Latvia

$20,642.2
1.88M
Ranking
79/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

46/ 384
Executive partner
Civic IDEA
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

17%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

0%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

6%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Latvia had a GDP per capita of US$20,642 and a total population of 1.88 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 128 people or 0.007% of the total.

Latvia established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1991. Latvia was ranked 22nd in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 88/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    15.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    17.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    11.4% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    9.1% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    15.9% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    7.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    13.6% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

China's Influence in the Nordic-Baltic Information Environment: Latvia and Sweden Link “With the expansion of China's behemoth Belt and Road initiative, Beijing's soft power has reached the Baltic states. Working through the Confucius Institutes found in all the three Baltic capitals, and exerting economic and diplomatic pressure, China's soft power interferes with the inner workings of the Baltics' foreign affairs institutions.” Link

  1. https://www.worldchinesemedia.com/category/guanyuxiehui/
  2. https://stratcomcoe.org/publications/chinas-influence-in-the-nordic-baltic-information-environment-latvia-and-sweden/218
  3. https://www.balticexchange.com/content/dam/balticexchange/consumer/documents/2021_Xinhua_Baltic_ISCDI_EN.pdf
  4. https://www.lrt.lt/en/news-in-english/19/1094318/the-rough-face-of-china-s-soft-power-in-the-baltics-investigation

    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    2016-2017 with Xinghua CRI Link “Latvia has a stable, active and pragmatic political dialogue with China and an intensive exchange of visits at all levels. Cooperation between Latvia and China takes place both bilaterally and within the framework of EU-China relations and in various multilateral formats, such as the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries and China (17 + 1) cooperation format and the Belt and Road Initiative.” Link.

    1. https://brnalink.com/members.html
    2. https://search.news.cn/?lang=en#search/0/Latvia/2/
    3. https://china-cee.eu/2021/12/01/latvia-economy-briefing-latvian-chinese-relations-in-view-of-the-2021-china-international-import-expo/#:~:text=During%20the%20bilateral%20official%20visit,Century%20Maritime%20Silk%20Road%20Initiative.

      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      “Local journalists are asked to publish articles that favor China or maintain blogs and social media pages that propagate cooperation with Beijing. In some cases, the propaganda articles are prepared with the help of the embassy or the news agency Xinhua, and all the recruited journalist is required to do is to “lend” the Chinese his name and status. The keenest of readers will have already noticed that pro-China articles have appeared in Neatkarīgā Rīta Avīze and Diena, and occasionally in some pro-Kremlin media outlets as well.” Link "It should be noted that trips to China is the most common way Latvians get recruited to work for Chinese intelligence services. This is usually done according to the same pattern Soviet chekists used to recruit naïve Western travelers – the local Beijing embassy carefully selects the potential “tourists” and offers them to go on a trip to the “misunderstood” and exotic Celestial Empire. These “tourists” are most often asked to participate in an international event, a forum or conference, where Chinese intelligence services then select the most suitable agents of influence from around the world."- the same link.

      1. https://www.eureporter.co/world/latvia/2021/03/25/its-about-time-we-started-discussing-chinas-influence-in-latvia/

        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        “Local journalists are asked to publish articles that favor China or maintain blogs and social media pages that propagate cooperation with Beijing. In some cases, the propaganda articles are prepared with the help of the embassy or the news agency Xinhua, and all the recruited journalist is required to do is to “lend” the Chinese his name and status. The keenest of readers will have already noticed that pro-China articles have appeared in Neatkarīgā Rīta Avīze and Diena, and occasionally in some pro-Kremlin media outlets as well.” Link

        1. https://www.eureporter.co/world/latvia/2021/03/25/its-about-time-we-started-discussing-chinas-influence-in-latvia/

          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Except for the Chinese embassy Facebook page Link

          1. http://lv.china-embassy.org/eng/

          Supplementary Notes

          No other evidence found

            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

            Hide
            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            investment screening mechanism Link

            1. https://chinaobservers.eu/fragmented-screening-of-chinese-investments-in-cee/

              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

              1. https://stratcomcoe.org/publications/chinas-influence-in-the-nordic-baltic-information-environment-latvia-and-sweden/218

                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                Hide
                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                No

                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                No Evidence Found.

                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                    Hide
                    9.
                    Pressure

                    In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                    Skip

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    57 countries chose this answer

                    4/ Yes

                    24 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Not Found

                      Supplementary Notes

                      YES, according to expert’s knowledge, it happened in 2020, but no public data was found. Therefore, we skipped this question.

                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                        Hide
                        10.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        51 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        3 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        No evidence found.

                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                            Hide
                            11.
                            Effect

                            In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            2 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            44 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            18 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            No Evidence Found.

