Kyrgyzstan

$1,276.2
6.69M
Ranking
8/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

206/ 384
Executive partner
Civic IDEA
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

60%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

31%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

51%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Kyrgyzstan had a GDP per capita of US$1,276.20 and a total population of 6.69 million people.

Kyrgyzstan established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1992. Kyrgyzstan was ranked 77nd in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Not Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 27/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    36.4% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    61.4% / 34%
  • Economy
    54.5% / 33.6%
  • Society
    22.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    45.5% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    70.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    72.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    56.8% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    63.6% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Zhang Sulan (Deron TV station President , Kyrgyzstan ) is associated with the World Chinese Media Network. Link

  1. https://worldchinesemedia.com/2015/05/12/56/

    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Mariam Usenashvili

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    2 TV-Radio Almaz, is a company duly incorporated and existing under the laws of Kyrgyz Republic and it is a member of Belt and Road Media community Link ; Public Broadcasting Corporation of the Kyrgyz Republic (KTRK), Osh TV, TV-Radio "Almaz" (Almaz),TV Keremet are the members of The Belt and Road News Alliance (BRNA) Link

    1. http://www.chnpec.com/siluen/chengyuanziliao15.html
    2. https://brnalink.com/members.html

      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      There have been at least one group of Kyrgyz journalists who went on all-expenses paid media tours in Xinjiang specifically on Xinjiang issues. The same goes with online influencers.

      1. http://kabar.kg/news/zhurnalisty-iz-kyrgyzstana-posetili-suar-i-vstretilis-s-mestnymi-zhiteliami/

      Supplementary Notes

      Significance somewhat high because most that go are from state, pro government media and they are quite dominant amongst rural population which is about 80% in Kyrgyzstan. But amongst educated urban population they are known as propagandist

        Answered by Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        There have been at least one group.

        1. http://www.xinhuanet.com/local/2018-07/27/c_1123187578.htm

        Supplementary Notes

        Our expert answered 2 = more than a few, but insignificant; Our expert also mentioned that his sister has participated in one of the trainings organized by China for journalists, however we could not find open source evidence and he did not provide any photo or other sort of evidence.

          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          Yes

          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Xinjiang Television; (Link); CCTV channel Link

          1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinjiang_Television
          2. https://jamestown.org/program/chinese-tv-channel-begins-broadcasting-in-kyrgyzstan/

            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            There are at least two medias “Dolon TV” and “New Silk Road Observers” which are wholly owned by PRC citizens and corporations.

            1. https://www.worldchinesemedia.com/2016/11/21/517/
            2. http://ru.siluxgc.com/html/R1413/201711/21069986846746.shtml

              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              There is at least one program "Travel to China/China’s Journey” (Жунгого сапар) dubbed into Kyrgyz that is propaganda provided by PRC to schools and TVs to air. [Second respondent]: Significance somewhat high. Most people I spoke to who are in their 20s to 40s know this program. It’s their first place where they learn about China (the second place is school)

              1. https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/odr/china-central-asia-soft-power-language/

                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                Hide
                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                China is well represented in the information space of the republic. On the territory of Kyrgyzstan, the Chinese state channel "CCTV Russian" is broadcasting. On the state channels of the republic "KTRK" and "ElTR" there are programs about China filmed by Chinese journalists: on "KTRK" - "Time of Eurasia" (news of the state channel "CCTV Russian" in Russian), on "ElTR" - "Journey to China ”(one-hour program about the XUAR of the PRC in the Kyrgyz language). The website of the Kyrgyz national news agency "Kabar" posted a news block of the Chinese state news agency. Xi Jinping published an author's article in the media of Kyrgyzstan Link and Link

                1. https://regnum.ru/news/polit/2085096.html
                2. http://russian.news.cn/2019-06/11/c_138133768.htm
                3. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-06/11/c_138133930.htm

                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                    Supplementary Notes

                    Link “According to information that came from the Kyzyl-Suu Autonomous Okrug, there are about 50 thousand Kyrgyz in prisons. This information was two months ago, this is preliminary data. I heard that they detained editors and journalists of newspapers and magazines, akyns, writers and representatives of the intelligentsia in the Kyzyl-Suu Autonomous Okrug. But I don't know exactly the names and surnames. Since 1980, the magazines "Kyrgyz Literature Kyzyl-Suu" and "Kyrgyz Literature of Xinjiang" have been published in Kyzyl-Suu. They also had their own television channel in the Kyrgyz language. Xinjiang TV broadcast Kazakh and Kyrgyz channels. Now all the people and book publishers working there are passed through a “filter”, - said Serik Bilash.

                    1. https://24.kg/obschestvo/102959_kyirgyizyi_vlageryah_perevospitaniya_kitaya_ihchislo_dostigaet_50tyisyach_/

                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                    10.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    51 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    NO Evidence Found.

