora in Moldova too small for such events. According to the Bureau for Migration and Asylum, there only 64 PRC citizens residing in Moldova in 2021

                                                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      We found no evidence of PRC-connected associations existing in Moldova

                                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          We were not able to find any examples of PRC-related charity or religious donations in Moldova

                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                              1. https://trm.md/files/documente/rapoarte/rapoarte-de-activitate/Raport_TRM_%202020.pdf

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              In 2020, the national broadcaster hosted the Chinese Film Festival and showed the drama series Ode to Joy. Apart from this, entertainment in Moldova is dominated by Western and Russian content

                                                                                                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Local TV and movie production in Moldova is barely existent, so there is no content that favorably presents the PRC

                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Local celebrities generally comment only on national or regional politics. There are no examples of any celebrity regularly distributing PRC narratives

                                                                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                        In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                        1. https://iep-berlin.de/site/assets/files/2083/informd_study_against_disinformation_in_moldova.pdf

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        Even for the Left, friendship towards China is more of by-product of their allegiance to Moscow. They regularly distribute Russian narratives and whenever PRC narratives make their way into the Moldovan Left's discourse, it is still by the way of Russian propaganda

                                                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                          In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                          1. https://www.iri.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/IRI-2022-Moldova-Poll-February-March_PUBLIC.pdf

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          According to a 2022 survey, 64% of respondents do not know how to rate the relations between Moldova and China, which is the closest indicator to their opinion on the PRC: lack of exposure to the topic and low interest

                                                                                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                            Military

                                                                                                                            The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                            1. https://diez.md/2014/10/16/china-va-oferi-moldovei-10-mln-de-dolari-pentru-instalarea-camerelor-video-in-intersectii/

                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                            We found no information on recent purchases or donations, but older equipment (such as traffic surveillance) is still in use

                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                              1. https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2022-03/fs_2203_at_2021.pdf

                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                              Moldova is not an exporter of military or law enforcement equipment

                                                                                                                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                1. https://diez.md/2014/10/16/china-va-oferi-moldovei-10-mln-de-dolari-pentru-instalarea-camerelor-video-in-intersectii/

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.constcourt.md/public/files/file/Actele%20Curtii/acte_en/MDA_Constitution_EN.pdf

                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                  Moldova is a neutral country and the Constitution does not allow foreign bases on Moldovan soil

                                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Moldova received vaccines and other sanitary materials from the PRC, but there is no information linking any donation to the PLA

                                                                                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        As a neutral country, Moldova does not have any permanent or rotational presence of PLA troops

                                                                                                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            ]

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.army.md/?lng=3&action=show&cat=122&obj=7420

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            A press release from the Moldovan Ministry of Defense mentions training for Moldovan soldiers in the PRC, but we could not find any further details

                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.army.md/?lng=3&action=show&cat=122&obj=7420

                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                              The press release mentioned for the previous indicator does not specify whether the PRC training for Moldovan soldiers included peacekeeping training

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                We found no such examples and deem them unlikely. The Moldovan army is tiny and does not present any strategic interest for the PRC

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Neither current, nor former military/intelligence leaders have publicly advocated for closer cooperation with the PLA

                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                      Neither current, nor former military/intelligence leaders have publicaly advocated for closer cooperation with the PLA

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                        1. http://eng.chinamil.com.cn/china-military/node_83134.htm

                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                        We found no evidence of any PLA presence or influence in Moldova, which is not within the PRC's area of security / defense interests

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                          Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                          The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://mfa.gov.md/ro/content/republica-populara-chineza
                                                                                                                                                          2. http://procuratura.md/md/actint/

                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                          No such agreement is listed on the Moldova MFA's PRC page or on the Prosecutor General's Office international cooperation page

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://mfa.gov.md/ro/content/republica-populara-chineza

                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                            We found no such agreement listed on the websites of the relevant ministries and authorities

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              While we found older reports about Moldovan traffickers who smuggled drugs from China, the triads themselves are no present in Moldova, where they likely see no market for their „business”

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://epochtimes-romania.com/news/in-moldova-a-fost-deconspirata-o-retea-de-droguri-importata-din-china---267600

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                There is hardly anything for PRC economic espionage to target in Moldova in terms of economy or technology. Low tech criminality is pretty much the monopoly of local and Russia-connected gangs