                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                Hide

                                Academia

                                The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                1.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                9 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                11 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                6 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                31 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                25 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                The University of Latvia established ties with BGI. “An attractive and dynamic business climate for high value-added products – indeed, that is what we see in Latvia.” BGI, one of the world’s largest genomics organizations, is a striking example of how LIAA attracts foreign investment and successful companies to Latvia.” Link

                                1. https://labsoflatvia.com/en/news/bgi-china-meets-europe-in-the-baltics

                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                  Hide
                                  2.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  In Latvia, there is one institute and several classrooms established, and that institute manages the classrooms as well, Introduction to Confucius Institute at the University of Latvia – Link

                                  1. http://www.ci.lu.lv/?page_id=2&lang=en

                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                    Hide
                                    3.
                                    Exposure

                                    My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ Yes

                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Hereby, The National K-12 Foreign Language Enrollment Survey Report states that Latvia does not include Chinese as a foreign language in K12, report is available at: Link

                                    1. https://www.americancouncils.org/sites/default/files/FLE-report-June17.pdf

                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                      Hide
                                      4.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      17 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Within in the 16+1 network cooperation, The Fifth High-Level Think Tanks Symposium of China and Central & Eastern European Countries was held on 30 – 31 October 2018, and Una Aleksandra Bērziņa-Čerenkova, as a Head of the New Silk Road Program, was one of the panelists, representing Latvian Institute of International Affairs, Title: The implications of China’s civilization: discourse during the 16 + 1 Riga Summit:Link

                                      1. https://www.17plus1-thinktank.com/article/605.html?source=article_link

                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                        Hide
                                        5.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                        72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        "The Latvian National Institute of Science has introduced automated nucleic acid extraction equipment made by MGI" Link

                                        1. http://world.people.com.cn/n1/2022/0401/c1002-32389621.html

                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                          Hide
                                          6.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          47 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          11 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Namely, Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program scholarships were not indicated, but there were additional scholarship programs: The Confucius Institute at the University of Latvia was Successfully Held the First Confucius Institute Four-week Scholarship Project in South China Normal University Link The 2013 global online Chinese culture contest came to a successful conclusion, on May 15, and we want to thank each and every of you for your interest and active participation. Link

                                          1. http://www.ci.lu.lv/?p=3019&lang=en
                                          2. http://en.chinaculture.org/focus/2013-06/21/content_464404.htm

                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                            Hide
                                            7.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                            69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            It was conducted within the 16+1 cooperation, in the years of 2012-2017. “These “tourists” are most likely to be members of a specific profession – journalists, politicians and scientists. In order to maintain secrecy, Beijing may offer the trip to China not to the person it is interested in, but instead to one of their relatives, be it their spouse, children or parents. Upon returning to their home country, the Chinese embassy asks the “tourists” to repay the generous trip with loyalty. Initially, it may be a simple social media entry that portrays China in a positive light. Then, perhaps an interview with a local media outlet to talk about the prosperity witnessed in China. In special cases, you may have to repay the favor by betraying your country. The latter fate was experienced by the naïve Estonian scientist Kõuts. Link

                                            1. https://www.eureporter.co/world/latvia/2021/03/25/its-about-time-we-started-discussing-chinas-influence-in-latvia/

                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                              Hide
                                              8.
                                              Pressure

                                              In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              No evidence found in that regard.

                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                  Hide
                                                  9.
                                                  Pressure

                                                  In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                  Skip

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                  75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                    According to expert's knowledge, this kind of incident has taken place, but the public record of the fact is not available.

                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                      Hide
                                                      10.
                                                      Effect

                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                      1. https://gyanberry.com/list-of-top-universities-in-latvia-offering-master-of-east-asian-studies-course/
                                                      2. https://www.rsu.lv/en/china-studies-centre

                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                      List Of Top 3 Universities in Latvia Offering Master Of East Asian Studies Course Link “The RSU China Studies Centre was established in 2005 with the aim of providing research on China and the wider East Asian region, offering certified Chinese language training, and promoting RSU academic and teaching excellence internationally.” Link

                                                      1. https://gyanberry.com/list-of-top-universities-in-latvia-offering-master-of-east-asian-studies-course/
                                                      2. https://www.rsu.lv/en/china-studies-centre

                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                      Hide
                                                      11.
                                                      Effect

                                                      In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      65 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      According to expert's knowledge and public record, such kind of incidents are not indicated.