                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                        Hide
                        11.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        2 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        44 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        18 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                            Hide

                            Academia

                            The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                            1.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                            More

                            0/ No

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            6 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            31 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            25 countries chose this answer

                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            The Department of International Relations informs the students of the Bishkek State University named after K. Karasayev that on September 25, 2021 at the Kyrgyz-German Technical Institute of the Polytechnic University named after I. I. Razzakov will host Falling Walls Lab Kyrgyzstan. Falling Walls Lab is organized by the Falling Walls Foundation with generous financial support from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the Berlin Senate, Google and Huawei. Link Back in 2017, it was written that the Chinese telecommunications company Huawei intends to create a program of cooperation with universities and research organizations in Central Asia. In the near future, such projects were expected to be implemented in all countries of the region, including Kyrgyzstan. Link The Chinese Academy of Sciences launched the Alliance of International Science Organizations in the Belt and Road Region with 37 national scientific institutions in the Belt and Road Region and international organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. Link According to the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan's official webpage: "Together with Chinese collaborators was initiated works on the project on exploitation of hydropower resources of Sary Djaz River" Link Joint Research

                            1. https://www.bhu.kg/cooperation/student_mobility/fellowships/falling-walls-lab-kyrgyzstan
                            2. http://kabar.kg/news/huawei-planiruet-pomogat-universitetam-tcentral-noi-azii-po-podgotovke-spetcialistov-po-ikt/
                            3. http://www.beltandroadforum.org/english/n100/2019/0427/c36-1312.html
                            4. https://naskr.kg/en/2019/06/23/chronology-of-development/

                            Supplementary Notes

                            Falling Walls Lab is one of such programs organized by HUAWEI for Kyrgyz Universities.

                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                              2.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              27 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Chapter 13. Chinese Soft Power in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: A Confucius Institutes Сase Study

                              1. https://www.centralasiaprogram.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/OBOR_CAP_2018.pdf

                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                3.
                                Exposure

                                My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                Yes

                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                More

                                Skipped

                                1 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                46 countries chose this answer

                                4/ Yes

                                35 countries chose this answer

                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                studing chiness language in secondary school. There has been a growing trend of people in Kyrgyzstan studying Chinese in recent years, and Kasymova Aiperi Kubatbekovna, a 26-year-old teacher at the Confucius Institute in Bishkek Humanities University, has witnessed it first-hand.

                                1. https://www.globaltimes.cn/content/1154828.shtml

                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                  4.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  The International Silk Road Think Tank Association was launched on Tuesday in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, to provide sustained intellectual support for China's Belt and Road Initiative. Roza Otunbayeva, former president of Kyrgyzstan, attached great importance to international think tank cooperation. "Think tanks play positive roles in helping solve difficulties," she said. "Research institutes and think tanks in Kyrgyzstan are willing to participate in the initiative research with think tanks from other countries." The members of University Alliance of the Silk Road: I.Arabaev Kyrgyz State University, International University of Central Asia, International University of Innovation Technologies, International University of Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz State University of Construction, Transport and Architecture, Kyrgyz Economic University named after M.Ryskulbekov, Kyrgyz National University named after Jusup Balasagyn.

                                  1. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2016-02/23/content_23611258.htm
                                  2. http://uasr.xjtu.edu.cn/About_UASR/Members.htm

                                  Supplementary Notes

                                  [Second respondent]: All of the sinologists in Kyrgyzstan, especially the leading individuals, have close relations to PRC think tanks and their opinion in public is always pro-China and never critical of PRC. Most of them have written pro-China pieces on state Chinese media and/or spoke for Chinese state TV about the good achievements of China. I argue that the score should be 4, because their views are the same also within their interviews to local Kyrgyz media, where they spread PRC official narratives.

                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                    5.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    The International Relations Department informs the students of the Karasayev BSU about the start of the application for the Renmin University of China master's scholarship program. Department of "Chinese Philology" of the Eurasian National University named after L.N. Gumilyov is one of the leading educational, scientific, methodological centers of our Republic. The department implements educational programs for bachelor's degree 5B021000- Foreign philology: Chinese language (Kazakh and Russian languages ​​of instruction). From 2011 to 2019, the department was headed by Doctor of Philology, Professor Duken Masimkhanuly. Since May 2019, the department is headed by PHD Akbarkan Dauletali. The department closely cooperates with the Chinese Embassy in Kazakhstan, as well as with leading higher educational institutions of the PRC, such as the Central Peoples University and the University of Foreign Languages ​​in Beijing, the Xi'an University of Foreign Languages, and the Shanghai University with which there is a student exchange program. In addition, a double degree agreement was signed with the Shanghai University, according to which students of the specialty "Foreign Philology: Chinese" have the opportunity to continue their studies at the Shanghai University for 3-4 years of undergraduate studies, thus, upon graduation, they receive diplomas of graduation from two universities. In 2017, on the basis of a double degree agreement, the second graduation of students from the Department of Chinese Philology in Shanghai took place. Also, the department closely cooperates with the Confucius Institute at ENU. The Chinese side periodically allocates grants and makes gifts: in 2010, the republic received a grant in the form of 160 Chinese buses, which were transferred to the municipalities of the cities of Bishkek and Osh; in the fall of 2015, the city of Urumqi donated 10 Chinese-made buses to the city of Bishkek; at present, a comprehensive school is being built in Bishkek at the expense of a grant from the Chinese company TBEA, which operates in the republic.

