Japan

$39,285.2
125.6M
Ranking
52/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

105/ 380
Executive partner
National Bureau of Asian Research
Index Year
2021
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

33%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

59%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

2%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Japan had a GDP per capita of US$39,285 and a total population of 125.6 million people, with Chinese citizens (as foreign residents in the country) comprising 0.77 million people, or 0.62% of the total population. 

Japan established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1972. Japan was ranked 71th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 96/100.  

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    22.5% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    34.1% / 34%
  • Economy
    27.3% / 33.6%
  • Society
    43.2% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    18.2% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    27.3% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    31.8% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    37.5% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 1 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

The link shows that Japan has five media sources that are members, none of which are widely known in Japan.

  1. https://worldchinesemedia.com/2015/05/12/56/

    Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    The member list of Belt and Road Media Community has Rakuten VIKI USA as its Council Members. This seems to be the USA branch, but Rakuten is a Japanese company. Belt and Road News Alliance does not have a member from Japan.

    1. http://brmc.chnpec.com/en/member.shtml
    2. https://brnalink.com/members.html

      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

          Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

          Hide
          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          Skip

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

            Supplementary Notes

            Although there is no media people who have had trainings in China as far as I know, some of those who are working for CCP-influenced news outlets might have had some training. When CCP invited reporters from overseas for 10 months training in 2018, for example, it did not include anybody from Japan. Link

            1. https://www.epochtimes.jp/p/2018/11/38142.html

            Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

            Hide
            5.
            Exposure

            In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            1 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            24 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            22 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            7 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            18 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

            Hide
            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            Yes

            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            The linked outlets are either wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations. See also: Source: Maiko Ichihara, "Chapter 1. Influence Activities of Domestic Actors on the Internet: Disinformation and Information Manipulation in Japan" in Asia Democracy Research Network, Social Media, Disinformation, and Democracy in Asia: Country Cases (2020), pp.1-29. Link  

            1. https://www.recordchina.co.jp/
            2. http://www.searchina.net/

              Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              See below article. Expert has also conducted an interview with a media influence specialist on this topic in October 2019.

              1. https://thediplomat.com/2020/12/is-japan-immune-from-chinas-media-influence-operations/

                Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                Hide
                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                I’m not sure if we can say regular, but PRC does insert advertisements in Mainichi Shimbun newspaper occasionally.

                1. https://wedge.ismedia.jp/articles/-/15989?page=3

                  Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                  Hide
                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  No

                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                      Hide
                      10.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      51 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                          Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                          Hide
                          11.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          2 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          44 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          18 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                              Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                              Hide

                              Academia

                              The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                              1.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              11 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              6 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              25 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Hide
                              2.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              31 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              27 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Hide
                              3.
                              Exposure

                              My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              1 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              46 countries chose this answer

                              4/ Yes

                              35 countries chose this answer

                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                                  Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                  Hide
                                  4.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  17 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  See below article.

                                  1. http://www.brsn.net/list/zhikujigou_en/index_4.html

                                    Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                    Hide
                                    5.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    See below article.

                                    1. https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/269981

                                      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                      Hide
                                      6.
                                      Exposure

                                      In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                      Yes

                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      See below article.

                                      1. https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/20201231-OYT1T50192/

                                        Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                        Hide
                                        7.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        See below link.

                                        1. https://spc.jst.go.jp/policy/talent_policy/Tmpstaffing/tmpstaff_05.html

                                          Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                          Hide
                                          8.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          It is hard to tell how extensive/significant the censors of CSSA is in Japan. However, the following Asahi Shimbun report shows that the Japanese authority thinks students’ spying is negligible: Link And the following dated source shows that Chinese students are utilized to spy on each other in Japan. However, the extent to which such spy activities are conducted is believed to be less extensive compared to English-speaking countries. Link

                                          1. https://www.facebook.com/pages/%E5%85%A8%E6%97%A5%E6%9C%AC%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E5%AD%A6%E7%94%9F%E5%AD%A6%E8%80%85%E9%80%A3%E5%90%88%E4%BC%9A/105349997526636
                                          2. https://www.facebook.com/li.shen.1023

                                            Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                            Hide
                                            9.
                                            Pressure

                                            In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            See below article.