                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                          Hide

                                                          Economy

                                                          The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                          1.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          “Unlike Asian countries, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are not reliant on China for trade, meaning they can prioritise universal rights and freedom” Link In 2019, Latvia exported $186M to China. The main products that Latvia exported to China were Rough Wood ($54.8M), Sawn Wood ($35.7M), and Peat ($23.5M). During the last 24 years the exports of Latvia to China have increased at an annualized rate of 11.7%, from $13.2M in 1995 to $186M in 2019. Link; In general, China is Latvia’s 22th most important export and 6th most important import trade partner. In 2019, the trade balance of goods was negative: approx. 350 mln. EUR, but in 2021, it reached a staggering 508 mln. EUR.- Link "According to Boston Consulting Group (2009), China will be the biggest trade market in the coming five years. Latest data of post-economical financial crises of 2014-2016 shows that China’s share in imported products consumption rose to 31.4%, and become the leading market since the beginning of the 2011 (Li and Kambele, 2012). Together, China is becoming the destination for 36.8%, (Zhou and Wang, 2014) of world high end brands. On the background of this scenario, it is extremely vital for Latvian goods producers to know and understand the consumers behaviors of Chinese specially the affluent Chinese, and new consumers of Latvian brands. For decades, branding and marketing research have been based on a concept of consumer behavior that is deeply embedded in a linear notion of marketing activities." - Link

                                                          1. https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/politics/article/3141373/why-europes-baltic-states-can-brush-china
                                                          2. https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-country/chn/partner/lva
                                                          3. https://china-cee.eu/2021/12/01/latvia-economy-briefing-latvian-chinese-relations-in-view-of-the-2021-china-international-import-expo/
                                                          4. https://www.ersj.eu/dmdocuments/2017-xx-3-a-64.pdf

                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                            Hide
                                                            2.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            Skipped

                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                            0/ No

                                                            77 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            External Dept Link Latvia Government Debt Link Links prove that Latvia does not own more than 50% of sovereign debts from PRC.

                                                            1. https://tradingeconomics.com/country-list/external-debt
                                                            2. https://www.ceicdata.com/en/indicator/latvia/government-debt--of-nominal-gdp

                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                              Hide
                                                              3.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              20 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              On June 28, 2021 H.E. Ambassador Ms Maija Manika visited Wuxi and met with potential Chinese investors in Latvia. Link but no public data states that the PRC is the top customer for Latvia's extractive industries.

                                                              1. https://www2.mfa.gov.lv/en/china/current-events/68211-on-june-28-2021-h-e-ambassador-ms-maija-manika-visited-wuxi-and-met-with-potential-chinese-investors-in-latvia

                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                Hide
                                                                4.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                No such evidence is indicated, additionally, a representative of the Development Agency from China stated that Chinese will invest in Latvia when they begin to trust them - Link

                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    5.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    55 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Latvia is not among the listed countries- Link

                                                                    1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      6.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Latvian Chinese Chamber of Commerce: Link

                                                                      1. https://company.lursoft.lv/en/latvian-chinese-chamber-of-commerce/40008268253

                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        7.
                                                                        Pressure

                                                                        My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        No direct evidence found: Link

                                                                        1. https://china-cee.eu/2021/12/01/latvia-economy-briefing-latvian-chinese-relations-in-view-of-the-2021-china-international-import-expo/

                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          8.
                                                                          Pressure

                                                                          In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          No evidence found in that regard.

                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              9.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              People's Republic of China-EU Free Trade Agreement (Latvia is one of the members): Link

                                                                              1. https://aric.adb.org/fta/peoples_republic_of_china-eu_free_trade_agreement

                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                10.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Lativia has signed a MOU with the PRC to establish the Silk Road Economic Zone: Link Link Link

                                                                                1. https://www.worldscientific.com/doi/pdf/10.1142/9789813221819_0001
                                                                                2. http://certusdomnica.lv/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Certus_ZidaCels_2017_EN.pdf

                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  11.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  No public evidence found.

                                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                      Society

                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                      1.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      The existents of such kinds of organizations are not indicated but there have been indicated some incidents: Under alleged pressure from China, Latvian museum cancels Hong Kong exhibition Link; The Symposium on Tibet Today was Held in Riga- Link

                                                                                      1. https://www.lrt.lt/en/news-in-english/19/1473784/under-alleged-pressure-from-china-latvian-museum-cancels-hong-kong-exhibition
                                                                                      2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/celv/eng/xwdt/t1401719.htm

                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        2.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        The Latvian Federation of Oversea Chinese Compatriots, Biedrība: Link Link – Latvia not identified

                                                                                        1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          3.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          No public evidence was found on the existed cooperation between the ACFTU and Latvian representatives.