                                    1. https://www.bhu.kg/cooperation/student_mobility/fellowships/master-programme-silk-road-school-renmib-university-of-china
                                    2. https://ff.enu.kz/subpage/kafedra-kitajskoj-filologii
                                    3. https://regnum.ru/news/polit/2085096.html

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    [Second respondent]: Academics in Kyrgyzstan are severely underpaid, $200-$300 USD a month officially and they rely on research income. These sinologists take a lot of money from the Embassy and cooperation with PRC think tanks and because of this dependency on resources they never go out of line from PRC narratives domestically even. This is significant.

                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                      Hide
                                      6.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. https://www.centralasiaprogram.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/OBOR_CAP_2018.pdf

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      Chapter 7. China’s BRI Investments, Risks, and Opportunities in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: “Moreover, programs such as “1,000 Talents” encourage Chinese scientists and professionals living abroad to return to their homeland by providing competitive salaries and resources to incubate and accelerate their projects.”

                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                        7.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        In February 2004, by Order No. 33 at the Bishkek Humanitarian University named after Karasaeva (BSU), the Kyrgyz-Chinese Faculty (KKF) was established. The faculty employs a teaching staff who have undergone advanced training and internships in China, Russia, Great Britain, Turkey, India and Kazakhstan. Through the efforts of this institute (based on the results for 2013), over 600 Kyrgyz citizens were sent to study in the PRC, and refresher courses were organized for 800 teachers of the Chinese language. Classes for the study of the Chinese language were opened in the cities of Jalal-Abad and Karakol. Beijing funds two travel programs – through the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Kyrgyzstan’s president’s office – offering approximately 50 talented Mandarin-speaking Kyrgyz students a fully paid year abroad studying in China. For Mandarin speakers and Sinologists who do wish to return home, high-ranking government jobs await. Link

                                        1. https://www.bhu.kg/academics/kcf
                                        2. http://www.region.kg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1283:-l-r&catid=4:politika&Itemid=5
                                        3. https://eurasianet.org/kyrgyzstan-china-expanding-influence-one-student-at-a-time

                                          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                          8.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Mariam Usenashvili

                                              Hide
                                              9.
                                              Pressure

                                              In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                  Hide
                                                  10.
                                                  Effect

                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  In February 2004, by Order No. 33 at the Bishkek Humanitarian University named after Karasaeva (BSU), the Kyrgyz-Chinese Faculty (KKF) was established. The faculty is rightfully one of the leading, elite structural divisions of the university. The main goal of the faculty is to train competitive highly qualified specialists in demand in the labor market.

                                                  1. https://www.bhu.kg/academics/kcf

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  Our respondent answered No, but we have found information about the PRC-connected entities having been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                    Hide
                                                    11.
                                                    Effect

                                                    In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Not Found

                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                        Hide

                                                        Economy

                                                        The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                        1.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        In 2017, China was the largest trading partner of the Kyrgyz Republic, embodying 5.5% of its exports and 32.5% of its imports. Link However, the circumstances changed. In 2020, the turnover kept falling, and Kyrgyzstan’s exports to China amounted to $43 million, while its imports came to $736 million. As a result, Russia (with a share of 32%) surpassed China in importing goods from Kyrgyzstan, leaving PRC as the country’s second-largest trading partner. Link

                                                        1. https://trendeconomy.com/data/h2/KyrgyzRepublic/TOTAL

                                                          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                          Hide
                                                          2.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          77 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Exim bank creditor - Forty-five percent of Bishkek’s external borrowing (worth $1.7 billion) is from China Link Kyrgyzstan’s foreign debt is reportedly as much as $5 billion and more than 40 percent of that ($1.8 billion) is owed to the Export-Import Bank of China for a series of infrastructure projects over the last decade under the guise of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Chinese leader Xi Jinping's signature foreign-policy project. Link

                                                          1. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81402

                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                            Hide
                                                            3.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not found

                                                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                Hide
                                                                4.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                The government chose the Chinese TBEA company for the thermal powerplant project and did not consider other options which offered to do the same work more cheaply. Former Prime Minister Isakov argued that the choice of TBEA was the official position from Bejing and they could not change it.

                                                                1. https://www.euractiv.com/section/central-asia/news/scandals-in-kyrgyzstan-highlight-dubious-chinese-business-practices/

                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  5.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                  Yes

                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  27 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Kyrgyzstan's capital contribution to Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank to be determined once final list of founding members issued. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank approves $50 million loan to Kyrgyzstan to support private sector's pandemic response.

                                                                  1. https://akipress.com/news:557647:Kyrgyzstan_s_capital_contribution_to_Asian_Infrastructure_Investment_Bank_to_be_determined_once_final_list_of_founding_members_issued/
                                                                  2. https://www.for.kg/news-662771-en.html
                                                                  3. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    6.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                    Yes

                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    41 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    With the support from Kyrgyzstan government for the promotion of the collaboration between the Silk Road Economic Belt and Eurasian Economic Union, the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce (SRCIC), the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) Business Council and the Kyrgyz Union of Manufacturers and Entrepreneurs (KSPP) will jointly hold the Cooperation and Development Forum of Silk Road Economic Belt in Bishkek Kyrgyzstan on 25 April 2017. The forum will be themed with the construction collaboration between the Silk Road Economic Belt and Eurasian Economic Union. The topics are the connectivity and interaction between Europe and Asia, the impact of the Belt and Road Initiative on related countries in infrastructure, investment and exporting, and supporting mechanism for financing, logistics and business corridors.