                                            1. https://globe.asahi.com/article/14357341

                                              Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                              Hide
                                              10.
                                              Effect

                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                                  Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                  Hide
                                                  11.
                                                  Effect

                                                  In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                  77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                      Hide

                                                      Economy

                                                      The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                      1.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                      Yes

                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      0/ No

                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ Yes

                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      See below link.

                                                      1. https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/JPN/Year/2017/TradeFlow/EXPIMP/Partner/by-country

                                                        Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                        Hide
                                                        2.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        Skipped

                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                        0/ No

                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                            Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                            Hide
                                                            3.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                                Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                Hide
                                                                4.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                    Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    5.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    55 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                        Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        6.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                            Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            7.
                                                                            Pressure

                                                                            My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            A prominent example is China’s temporary ban on the export of rare earth elements to Japan in 2010. The second article details threats as a result of the contents of maps included in in-flight magazines.

                                                                            1. https://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/23/business/global/23rare.html
                                                                            2. https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/231277

                                                                              Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              8.
                                                                              Pressure

                                                                              In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              One example of such coercion involves clothing retailers Muji and Uniqlo

                                                                              1. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-03-26/muji-operator-tumbles-as-brand-seen-at-risk-of-china-boycott

                                                                                Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                9.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                    Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    10.
                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                    In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                        Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        11.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                            Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                            Society

                                                                                            The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                            1.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            In addition to Sino-Japanese friendship organizations, all sorts of organizations for the “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” have been founded by overseas Chinese in Japan and engage in related activities.

                                                                                            1. http://jp.xinhuanet.com/2018-02/12/c_136968699.htm
                                                                                            2. http://japanese.cri.cn/20180206/2f748913-094e-40fe-aa29-3d4221d09197.html
                                                                                            3. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/202102/t20210226_12334326.html
                                                                                            4. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/202106/t20210623_12361253.html
                                                                                            5. http://www.chinaqw.com/hqhr/2020/06-03/258815.shtml

                                                                                              Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              2.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              The representatives of the United World Chinese Association in Japan are 馮汝城, 麥耀發, and 方五二. 馮汝城 is Taiwanese advisor to the Federation of Chinese Associations in Japan. 麥耀發 is based in Yokohama and is a member of the Cantonese organization there.

                                                                                              1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html
                                                                                              2. https://www.japan-taiwan.jp/organization
                                                                                              3. https://www.yokohama-chinese.gr.jp/yc/tx11-9.html

                                                                                                Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Historically speaking, Japanese labor unions like Kokuro—the organization of national railway laborers—were closely aligned with the Japanese Socialist Party, which had strong ties with the CCP. The Association for Sino-Japanese Labor Exchange(日中労働者交流協会)was founded in 1974 with the support of the Japanese Socialist Party to advance labor exchanges between China and Japan.

                                                                                                1. https://rnavi.ndl.go.jp/kensei/tmp/index_asanumainejirou1.pdf
                                                                                                2. http://www.chinalaborf.org

                                                                                                  Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  The UFWD has helped to organize the Association of Promotion of Peaceful Reunification in Japan and has many Chinese members in Japan.

                                                                                                  1. http://jp.xinhuanet.com/2018-02/12/c_136968699.htm
                                                                                                  2. http://www.china-embassy.or.jp/jpn/tpxw/t1536661.htm

                                                                                                    Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Some PRC-connected professional associations have branches in Japan. For example, the Chinese Women’s Federation in Japan. The most prominent examples are the “seven organizations” under the umbrella of the Japan-China Friendship Association. See the second article.

                                                                                                    1. https://spc.jst.go.jp/cdb/group/detail/149
                                                                                                    2. https://www.j-cfa.com/information/5772/

                                                                                                      Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      The PRC has had a lengthy history of exchanges with Sōka Gakkai, a major Buddhist sect in Japan.