                                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Chinese New Year events in Latvia to take place online: Link Celebration held to greet upcoming Chinese Lunar New Year in Latvia:Link "This is not to suggest that the UFWD would not be interested in establishing and deepening relationships between the CCP and Lithuanian political parties, especially considering that it is precisely its original function, and that neighbouring Latvia has already provided a role model since its significant Social Democratic Party “Harmony” (Saskaņa) signed a controversial memorandum of cooperation with the CCP in 2011.":Link

                                                                                              1. https://en.imsilkroad.com/p/319541.html
                                                                                              2. https://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201802/11/WS5a7fe43ca3106e7dcc13c0bb.html
                                                                                              3. https://www.echo-wall.eu/china-through-european-lens/unfulfilled-promises-realized-fears

                                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Latvia - China Association of Culture: Link A Delegation of Chinese Writers Association Paid a Visit to Latvia:Link China Writers Association Signed Cooperation Memorandum with LUCI:Link

                                                                                                1. https://www.facebook.com/LATVIACHINAASSOCIATIONOFCULTURE/posts/chinese-calligraphy-class-in-modes-muzejs/1911352349148897/
                                                                                                2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/celv/eng/whjl/whxw/t827507.htm
                                                                                                3. http://www.ci.lu.lv/?p=3048&lang=en

                                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  2020 Report on International Religious Freedom: Latvia- Link, any kind of donation from PRC is not indicated.

                                                                                                  1. https://www.state.gov/reports/2020-report-on-international-religious-freedom/latvia/

                                                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      The evidence is not found. In Latvia there are several Chinese Movies and TV Shows available on Netflix (Link), but their direct link to PRC is not indicated.

                                                                                                      1. https://www.flixwatch.co/lists/20-best-imdb-rated-chinese-movies-and-tv-shows-on-netflix-latvia/

                                                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                      Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        Here is the link of available TV shows in Latvia and mostly, they portray PRC in a positive manner: Link, but their direct link to PRC is not identified

                                                                                                        1. https://www.flixwatch.co/lists/20-best-imdb-rated-chinese-movies-and-tv-shows-on-netflix-latvia/

                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                        In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Smirnova Anzelika, an internet celebrity from Latvia, experienced Bouyei ethnic culture during the "A Date with China" international media tour to Qingyan Ancient Town in Guiyang, Guizhou province. In the traditional costume, she felt like she was part of the beautiful place: Link; "Anzelika, in the Bouyei traditional costume, said she felt like she was part of the beautiful place. She also learned to sing Red Flower, a folk song of Guizhou, ahead of the trip"- Link

                                                                                                        1. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202104/26/WS6086773da31024ad0baba797.html
                                                                                                        2. https://twitter.com/chinadaily/status/1386623593711243265?lang=bn

                                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          "The Baltic countries received international attention for their snub of China’s February “17+1” online summit, chaired by President Xi Jinping. By sending lower-level ministers instead of heads of state, they signaled a joint Lithuanian, Estonian and Latvian turn away from China’s multilateral formats. This turn, however, has not yet completely found its way into Latvian public opinion.": Link "While Beijing endeavored to expand its foreign relations and economic might with infrastructure projects and investments, the Latvian political elite has expressed an increasing interest in cooperation and building a long-term partnership. However, due to the lack of practical activities for mutual economic benefit, a shadow of suspicion regarding the introduction of 5G, deterioration of EU-China relations and some other negative developments, the political optimism of the Latvian elite has been decreasing. According to opinion polls, the inhabitants of Latvia also look at China with some suspicion regarding its true intentions, thus placing it in a row with other external threats."-Link

                                                                                                          1. https://www.fpri.org/article/2021/04/go-with-the-devil-you-dont-know-latvians-still-believe-in-economic-cooperation-with-china/
                                                                                                          2. https://chinaobservers.eu/the-unknown-other-perceptions-of-china-in-latvia/

                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                            In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            “Latvian respondents overall demonstrate neutral and even positive attitudes towards China, with almost 42.3% viewing China in a very positive or positive light, and 30% having a neutral attitude (Figure 1). Interestingly, China is overall viewed more positively than the USA (Figure 3). Only 28% of the respondents have a negative or a very negative view of China, which is significantly lower than the survey-wide average across 13 countries – 45.3%.” Link "In September and October 2020, the Sinophone Borderlands project at Palacký University Olomouc conducted a wide-scale survey of public opinion on China in 13 European countries.": Link “There is still a belief among Latvian society that Chinese wealth could spill over into the Latvian economy via transit, export and investment. When indicating preferred Latvian foreign policy priorities towards China, 81.1% respondents believe policy should be focused on “promotion of trade and investment”, and 62.1% of respondents share some degree of agreement over China’s capability to help the national transit sector.” Link "According to Security Radar, last year Latvians saw China as one of the top three countries that pose a threat to their country. The first two are Russia and the US. Unlike these two countries, Latvians do not associate China with militarization, but rather with other threats such as economic oppression, potential migration flows, as well as challenges in cyberspace, especially as regards the implementation of 5G. At the same time, many of the respondents who have demonstrated these fears have also manifested a lack of knowledge about China and its intentions. During focus group interviews, part of the respondents who were concerned about China’s influence reflected conspiracy theories translated in Russian state media or other media channels, such as YouTube, for example. And it is not surprising. According to statistics provided by Latvian Research Centre SKDS, a bit more than half of Latvians believe that their life is influenced by various conspiracies."- Link