                                                                    1. http://www.srcic.com/news/cooperation-and-development-forum-of-silk-road-economic-belt/

                                                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      7.
                                                                      Pressure

                                                                      My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      BRI is helping the CCP to increase its influence overseas, but the CCP’s heavy-handed practices are also beginning to provoke a backlash. Coercive foreign aid, debt traps, and a lack of transparency are feeding anti-Chinese sentiment abroad, including recently in places such as Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, where China has invested heavily in infrastructure projects. Many locals view China’s behavior as predatory and corrupt.

                                                                      1. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/content-series/atlantic-council-strategy-paper-series/the-china-challenge/

                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        8.
                                                                        Pressure

                                                                        In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            9.
                                                                            Effect

                                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            The Kyrgyz Republic has bilateral agreements with the following countries: Kazakhstan (Entry into force: 11 November 1995) Moldova (Entry into force: 21 November 1996) Russian Federation (Entry into force: 24 April 1993) Ukraine (Entry into force: 19 January 1998) Uzbekistan (Entry into force: 20 March 1998) Link No bilateral FTA signed only in the frames of Shanghai Cooperation Organization Free Trade Agreement and Eurasian Economic Union Free Trade Agreement Link

                                                                            1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bilateral_free-trade_agreements#Kyrgyz_Republic
                                                                            2. https://aric.adb.org/fta-country

                                                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              10.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              47 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              35 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              China-led $280 million Kyrgyzstan project abandoned after protests Link [Second respondent]: There is at least one industrial park, the Asia Star Agricultural Economic Zone near Tokmok, that was initiated by a PRC firm and was granted operation by Kyrgyz government.

                                                                              1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-kyrgyzstan-china-investment-protests-idUSKBN20C1HA

                                                                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                11.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                    Society

                                                                                    The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                    1.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Kyrgyzstan China Council for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification, founded in 2003.

                                                                                    1. http://www.jrjsst.com/
                                                                                    2. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/201909/t20190929_12206079.html
                                                                                    3. http://www.taiwan.cn/fd/asia/fdct/201202/t20120214_2291717.htm

                                                                                      Answered by Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      2.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      No evidence found.

                                                                                          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          3.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              No evidence found.

                                                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Independent Union of Journalists of Kyrgyzstan, All-China Journalists Association sign cooperation agreement

                                                                                                  1. https://www.for.kg/news-613425-en.html

                                                                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Established in 2005, Spring Miao Charity (春苗慈善), a foundation that is involved with conducting charity work in Kyrgyzstan on behalf of the Chinese business community.

                                                                                                    1. http://www.siluxgc.com/jejsst/kgBusinessman/20200123/18243.html
                                                                                                    2. https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/web/gjhdq_676201/gj_676203/yz_676205/1206_676548/1206x2_676568/201912/t20191222_7981783.shtml

                                                                                                      Answered by Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        20 Best Chinese Movies and TV Shows on Netflix Kyrgyzstan Link TV show draws China closer to Kyrgyzstan viewers Link

                                                                                                        1. https://www.flixwatch.co/lists/20-best-chinese-movies-and-tv-shows-on-netflix-kyrgyzstan/
                                                                                                        2. https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201906/14/WS5d02fbb8a3103dbf143282d7.html

                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                        Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                            In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                1 million 250 thousand doses of Sinopharm vaccine against coronavirus infection from the People's Republic of China were delivered to the Kyrgyz Republic by a special plane. Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Kyrgyz Republic Ulukbek Maripov expressed gratitude to the People's Republic of China for the support and assistance provided. Link President Sadyr Japarov congratulates Xi Jinping and the Chinese people on the 100th anniversary of the Chinese Communist Party. For the full letter please visit Link

                                                                                                                1. https://www.gov.kg/ru/post/s/20233-kyrgyz-respublikasyna-koronavirus-infektsiyasyna-karshy-125-mln-doza-vaktsina-zhetkirildi
                                                                                                                2. http://www.president.kg/ru/sobytiya/19800_prezident_sadir_ghaparov_pozdravil_siczinpina_ikitayskiy_narod_so100_letiem_kommunisticheskoy_partii_kitaya

                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                Coronavirus physically separates people, but our hearts become closer. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Chinese and Kyrgyz people stand together, always provide each other with help and support, in fact they prove the saying "Friends are known in trouble." This is stated in the description of the video provided by the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Kyrgyz Republic. Link

                                                                                                                1. http://kabar.kg/news/druzhba-kyrgyzstana-i-kitaia-pandemiia-covid-19-tol-ko-ukrepila-sviazi-dvukh-stran/