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    If cyberattacks happen in Moldova, they are usually traced back to Russia or non-affiliated hackers

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        As there are no triads in the country, there are no such cases in Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                            My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOv-2Z_FO7w

                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                            The Ministry of Defense and several health institutions used Hikvision termovision surveillance systems. As noted for indicator 6.4, the Moldovan police is also using PRC equipment for traffic monitoring

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Joint patrols between Moldovan and PRC police would be logistically, culturally and economically difficult, with little use for either side. No examples found and very unlikely to happen

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.state.gov/reports/2021-report-on-international-religious-freedom/moldova/

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  While the Moldovan government did not arrest anyone, it did erase Falun Dafa/Falun Gong from the registry of non-profit organizations in 2015. In 2021, the European Court of Human Rights ruled against Moldova in this case and the government re-registered Falun Dafa/Falun Gong

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://bma.gov.md/sites/default/files/media/bma_anuarul_statistic_imigrarea_strainilor_an.2020.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                    We found no such examples, in the media or the Bureau for Migration and Asylum's annual statistics. Moldova is not a major destination for Taiwan citizens in general

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://bma.gov.md/sites/default/files/media/bma_anuarul_statistic_imigrarea_strainilor_an.2020.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                      We found no such examples, in the media or the Bureau for Migration and Asylum's annual statistics

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        The Moldovan market is small and can accommodate only a handful of telecom operators, none of the current ones being owned by PRC entities

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://sic.md/en/5g-speeds-for-a-made-in-china-pro-moldova-road-to-nowhere/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                            In 2019, the Moldovan prime-minister talked to ZTE about developing 5G in Moldova, but his party was ousted from power and subsequent governments did not continue the negotiations, at least not publicly

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://wifi6.starnet.md/ro
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.moldtelecom.md/files/3.%20Ghid%20configurare%20internet%20unite%20la%20modeme_15.12.20.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.orange.md/ro/internet-4g-acasa

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Major telecom and ISP companies widely use Huawei routers and modems

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOv-2Z_FO7w

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                During the pandemic, some institutions used Hikvisions thermal scanning video surveillance systems

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/marker-385

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  The China Tech Map lists Huawei as having a Smart City presence in Moldova, but we could not find any further details

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.cips.com.cn/

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    We could find no evidence of Moldovan financial institutions using CIPS

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The start-up sector in Moldova is underdeveloped and likely presents no economic or strategic interest for the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Moldova does not really have local companies working on advanced technologies like AI, blockchain or big data, that would be able to sign MOU on technological development with PRC entities

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.similarweb.com/apps/top/google/store-rank/md/all/top-free/

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              TikTok is the fourth most popular free app in the country

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. http://www.beidou.gov.cn/zt/gjhz/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                We found no evidence of Moldovan authorities endorsing the Beidou navigation system

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://chisinau.md/tabview.php?l=ro&idc=526&id=2564

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Moldovan capital Chisinau has cooperation agreements with Xi'an, Beijing, Qingdao and Chongqing. The latter is the most recent agreement, signed in 2013, so nothing is very actual or practical

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.chisinau.md/libview.php?l=ro&idc=403&id=36217&t=/Presa/Comunicate-de-presa/Incheierea-acordului-de-infratire-cu-oraul-Xi-an-China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://ungheni.md/orase-infratite/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://balti.md/investitii/relatii-externe/orase-parteneri/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    There are other municipalities in Moldova that have twinning or cooperation agreements with PRC cities, including Balti - Moldova's second largest city. The government is not centralizing this information, primarily because it does not regard it as important

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The URL1 below is an official statement from the Party of Socialists about a visit to PRC and about their cooperation the Chinese Communist Party. It happened back in 2017, when the Moldovan Socialists were still in opposition. They later came to power in 2019-2021 and continued their frequent contacts with PRC officials

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://socialistii.md/delegatia-psrm-efectueaza-o-vizita-in-china/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.parlament.md/Actualitate/Comunicatedepresa/tabid/90/ContentId/5359/language/ro-RO/Default.aspx