                                                                                                            1. https://ceias.eu/survey-europeans-views-of-china-in-the-age-of-covid-19/
                                                                                                            2. https://ceias.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/LV-poll-report.pdf
                                                                                                            3. https://www.fpri.org/article/2021/04/go-with-the-devil-you-dont-know-latvians-still-believe-in-economic-cooperation-with-china/

                                                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                              Military

                                                                                                              The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              "The People’s Republic of China has emerged as a player in the Baltic in recent years. This is partly through its close military links and strategic partnership with Russia, partly through the China and Central and Eastern Europe Countries (CCEEF) mechanism, and partly through its flagship initiative of the Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB). In turn this economic sway through the CCEEC and SREB frameworks gives China more political leverage over Baltic policies. The Baltic States refers primarily to the three ex-Soviet republics of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia; with Latvia having particularly embraced China’s Silk Road, but also having accommodated the most to Chinese political pressures.” - Link “Chinese Defense Minister Liang Guanglie here on Monday met his Latvian counterpart Artis Pabriks, with both sides pledging to enhance bilateral military cooperation. During the meeting, Liang said that China attaches great importance to developing defense and military ties with Latvia and is willing to enhance mutual understanding, strengthen mutual trust, deepen friendship, and promote cooperation so as to push the bilateral military ties to a new level. He noted that over the 21 years since the establishment of diplomatic ties, relations between the two countries have maintained a sound momentum of development.”: Link

                                                                                                              1. https://sciendo.com/pdf/10.2478/jobs-2018-0001
                                                                                                              2. http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/ctenglish/se/txt/2012-06/26/content_463143.htm

                                                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Military expenditure (% of GDP) - Latvia: Link (

                                                                                                                1. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/MS.MIL.XPND.GD.ZS
                                                                                                                2. https://trendeconomy.com/data/h2/Latvia/93

                                                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                                  1. https://trendeconomy.com/data/h2/Latvia/93

                                                                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    No evidence found.

                                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        The evidence of the participation is not found, but there has been a dialogue in this issue- The Chinese Embassy in Latvia Holds A Reception to Mark the 85th Anniversary of PLA Founding: "Zhang also talked about the progress achieved by the PLA in modernization campaign in the new historical era and its active participation in international peace-keeping, joint escort operation and HADR operations in recent years. China will unswervingly stick to the path of peaceful development and pursue a national defense policy that is defensive in nature, Zhang stressed - Link

                                                                                                                        1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/celv/eng/xwdt/t957455.htm

                                                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          "Among the Baltic States, security cooperation has advanced especially in the area of peace–keeping where we have a joint battalion called BALTBAT and in air space control. In these areas, the Baltic States military structures are integrated.": Link The evidence regarding the PLA's deployment is not found.

                                                                                                                          1. https://www.vestnesis.lv/ta/id/8109

                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            No evidence found of conducted military training by PRC.

                                                                                                                            1. http://www.emilyo.eu/sites/default/files/Gell%20Fiches/LATVIA%20Army_0.pdf

                                                                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  No Public evidence available.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      No direct evidence of the coordination is found but the Chinese embassy annually conducts events regarding the PLA founding: The Chinese Embassy in Latvia Holds A Reception to Mark the 88th Anniversary of PLA Founding- Link PLA Foreign Affairs Delegation Visited Latvia- Link The Chinese Embassy in Latvia Holds A Reception to Mark the 85th Anniversary of PLA Founding- Link Latvian intelligence names China, Russia a threat: Link

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/celv/eng/xwdt/t1284835.htm
                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/celv/eng/xwdt/t869386.htm
                                                                                                                                      3. https://www.lrt.lt/en/news-in-english/19/1177615/latvian-intelligence-names-china-russia-a-threat

                                                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                        My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        "Chinese Defense Minister Liang Guanglie said that China looks forward to enhancing military exchanges and cooperation with Latvia"-Link Dialogue has been conducted in that regard but direct evidence of the military exchange exercises is not available.