                                                                                                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Although anti-China protests periodically flare up in various cities in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, it’s too soon to speak of universal Sinophobia. In Kyrgyzstan, the protests were led by nationalist groups whose demands included the expulsion of all Chinese migrants from the country. Link In Kyrgyzstan, an ultranationalist group thrives on rising anti-Chinese sentiment Link

                                                                                                                1. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81402
                                                                                                                2. https://globalvoices.org/2021/06/16/in-kyrgyzstan-an-ultranationalist-group-thrives-on-rising-anti-chinese-sentiment/

                                                                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                                                                                                  Military

                                                                                                                  The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  China also provides the countries of Central Asia with assistance in military technology. There are no official or transparent statistics on the volume of this assistance, so the scale can only be gauged by media reports on the subject. Kyrgyzstan received $16 million in 2014 to upgrade its weapons and build accommodation for its military personnel, and a further $14.5 million in 2017. Link Link

                                                                                                                  1. https://eurasianet.org/china-boosts-military-aid-to-kyrgyzstan-tajikistan
                                                                                                                  2. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81402
                                                                                                                  3. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/kennan-cable-no-52-russias-shadow-chinas-rising-security-presence-central-asia

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            China is seriously concerned about opening a military base to defend its borders. Perhaps the gaze of the Celestial Empire will turn to other territories. Will the Kyrgyz Republic not become such? Moreover, we have to China, to put it mildly, "small" obligations. The domestic political scientist was skeptical about such a possibility According to Mars Sariev, the public will react very sharply even to rumors about its construction on the territory of the republic. Link It seems that China has shown its strong intention to build military base in Kyrgyzstan. Link

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.vb.kg/doc/370899_est_li_mesto_v_kyrgyzstane_dlia_kitayskoy_voennoy_bazy.html
                                                                                                                            2. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81402

                                                                                                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili, Tinatin Khidasheli and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      The armies of China and Central Asian countries also cooperate by sharing experience, and through the training offered by the PLA to the region’s militaries: from 2003 to 2009, sixty-five Kazakh officers, and thirty Tajik and thirty Kyrgyz military specialists underwent training at Chinese academies. Beijing has also moved to train Central Asian military personnel on a bilateral basis. While its numbers still trail those of Russia, both China’s People’s Armed Police (PAP) paramilitary unit and People’s Liberation Army (PLA) academies are training officers from the region, although exact figures are not made public.

                                                                                                                                      1. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81402
                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.rferl.org/a/china-seen-as-rising-military-power-in-central-asia-foreshadowing-future-friction-with-russia/30639964.html

                                                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            A Chinese private security company in Kyrgyzstan has hired a retired former police chief of the region as lead commander of operation. This company itself is owned by a former PLA top personnel. I wrote about this topic in link, but this specific piece of information is off the record.

                                                                                                                                            1. https://oxussociety.org/the-growth-adaptation-and-limitations-of-chinese-private-security-companies-in-central-asia/

                                                                                                                                              Answered by Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                  My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) held its first joint exercises with Kyrgyzstan in October 2002. From 2003 to 2016, the Chinese army carried out a total of thirty-nine drills together with the countries of Central Asia. Of those, the most joint exercises were held with neighboring Kazakhstan (sixteen), Tajikistan (eleven), and Kyrgyzstan (ten). In 2002, the first joint exercises between China and Kyrgyzstan were held—China’s first-ever bilateral exercise. All member states, except Uzbekistan, participated. In 2007, two joint military exercises were organized. The first, called “2007 Anti-Terror Issyk-Kul,” took place in late May on the shores of Lake Issyk-Kul and brought together SCO soldiers as well as officials from the CSTO and representatives of the security agencies and special services of each member state. The PRC continues to expand the PLA’s participation in bilateral and multilateral military exercises, normalizing the PLA’s presence overseas and establishing ties to foreign militaries. For example, in 2019 the PLA participated in Russia's national-level exercise TSENTR-19 along with forces from India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Similarly, the PAP has conducted drills and enhanced cooperation with Central Asian national guard units, with Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan taking part in an exercise in 2019.

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81402
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/kennan-cable-no-52-russias-shadow-chinas-rising-security-presence-central-asia
                                                                                                                                                  3. https://media.defense.gov/2020/Sep/01/2002488689/-1/-1/1/2020-DOD-CHINA-MILITARY-POWER-REPORT-FINAL.PDF
                                                                                                                                                  4. https://www.rferl.org/a/china-seen-as-rising-military-power-in-central-asia-foreshadowing-future-friction-with-russia/30639964.html

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                    The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Agreement between the Kyrgyz Republic and the People's Republic of China on legal assistance in civil and criminal cases. Link AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF THE KYRGYZ REPUBLIC AND THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ON COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY PROTECTION RIGHTS Link

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://mfa.gov.kg/ru/dm/Embassy-of-the-Kyrgyz-Republic-in-the-Peoples-Republic-of-China/Menu---Foreign-/--uslugi/Legal-base/RC
                                                                                                                                                    2. http://patent.kg/ru/sample-page-5-4/sample-page/sample-page-2-3-2/

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Kyrgyzstan does not grant asylum to Uyghurs, because of a number of bilateral agreements with China - the most important was signed in 2001 - the Agreement on Fighting Terrorism, Extremism and Separatism under the auspices of the Shanghai Organization of Cooperation (SCO). AGREEMENT between the Kyrgyz Republic and the People's Republic of China on cooperation in the fight against terrorism, separatism and extremism Link

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/fr/node/193281
                                                                                                                                                      2. http://cbd.minjust.gov.kg/act/view/ru-ru/17418

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

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                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                October 2020. U.S. government officials revealed that suspected Chinese hackers were behind a series of attacks on entities in Russia, India, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Malaysia.