                                                                                                      1. https://www.sokanet.jp/topics/2020-11-30-16734.html

                                                                                                        Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        The PRC has been engaged in some TV and radio broadcasts in Japan.

                                                                                                        1. http://japanese.cri.cn

                                                                                                          Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                          Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                              Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                  Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                      Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                      In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                          Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                          Military

                                                                                                                          The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                              Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                      Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                          Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                              Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Japan's Self-Defense Forces have a formal exchange program with the PLA National Defense University.

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.mod.go.jp/msdf/navcol/SSG/topics-column/col-007.html
                                                                                                                                                  2. http://eng.mod.gov.cn/news/2018-08/02/content_4821607.htm
                                                                                                                                                  3. http://military.people.com.cn/n1/2018/1129/c1011-30432067.html

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Only rumors of such activities exist.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                              Some 1.5 track dialogues have taken place with such officials, but it is hard to say that they are advocating for more coordination with the PLA.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                There have been no war games or exercises, but there have been advanced exchanges of battleships and field officers.

                                                                                                                                                                1. http://www.china-embassy.or.jp/jpn/jbwzlm/zrgx/t383140.htm
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.spf.org/china/news/20191003.html

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                  Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                  The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/436008

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20210420/k10012984761000.html

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      See below links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.weeklybcn.com/journal/news/detail/20180603_162606.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://classmethod.jp/partner/cmi/

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        See below links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Companies/Japan-s-4-carriers-to-shun-Chinese-5G-tech
                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.institutmontaigne.org/en/blog/japans-5g-mirror-europe
                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.ztedevices.com/jp/
                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://www.huawei.com/jp/