                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/ctenglish/se/txt/2012-06/26/content_463136.htm

                                                                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                          Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                          The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          "China maintains extradition treaties with 59 nations/jurisdictions while 39 of them are ratified.[3] According to the official website of the People's Procuratorate of Guangdong Province, by October 2018, the countries below have signed extradition treaties with People's Republic of China"" Link Latvia is not among the countries. "Treaty between the Republic of Latvia and the People's Republic of China on Mutual Judicial Assistance in Criminal Matters"- Link

                                                                                                                                          1. https://m.likumi.lv/ta/id/217449-treaty-between-the-republic-of-latvia-and-the-peoples-republic-of-china-on-mutual-judicial-assistance-in-criminal-matters

                                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.legislationline.org/download/id/5406/file/Latvia_CODEXTER_Profile_2013.pdf

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            “As a framework for further legislation the Latvian Parliament has adopted a political strategy document - the National Security Concept, and on executive-level, the Government has adopted the National Counterterrorism Plan. Those policy planning documents set out the particular tasks that shall be carried out by national authorities involved in the prevention and suppression of terrorism to decrease the potential endangerment of terrorism or terrorist offenses.” Link Cooperation with PRC is not identified

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.legislationline.org/download/id/5406/file/Latvia_CODEXTER_Profile_2013.pdf

                                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            No direct evidence is available.

                                                                                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                "China, on a par with Russia, was mentioned as the main cyber threat to NATO and the European Union (EU). According to the authors of the report, the number of Beijing’s cyber attacks is gradually increasing and poses a serious problem for the security and interests not only of Latvia but also of other Western countries. SAB analysts estimate that this trend will continue." - Link Remarks by Spokesperson of the Chinese Embassy in Latvia on statement of Latvian Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding China-related cyberspace activities: Link Moreover, any direct, targeted espionage acts have not been identified.

                                                                                                                                                1. https://warsawinstitute.org/latvias-intelligence-china/
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/celv/eng/xwdt/t1893405.htm

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  "Latvia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) said July 19 it was concerned by "malicious cyber activities targeting and affecting democracy, security and economies of the EU Member States and our allies and partners, both at the state level and the level of private entities and institutions"."- Link Additionally, attack on Latvian cyber space has not been identified.

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://eng.lsm.lv/article/society/crime/latvia-calls-on-china-to-stick-to-international-cyberspace-rules.a413570/

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Public information is not available regarding the issue.

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                        My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        No evidence is identified.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            No public data is available.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence can be found.

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    The 110 Taiwanese citizens who were detained in Riga and the Riga region in August for telephone fraud have been deported to their country of origin, Latvijas Avize daily reported on September 27- Link China earlier had asked for extradition of six of the detained Taiwanese citizens, but Latvia rejected the request- Link

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://eng.lsm.lv/article/society/crime/110-taiwanese-citizens-deported-from-latvia.a251597/
                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://eng.lsm.lv/article/society/crime/110-taiwanese-citizens-deported-from-latvia.a251597/

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      "China earlier had asked for extradition of six of the detained Taiwanese citizens, but Latvia rejected the request. The representative of the Tapei mission said that Taiwan is conducting its own investigation and if China has any proof, it is invited to provide it to Taiwanese authorities in line with the mutual agreement on legal assistance. China considers Taiwan its own territory and the majority of the world’s countries have not recognized Taiwan as an independent country."- Link Other cases are not identified.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://eng.lsm.lv/article/society/crime/110-taiwanese-citizens-deported-from-latvia.a251597/

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        “The remaining two network operators aside from LMT (namely Tele2 and Bite) followed the ambiguous approach longer, but it is also coming to an end. Bite Latvija, owned by the US private equity investment fund Providence Equity Partners LLC27 through Bite Lietuva, had signed an MoU on cooperation in 5G networks with Huawei in 2018 and had been consistently voicing a pro-Huawei position: “Latvian mobile phone operator Bite Latvija will not suspend its partnership with the company and will go forward with its plans to introduce a 5G network with the help of Huawei.” Link

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://chinaobservers.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/briefing-paper_huawei_A4_03_web-1.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          BITE has initially signed the agreement with HUAWEI but it was not functional. Riga and Washington on Thursday signed a joint declaration on 5G security aimed at limiting the Latvian market to Chinese companies Link Latvia has signed the joint declaration with the United States of America on 5G security Link

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.lrt.lt/en/news-in-english/19/1146924/latvia-signs-5g-declaration-with-us-to-sideline-china
                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://2017-2021.state.gov/joint-statement-on-united-states-latvia-joint-declaration-on-5g-security/index.html

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            Latvia has signed with U.S. a declaration on future of 5G communications Link.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://eng.lsm.lv/article/politics/diplomacy/latvia-and-us-sign-declaration-on-future-of-5g-communications.a349593/#:~:text=Latvia%20and%20the%20United%20States,vital%20parts%20of%205G%20networks.