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.csis.org/programs/strategic-technologies-program/significant-cyber-incidents

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Members of Kyrk Choro (a local anti-China activist group) have been violently threatened multiple times such as breaking of car windows, following etc. Significance is very high. This group has been so actively dealing with every aspect of factors that drive anti China sentiment. The leaders have all been threatened

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://rus.azattyk.org/a/29787478.html

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    In Kyrgyzstan, advanced facial recognition technology is being deployed by one of the military equipment suppliers in Beijing, whose technology was used to establish control over Xinjiang, a region of China historically populated by Muslims. China National Electronics Import and Export Corporation (CEIEC) reportedly delivers its products to Kyrgyzstan free of charge.

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://russian.eurasianet.org/%D0%BA%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%B9-%D1%8D%D0%BA%D1%81%D0%BF%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%82%D0%B8%D1%80%D1%83%D0%B5%D1%82-%D0%B2-%D1%86%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%82%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%83%D1%8E-%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B8%D1%8E-%D1%81%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BC%D1%8B-%D1%82%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B9-%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%B6%D0%BA%D0%B8

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Regular joint patrols are done since 1999 in implementing the 1996 and 1997 agreements on reducing military forces in border areas and strengthening military trust in border areas. Border guards of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan conduct several rounds of joint border inspection annually, about 4 times a year, each time inspecting two areas of border.

                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2015/0616/c70731-27158948.html

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                        My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        The government may not have officially detained them, but have in ways such as not granting permanent residency, not granting citizenship to ethnic Kyrgyz who were born in China but live in Kyrgyzstan so they had to go back to China. There is also at least one public case where a Uyghur Chinese citizen was kidnapped from his neighborhood in Osh, south of Kyrgyzstan and was later found in China with no immigration record from the Kyrgyz side: Link

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://rus.azattyk.org/a/27914186.html

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                          My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                            Kyrgyzstan deported 2 Taiwanese citizens Link However, according to this link, it is unclear where exactly they were deported and we could not find any additional source about this news.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://24.kg/archive/ru/community/120543-iz-kyrgyzstana-deportirovany-dva-grazhdanina.html/

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                            My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            The GKNB in Kyrgyzstan they bypass immigration law to give asylum testimony to individuals who illegal cross borders to seek asylum. There is at least one public case where the GKNB at the border just hand these individuals, once they are caught, back to China.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://rus.azattyk.org/a/26790800.html

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                                                              Technology

                                                                                                                                                                              The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Asia-Unicom LLC was established in 2014 and today has its own backbone fiber-optic line based on DWDM technology in the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic Link 2the partners of asia-unicom are China Mobile and China Unicom Link

                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://www.asia-unicom.net/#company
                                                                                                                                                                              2. http://www.asia-unicom.net/#partners

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Likewise, at 90 percent and 70 percent, Huawei is the main tech supplier for Kyrgyzstan’s top telecommunication providers Sky Mobile and Alfa Telecom. Link Chinese investors have been engaged in the Kyrgyz ICT sector. The Kyrgyz Republic and China signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 2018 to build a national fiber ring under a public-private partnership (PPP) arrangement, but the proposed project has not moved forward as yet. In addition, Huawei and ZTE are the main vendors of telecommunication equipment for mobile operators and ISP/broadband internet providers. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://thediplomat.com/2019/08/smart-cities-or-surveillance-huawei-in-central-asia/
                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/34118/South-Caucasus-and-Central-Asia-The-Belt-and-Road-Initiative-Kyrgyz-Republic-Country-Case-Study.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Asia-Unicom LLC was founded in 2014 and today has its own backbone fiber-optic line based on DWDM technology in the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic. Our network is organized on the basis of the most modern and advanced equipment to provide quality service. Our company will provide an alternative, fast and stable access to the global network through China, has a direct connection to popular traffic exchange points TIER1 HK IX (Hong Kong), M9 (Moscow) The presence of several backup channels allows you to organize a connection to the network at the highest level. A team of professionals guarantees timely, reliable and most advanced telecommunication solutions.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. http://www.asia-unicom.net/#company

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    RTC in the Kyrgyz Republic is equipped with a passenger plane, a railway wagon, vehicles and a canine training complex. To carry out practical exercises on the implementation of customs control at the border, a mock-up of the checkpoint was built, which is equipped with a NUCTECH CX100100TI X-ray inspection system for inspecting luggage and carry-on baggage, a red and green corridor for passenger traffic. In addition, equipment was installed to carry out weight and dimensional control at the checkpoint and inspection sites for customs clearance of cargo trucks. Link Nuctech X-rays are produced by Nuctech Company Ltd. which is the Chinese company. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://rocb-europe.org/rtc-leninskoe
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. http://www.nuctech.com/en/sitepages/homepage.aspx