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Nikkei Article behind paywall: Japan's 4 carriers to shun Chinese 5G tech Docomo and KDDI join SoftBank in ditching Huawei and ZTE A pilot base station developed by Huawei on the roof of a building in Tokyo. MINORU SATAKE, Nikkei staff writerDecember 10, 2018 21:11 JSTUpdated on December 11, 2018 04:25 JST TOKYO -- Japan's three main mobile phone carriers SoftBank Group, NTT Docomo and KDDI have decided not to use Chinese equipment in their 5G networks due to rising security concerns that spurred the Japanese government to block Huawei Technologies and other Chinese companies from public procurement. E-commerce company Rakuten, which will become Japan's fourth wireless carrier next year, is also shunning China, stating that "there are no plans to use Chinese telecommunication equipment." The company will use Nokia products for its 4G network. These moves will be a major blow to Huawei, which has been moving aggressively into Japan's telecom and smartphone markets. Tokyo on Monday essentially banned Chinese telecom purchases by central government ministries and its Self-Defense Forces starting in April. "It's extremely important to avoid buying equipment that includes malicious functions like stealing or destroying information or halting information systems," Prime Minister Shinzo Abe told reporters. Washington has already banned Huawei and ZTE from the U.S. 5G market, and has imposed sanctions on Chinese companies for their dealings with Iran. It will also bar companies that use products from certain Chinese companies from doing business with government agencies starting in 2020 -- a concern for SoftBank and the NTT group as they look to expand abroad. The Japanese government currently does not restrict such purchases by private-sector companies. But with pressure from the U.S. mounting, carriers face the possibility that this could change. Japanese telecoms plan to start testing 5G next year with the goal of a full-scale rollout of commercial service in 2020. Carriers, needing to choose suppliers for orders to be placed next spring, decided against taking the risk of buying from companies that could ultimately be barred from the market. Technology conglomerate SoftBank, the only major telecom in the country that uses Huawei and ZTE equipment in its 4G systems, will determine whether it has to find other makers. SoftBank had been partnering with Huawei in 5G trials, and it has worked mainly with the Chinese company's base stations when honing its 5G know-how. Choosing a different supplier could delay its plans. Meanwhile, Docomo and KDDI do not use Chinese equipment for 4G. While Docomo has been running 5G trials with Huawei, the company has decided not to use Chinese-made equipment in its 5G network, due partly to technical hurdles. KDDI also plans to continue avoiding Chinese equipment. NTT Docomo and KDDI have decided to follow the lead of SoftBank in deciding not to use Chinese equipment in their 5G networks due to rising security concerns. Huawei's market share for the country's base station sales jumped to 13% in fiscal 2017 from 4% in 2016, according to Tokyo-based research company MCA -- an increase mainly fueled by SoftBank, according to Taro Daimon, an analyst at MCA. Huawei accounted for about 60% of the carrier's base station installations by value in fiscal 2017. Takuya Kamei, senior researcher at Nomura Research Institute, said Japanese telecoms will be able to meet their 5G rollout goals by procuring equipment from other vendors. All three majors are expected to commercialize 5G services before the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo. "Companies will be able to obtain the necessary equipment," because none of them are solely reliant on Huawei, he said. But given that the transition to 5G typically involves upgrading some existing 4G infrastructure, the decision to steer clear of Chinese suppliers "will be a major blow to SoftBank, which has Chinese 4G equipment," MCA's Hironori Amano said. While no companies have indicated plans to halt sales of Huawei handsets, the Chinese maker's reputation has been tarnished. Huawei surpassed Apple this year to become the second-largest smartphone maker in the world, and has been making a big push in Japan, launching flagship models such as the P20 Pro. Jim Xu, Vice President of Huawei's consumer unit, told the Nikkei Asian Review in late November that the company plans to cultivate the Japanese market by opening dedicated Huawei booths in retail shops. Washington informed Tokyo and other allies of the risks posed by Chinese information technology equipment and urged them to block Huawei and ZTE from their markets, a Japanese government source said. Australia and New Zealand have already banned Chinese makers from building their 5G networks, and Britain's BT Group has said it will not use Huawei equipment in the core of its 5G infrastructure. Unlike the U.S. ban, Japan's new procurement guidelines do not single out any specific country or company by name. The World Trade Organization bars such discrimination in public procurement, and while exceptions can be made when security concerns exist, whether Huawei meets that threshold remains unclear. Japan may also be leery of damaging its relationship with China. "It is very important for our two countries to develop a relationship of friendship and cooperation," said Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga. Government agencies will need to survey their IT equipment to ensure it complies with the new guidelines, expected to take effect in about three months. Any equipment that poses a security risk must be removed or replaced. IT and telecom companies are starting to conduct their own reviews to see if any Chinese parts or products were included in equipment sold to the central government. "It's technologically possible to intercept [information] through telecom equipment," said Goh Tokida, a security consultant at NRI SecureTechnologies. By inserting chips or modifying software, bad actors can collect information traveling through certain communication channels, he said. NTT Data, which develops systems related to the new "My Number" national identification program, is among those looking to get a head start on the process. The company says it "cannot completely rule out the possibility" that it used products from China. NEC, which builds its own telecom equipment in-house, says it basically does not use equipment from China. But other Japanese companies within its supply chain may have outsourced production to Chinese manufacturers, and NEC is considering how to check for such cases. Nikkei staff writers Jada Nagumo, Akihide Anzai, Wataru Suzuki, Akane Okutsu, Yukio Tajima, Isao Horikoshi and Yusuke Hinata contributed to this article.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.nhk.or.jp/politics/articles/lastweek/38326.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                中国、データ規制へ新法 外国企業も対象に米中対立先鋭化の懸念 【北京=多部田俊輔】中国は政府や企業が扱うデータの管理を厳しくする新法を制定する。改ざんや不正利用で国家安全保障を損ねると判断すれば罰則を科す。国外の組織や個人によるデータ収集も対象で、外国企業では警戒も広がる。国や企業の競争力を左右するデータ活用に影響が出るのは必至で、米中対立を先鋭化させる懸念もある。 新法の名称はデータ安全法(データセキュリティー法)。中国のデータの取り扱いにかかわる初めての... The above is from the article behind the paywall.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGKKZO61883120S0A720C2MM8000/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The following shows that, while cities are not signing contracts with PRC for smart cities, the Japanese government has. In that sense, the 0 above does not mean the absence of worry. The fear can be understood as more substantial. Link Link