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Designing the Latvian Speech Recognition Corpus: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263165104_Designing_the_Latvian_Speech_Recognition_Corpus

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    “Latvia has begun to develop its Smart City strategy since 2018, building an ecosystem between the industry, the government, municipalities and academia.he Smart City ecosystem is a framework that is predominantly composed of ICT and Smart energy to develop, deploy and promote sustainable development practices to address growing urbanization challenges. Smart City looks across every aspect of a city’s operations to use technology to improve outcomes and boost citizen well-being.” Link. Connections to PRC is not indicated.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://investinlatvia.org/en/key-sectors/sectors/smart-city#:~:text=Valmiera%20was%20the%20first%20municipality,and%20a%20digital%20information%20stand

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Chinese Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS)is not used in Latvia: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.bank.lv/en/tasks/payment-systems/instant-payments

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Latvia and the Government of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Field of Science and Technology Link A Baltic view on transatlantic tech relations towards China - “Cooperation in high-tech has been on the Sino-Baltic agenda since the beginning of China's engagement with the region in the early 2010s. The Baltic states had no need for China's loans, they believed high value-added cooperation could instead be established in cutting edge sectors with complementarity between China's technological development and the Baltics highly educated workforce, low production costs, and digital orientation. This framework was supported, at least at a symbolic level, within all three states, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.”- Link

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://likumi.lv/ta/lv/starptautiskie-ligumi/id/1784
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://merics.org/en/short-analysis/baltic-view-transatlantic-tech-relations-towards-china

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          "An attractive and dynamic business climate for high value-added products - indeed, that is what we see in Latvia." BGI, one of the world's largest genomics organizations, is a striking example of how LIAA attracts foreign investment and successful companies to Latvia. Link RIGA, Latvia, November 26, 2019 - MGI officially opened a new R&D and manufacturing facility in Riga, Latvia today, aiming to build a bridge between China and Europe for life sciences and health research. - Link

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://labsoflatvia.com/en/news/bgi-china-meets-europe-in-the-baltics
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://en.mgi-tech.com/news/109/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Top Communication Free Apps Rankings in Latvia- Link

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.similarweb.com/apps/top/google/store-rank/lv/communication/top-free/

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              “The LatPos GNSS base station system consists of base stations in the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Lithuania, which operate in a continuous mode, store the received signal data and distribute real-time correction to users via the mobile Internet network. The LatPos system receives signals from the GNSS systems of GPS NAVSTAR (funded by the United States), GLONASS (funded by the Russian Federation), Galileo (funded by the European Union) and BeiDOU (funded by the People's Republic of China).” Link

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://latvija.lv/en/PPK/Maja-un-vide/Geodezija-kartografija/p555/ProcesaApraksts

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                No public record exists to state that politicians or government employees in Latvia are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    According to the twin towns/sister cities of Latvia, municipalities of China are not indicated: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_twin_towns_and_sister_cities_in_Latvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        According to expert's knowledge, within the network of 16+1 cooperation, some small municipal trips have been organized but the public record is not available of such kind of events.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The visits mostly have taken place in the years between 2012-2017, among them is the visit of the Chinese President Xi Jinping with his Latvian counterpart Raimonds Vejonis in Beijing Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/ceee/eng/zgyw/t1597111.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No public evidence is found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No public evidence is found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No public record is found of such kind of links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No record found in that regard.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The positive attitude has mostly been expressed in the years between 2012-2013, in terms of economy or opportunities for Latvia but not in the political domain. Such kind of position has not been expressed from the Latvian side since 2018. “Our bilateral relations are good. How China acted in 1991 set the right course. China was one of the first countries to recognize Latvia’s independence when we restored it after fifty years of occupation. And China was clear in its support for Latvia’s demand that Russian troops be removed from Latvian soil. The Latvian people remember who supported our freedom. (2000) Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.vestnesis.lv/ta/id/8109

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No direct evidence found. "In relations with China, Latvia is interested in seeing progress with the EU-China negotiations on investment agreements during the Presidency, as well as promotion of cooperation with China in the area of transport and logistics within the framework of the 16+1 format"- Link. Additionally, no direct links have been identified.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.mfa.gov.lv/en/media/2226/download