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      the Kyrgyz government agreed with China National Electronics Import & Export Corporation (CEIEC) to install a program for identifying individuals or groups of people. Another Chinese company, Shenzhen Sunwin Intelligent, is working on the second stage of Kyrgyzstan’s Safe City project, which entails the installation of new cameras both in the capital Bishkek and across the entire country.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/81402

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        6.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        According to the Program of the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic "Zhagy Doorgo Kyrk Kadam", the implementation of the "Smart City" project is envisaged for 2-3 years in the cities of Bishkek and Osh. Considering that the implementation of the Smart City project is planned according to the BOT (Build - Operate - Transfer) model, the concessionaire carries out construction and operation (mainly on the basis of ownership) for a specified period, after which the object transferred to the state, work is underway to study the proposals of interested companies and investors.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://www.ict.gov.kg/index.php?r=site%2Fproject&cid=18&pid=46

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          In March 2019, Altyn Bank joined the Chinese Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS). The system is designed to carry out international settlements in yuan, which allows foreign market participants to make settlements in this currency directly with Chinese partners. The bank joined CIPS as an indirect participant. The direct participant providing connection to CIPS Altyn Bank is the majority shareholder of the bank - China CITIC Bank Corporation Ltd.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://forbes.kz/process/reyting_bankov_kazahstana_2019/

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Tech entrepreneurs in Kyrgyzstan say China’s Belt and Road scheme can help their country’s start-up culture. Link

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/01/29/belt-and-road-tech-entrepreneurship-in-kyrgyzstan.html

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Bishkek Humanities University (BSU) named after Karasayev and the Central Asia International (Blockhain Institute) Blockchain Research Institute signed a cooperation agreement.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://en.kabar.kg/news/commencement-of-cooperation-between-blockchain-institute-and-bishkek-humanities-university/

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.similarweb.com/apps/top/google/store-rank/kg/social/top-free/

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Ani Kintsurashvili, and has been reviewed by Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    [Second respondent]: Kyrgyzstan has existing cooperation agreements to use the Russian satellite, and the Russian system has agreement on joint use with Beidou. It is unclear to what extent China has access to data in the former Soviet space under agreements between Russia and China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov and Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Sister city of Foshan (China) sent medicines to Osh

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://kabar.kg/news/gorod-pobratim-foshan-kitai-otpravil-v-osh-medikamenty/

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In a forthcoming research paper I have identified at least 22 groups of Kyrgyz government employees who took paid trips in the context of a training program to PRC funded by MOC or MPS. In 2013 to 2018 alone, over 750 Kyrgyz government officials have been trained in China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://kabar.kg/news/gossluzhashchie-kyrgyzstana-proshli-obuchenie-v-kitae/

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kyrgyzstan Ruslan Kazakbaev met with Chinese Ambassador to the Kyrgyz Republic Du Dewen on the eve of his official visit to the People's Republic of China as part of his participation in the second meeting of foreign ministers in the Central Asia-China format on May 10-12, 2021 in Xi'an Link Kyrgyz President to pay official visit to China and Iran - Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. http://en.kabar.kg/news/kyrgyz-fm-to-visit-china/
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://24.kg/archive/en/politic/176854-news24.html/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my forthcoming research paper at least 3 out of 22 of my documented Kyrgyz government employees were from Kyrgyz security agencies who underwent training by PRC MPS. My interview with former police also revealed that the training is much more than what is reported by local news, this is beyond the Kyrgyz capital but across different sub-national governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://brill.com/view/journals/shrs/aop/article-10.1163-18750230-bja10009/article-10.1163-18750230-bja10009.xml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In October 2020, a coup d'etat took place in Kyrgyzstan, where many businessmen associated with China took the side of the victorious Sadyr Japarov.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://carnegie.ru/commentary/83701

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cooperation with China is one of the main priorities in the foreign policy of Kyrgyzstan. "The Kyrgyz Republic remains fully committed to all its international obligations and strict implementation of all previously signed bilateral and multilateral treaties and agreements," Sadyr Zhaparov emphasized.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. http://www.president.kg/ru/sobytiya/18117_i_o__prezidenta_sadir_ghaparov_prinyal_posla_knr_dudeven
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://slovo.kg/?p=37627