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.nhk.or.jp/politics/articles/statement/22158.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.mlit.go.jp/report/press/toshi02_hh_000060.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Top 5 apps: LINE: 77.4% Twitter: 38.5% Instagram: 35.7% YouTube: 23.2% Facebook: 21.7% TikTok: 8.1% Skype: 7.1%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/LINE_(%E4%BC%81%E6%A5%AD)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://creatorzine.jp/news/detail/1254

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.sapc.jaxa.jp/work/international/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.kaigisho.com/jcf/pdf-city-list.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.jiji.com/jc/graphics?p=ve_pol_doubt-ircorruption-fundflow

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    See below links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://president.jp/articles/-/41480?page=2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.newsweekjapan.jp/stories/world/2019/04/post-12054.php

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See below link.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.nhk.or.jp/politics/articles/statement/28492.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See below article.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://jamestown.org/program/a-preliminary-survey-of-ccp-influence-operations-in-japan/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There are some Japanese politicians who express positive views of the PRC occasionally, but they are clearly a minority in Japan. And those who show positive views tend to be top leaderships of parties, especially in Komeito and LDP. Such expressions are normally as a part of diplomatic protocol, and those who omit the messages are normally not coopted by PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.sankei.com/article/20210702-N35EAXRDLNIG7AEUHTGO2DW4WA/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by Maiko Ichihara, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Japan-China Friendship Parliamentarians' Union (日中友好議員連盟, Nitchū Yūkō Giin Renmei) has friendly relations with the Chinese government and the CCP.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. http://japanese.cri.cn/20190505/8a3a3095-493e-5836-1f82-2c3dae45a4f7.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Representatives from members of the ruling coalition (the LDP and Komeito) regularly visit China to meet with Chinese leaders. The third article does not to involve Noda Seiko acting on behalf of the LDP. Instead, the focus of the visit seems to be on inviting female members of the National Diet, regardless of party affiliation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. http://www.china-embassy.or.jp/jpn/zrdt_1/t778357.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO25012510T21C17A2EA4000/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. http://www.china-embassy.or.jp/jpn/zrdt_1/t1693673.htm;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. https://www.komei.or.jp/komeinews/p39061/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5. https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXMZO48746980Q9A820C1EAF000/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Link The Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs has established an advanced joint exchange program with the CCP's Central Party School. There has been a total of 19 exchanges between the two countries, the most recent of which was in 2009. Whether this continues in the present is less clear.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/area/china/kyosanto_koryu.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Link The Japanese vice minister in charge of the cabinet office overseeing IR (Integrated Resorts), received bribes from a Chinese company, 500.com, in Shenzhen. Japanese law dictates that it is illegal for individual political candidates to receive any funds from corporations or individuals. Japanese prosecutors therefore only have to prove that politicians such as Akimoto Tsukasa received the funds from 500.com in order to obtain a conviction. As a result, there is no public evidence of Akimoto changing stance as a result of receiving the funds.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20210708/k10013127781000.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Notable cases include the detention of Nobu Iwatani, a professor of history at Hokkaido University, in late 2019.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2019/11/15/national/crime-legal/hokkaido-university-professor-held-spying-released-china/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        There is not much publicly available information on this having happened in recent years.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Japan has publicly urged China to accept the 2016 ruling.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://english.kyodonews.net/news/2021/07/c84ed9899b81-japan-us-urge-china-to-comply-with-tribunal-ruling-on-s-china-sea.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Japan has publicly expressed concerns about China’s conduct in Xinjiang.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/Japan-trades-words-with-China-over-Uyghurs-and-Hong-Kong

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The All-Party Japanese Parliamentary Support Group for Tibet has engaged in a number of activities in support of Tibet’s government in exile

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://in.news.yahoo.com/japanese-lawmakers-pledge-mobilize-efforts-112203684.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Japan has expressed concern over the situation in Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/Japan-trades-words-with-China-over-Uyghurs-and-Hong-Kong

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by Shin Kawashima and George Remisovsky, and has been reviewed by PSA Team

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
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