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No evidence of such circumstance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    “Vice Foreign Minister Song Tao Meets with Chairman of the Latvian-Chinese Friendship Group of the Latvian Parliament”: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://ssd.eff.org/en/module/your-security-plan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Premier Li meets with Latvian parliament speaker: Link Vice Foreign Minister Song Tao Meets with Chairman of the Latvian-Chinese Friendship Group of the Latvian Parliament:Link Zhang Dejiang, chairman of the Standing Committee of China's National People's Congress, meets with Latvian President Raimonds Vejonis in Riga, Latvia, April 12, 2017(Zhang paid a three-day official visit to Latvia, which ended on Friday): Link Chinese premier arrives in Latvia for an official visit, at China-CEE summit: Link Premier Li arrives in Latvia for an official visit, China-CEE summit: Link Keqiang Arrives in Riga to Attend 5th Summit of China and Central and Eastern European Countries and Pay Official Visit to Latvia: Link Premier Li Keqiang met with Edgars Rinkevics, Foreign Minister and Representative of Latvian Prime Minister, who was attending the Meeting of Heads of Government of Central and Eastern European Countries and China in Bucharest, Romania: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.china-ceec.org/eng/ldrhw_1/2016lj/201611/t20161105_6828386.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cetl//eng/xwdt/t1035809.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. http://www.npc.gov.cn/englishnpc/c2766/201704/db2f7de1a94d4742988db4c59125481f.shtml
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. http://www.china-ceec.org/eng/zyxw_4/201611/t20161107_6512666.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5. http://english.www.gov.cn/premier/news/2016/11/04/content_281475482842187.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/topics_665678/2016zt/lkqfwjejssthskstltwyelsbcxxlgjhy/201611/t20161108_704302.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/zzjg_663340/xos_664404/gjlb_664408/3190_664610/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          A delegation of Chinese Tibetologists, currently visiting Latvian capital Riga, had a meeting Monday with Latvian lawmakers, officials, academics, and representatives of the public: Link (seems this meeting was informal for civil servants but it's not fully clear what areas were covered during the training)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://english.scio.gov.cn/internationalexchanges/2018-05/29/content_51528953.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No evidence found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Latvia's position is mostly in accordance with the EU and the supporting of PRC is not identified. “Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Estonia, and Latvia did not send their heads of state to a February 17+1 virtual gathering chaired by Xi Jinping himself. However, even among the 17+1 participants, not all EU member states agree on how to approach China” Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://securingdemocracy.gmfus.org/waiting-for-eu-smaller-member-states-face-off-against-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        "Latvia briefly hosted a consulate of the Republic of China (Taiwan's official designation) in the early 1990s, but closed it down in 1994 after Beijing froze relations with Riga. Since then, Taiwan is represented in Latvia by a Taipei mission.": Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.lrt.lt/en/news-in-english/19/1612407/latvian-mp-on-lithuania-s-taiwan-mission-do-you-want-to-foster-ties-or-just-piss-off-china

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Latvia signed the UN joint statement against mass detention of ethnic Uighurs in the Xinjiang region, “The previous joint statement on China at the HRC was led by the United States in March 2016 with 12 signatories. That nearly double the number of countries have joined the current effort reflects growing international concern over the situation in Xinjiang, Human Rights Watch said. The signatories so far are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Additional states are considering signing on.” Link Please, find the Joint Statement on Xinjiang on the link provided: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/07/10/un-unprecedented-joint-call-china-end-xinjiang-abuses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.state.gov/joint-statement-on-xinjiang/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Riga Declaration 7th World Parliamentary Convention on Tibet, 7-10 May 2019, Riga, Latvia: "Reaffirm that Tibet has historically never been part of China, that it was invaded in violation of international law and has since been under illegal occupation by the PRC, and that consequently Tibet has not lost its Statehood under international law;": Link "RIGA- Latvian parliament lawmakers havebanded together to show support for the recent Tibetan demonstrations towards Chineseauthorities. The group of lawmakers, chaired by Silva Bendrate from the New Eraparty, wrote a letter of support to be sent to the highest Chinese and Latvianauthorities condemning the violence inflicted upon unarmed demonstrators in Tibet. The press release stated that the lawmakers invited Chinese authorities to cease the violence and toobserve the fundamental human rights of freedom as well as religious andexpression freedoms in Tibet.": Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://tibetanparliament.org/seventh-wpct-riga-2019/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.baltictimes.com/news/articles/20107/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              "The 44th session of the United Nations Human Rights Council became the site of competing international responses to China’s new national security law in Hong Kong. Two dueling statements were read back to back during the session last week, with Cuba representing a group of 53 states backing the new Chinese law and the United Kingdom speaking on behalf of 27 critical. governments. The countries opposing: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Belize*, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Iceland, Ireland, Germany, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Marshall Islands*, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau*, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom":Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://thediplomat.com/2020/07/which-countries-support-the-new-hong-kong-national-security-law/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Una Berzina-Cherenkova, and has been reviewed by Salome Svanidze

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
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