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The defendants were accused of allegedly using their positions to lobby for the interests of a Chinese company in the selection process of a contractor for the modernization of the power plant, inflicting damage on the Kyrgyz state and society. [Second respondent]: There are so many cases of politicians involved in corruption with a Chinese company. Taking some snippets from my IRI report: Melis Myrzakmatov, former mayor of Osh (2009 – 2013), was sentenced 7 years in 2015 for abuse of power over awarding a bridge construction contract to a Chinese company Gay Sue using state budget. Nariman Tyuleev, former mayor of Bishkek (2008 – 2010), was sentenced 11 years in 2013 for embezzlement when purchasing public buses and snowplough equipment from China using state budget. Sapar Isakov, former Prime Minister (2017 – 2018), was sentenced 15 years in 2019 on corruption charges for granting Bishkek power plant modernization and repair contract to a Chinese company TBEA at an inflated $386 million supported fully by a loan from the Chinese Exim Bank. Duishenbek Zilaliev, former Director of State Agency for Geology (2013 – 2018), was sentenced 9 years in 2020 on corruption charges for granting antimony development license to a Chinese company Huaxin at an underestimated $130,000 USD. Dozens of accusation cases which never went to court, such as: Marat Mambetaliev, former director of state-owned Kyrgyztelecom (1999 – 2011), was accused to abuse of power in granting Huawei the contract to build a $1.4 million USD fiber-optic communication cable from Osh to Irkeshtam, on the Chinese border. Huawei did not have a local license as a builder of communication lines and facilities. Temir Sariev, former Prime Minister (2015 – 2016) and Argynbek Malabaev, former Minister of Transport (2015 – 2016) were forced to resign over accusation of abuse of power in granting a Chinese company Long Hai a $21 million contract to repair a highway. Petty corruption also include Kyrgyz diplomats in China receiving bribes to speed up visa issues for Chinese businessmen.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.rferl.org/a/two-former-kyrgyz-prime-ministers-receive-prison-terms-/30311583.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Niva Yau, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In 2018, the President of the Kyrgyz Republic, Mr. Jeenbekov, paid a state visit to China, during which the leaders of both countries decided to raise the Chinese-Kyrgyz relations to the level of a comprehensive strategic partnership. In June this year, the President of the People's Republic of China, Mr. Xi Jinping, paid a successful state visit to Kyrgyzstan. The leaders of both countries signed a Joint Declaration on deepening the Chinese-Kyrgyz relations of comprehensive strategic partnership and brought bilateral relations between our countries into a new historical era with new chances for further development. Also add evidence on Kyrgyzstan-China parliamentary friendship group members meet Chinese Ambassador.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. http://kg.china-embassy.org/rus/ggwj/t1790710.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://mfa.gov.kg/ru/dm/posolstvo-kyrgyzskoy-respubliki-v-kitayskoy-narodnoy-respublike/menyu---inostrannoe/--uslugi/politicheskoe-sotrudnichestvo/er
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://akipress.com/news:672803:Kyrgyzstan-China_parliamentary_friendship_group_members_meet_Chinese_Ambassador/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      On May 12, 2021, in Xi'an, People's Republic of China, with the participation of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kyrgyz Republic Ruslan Kazakbayev, the Second Meeting of Foreign Ministers in the "Central Asia-China" format was held.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://mfa.gov.kg/ru/dm/posolstvo-kyrgyzskoy-respubliki-v-kitayskoy-narodnoy-respublike/news/12336

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Tianshan.com (reported by full-media reporter Yuan Lei) A group of 10 people from China's joint working group to Kyrgyzstan successfully completed its work and arrived at Urumqi Diwopu International Airport on April 27. Tian Wen, member of the Standing Committee of the Party Committee of the Autonomous Region and Minister of the Propaganda Department, greeted him at the airport. From April 20th to 27th, the joint working group carried out work in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, went to the Chinese Embassy in Kyrgyzstan to hold a lecture on epidemic prevention and control, held discussions with Chinese students in Kyrgyzstan and representatives of teachers from Confucius Institutes, and provided “health packages”. "

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://news.ts.cn/system/2020/04/27/036236860.shtml

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            About 300 Kyrgyz people have been detained in China in the village of Kaiyz, where about 1500 Kyrgyz live currently, reports radio "Free Asia”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://qazaqtimes.com/en/article/51828

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No Evidence Found.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Text of the Joint Declaration of the Kyrgyz Republic and the People's Republic of China At the invitation of the President of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao, the President of the Kyrgyz Republic Almazbek Atambayev from 4 to 7 June 2012 made an official visit to the People's Republic of China and took part in the 12th meeting of the Council of Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization in Beijing. “The Kyrgyz side firmly supports the“ one China ”policy, confirms that the Government of the People's Republic of China is the only government representing the whole of China, Taiwan is an integral part of the territory of China. The Kyrgyz side is against any form of "independent Taiwan" and supports the peaceful development and relationship of the two banks and the peaceful reunification of China. The Chinese side confirms that it respects the development path chosen by the people of the Kyrgyz Republic, based on the realities of their country, supports their efforts aimed at ensuring independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and security, and is also ready to provide the necessary assistance to the socio-economic development of the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. http://www.president.kg/ru/sobytiya/novosti/416_tekst_sovmestnoy_deklaracii_kirgizskoy_respubliki_i_kitayskoy_narodnoy_respubliki

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In 2019, "at the UN meeting, the Kyrgyz side openly supported the Chinese side, highly appreciating the effective measures taken by the Chinese side to protect the tradition and religion of the Xinjiang national minorities and ensure security and stability in Xinjiang." Source: Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://kg.china-embassy.org/rus/ggwj/t1790710.htm

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not found any information

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not found any information

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Bakytbek Satybekov, and has been reviewed by Ani Kintsurashvili and Mariam Usenashvili

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
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