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      There some trips by Russia-leaning politicians to the PRC before the pandemic, but not during the period of interest for this index. And even for those trips, we could ascertain whether they had been payed for by PRC or PRC-owned companies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://socialistii.md/vlad-batrincea-china-este-un-prieten-si-partener-sincer/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://tribuna.md/2019/09/09/vizita-istorica-dupa-11-ani-o-delegatie-a-parlamentului-in-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The last significant visit was in 2019, before the start of the pandemic. Since then, members of the Moldovan Socialist Party (pro-Kremlin) have attended online events, but did not physically travel to the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://politia.md/ro/content/proiecte-si-asistenta-0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. http://www.procuratura.md/file/2022-03-21_RAPORT%20de%20activitate%20FINAL.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Moldova is too far away from the PRC's area of security interests. Both the Moldovan police (ref1) and the Prosecutor's Office (ref 2) publish information about their international cooperation and we found not data about PRC cooperation. The Prosecutor's Office does have a cooperation agreement with the PRC, signed in 2011

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://a.cec.md/ro/raportele-privind-gestiunea-financiara-a-partidelor-politice-pentru-anul-9749_101713.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Moldovan legislation bans the financing of parties and electoral candidates by foreign entities. The electoral authority did not report any violations of this law by PRC-connected entities. Journalistic investigations have only revealed hidden money flows from Russia to Moldova pro-Russian parties, but nothing about the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We could not identify any UFWD-linked groups in Moldova

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No such evidence could be found, and very seldom Moldovan politicians express views on China at all

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://socialistii.md/deputatam-socialistam-sdelali-privivku-kitajskoj-vakcinoj-sinopharm/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://socialistii.md/vlad-batrincea-china-este-un-prieten-si-partener-sincer/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      It does not happen often, but when it does these are the pro-Moscow political groups who do this. For instance the pro-Russian Left has been friendly to the PRC and even promoted the Sinopharm vaccine during the pandemic

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No such evidence could be found; probably the interest in Moldova is not high enough

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No such evidence could be found, and very unlikely to happen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.parlament.md/Diploma%c5%a3ieparlamentar%c4%83/Grupurideprietenie/tabid/158/Id/118/language/ro-RO/Default.aspx

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Moldova does have a parliamentary friendship group with the PRC, but it is not a joint one, i.e. it comprises only Moldovan MPs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://socialistii.md/vlad-batrincea-china-este-un-prieten-si-partener-sincer/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://a-tv.md/vlad-batrincea-la-intrevederea-cu-ambasadorul-chinei-moldova-si-china-au-relatii-de-colaborare-si-prietenie-sincere-si-deschise/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/c23934/202112/d3dbd0a33e6041509f43cd2f0cce0c08.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Mostly on the Left side of the spectrum and as a proxy for Russian influence, so their support for Beijing should not be considered 100% genuine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/zwbd_673032/gzhd_673042/201812/t20181211_7408413.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://cancelaria.gov.md/ro/apc/programe-de-dezvoltare-profesionala-china-2021-0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In 2021, the PRC Embassy's Economic and Commercial Office invited employees of the Moldovan State Chancellery to attend online classes on topics ranging from vaccination to various Belt and Road programmes. It was formalistic, no real impact especially since Moldova is pushing for EU accession

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No reports of such pressures since 2021. However, the 2014-2015 ban of Falun Dafa/Falun Gong in Moldova happened after the visit of a leading Moldovan politician to the PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No such cases were reported

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Moldova has had no hostage diplomacy incidents with the PRC and seems highly unlikely to happen

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://apps.who.int/gb/or/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No Moldovan top official commented on the issue and there was no WHA vote in the relevant period

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No such evidence could be found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  We could not identify any public endorsement of PRC candidates by Moldovan officials

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/como//eng/news/t1598497.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://moldova.europalibera.org/a/oleg-serebrian-interviu-europa-libera/31655672.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC's territorial claims are not something the Moldovan diplomacy has taken a stance on. However, the Reintegration Minister Oleg Serebrian once compared Moldova's dealings with its separatist region to the PRC's ”reunification file”, saying ”China is a very strong country, but the problem persists”. We would consider this an isolated statement and not a indication of the government's actual stance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Moldovan government has not publicly commented on the PRC's treatment of the Uyghur population

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Moldovan government did not express a public stance regarding the PRC's treatment of the Tibet population, at least not during the period of interest for this index

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We found no comments from Moldovan officials concerning the imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Eugen Muravschi, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
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