Italy

$35,551.3
59M
Ranking
33/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

139/ 396
Executive partner
Expert Forum
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

41%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

38%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

20%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Italy had a GDP per capita of US$35,551 and a total population of 59.1 million people, with the Chinese population comprising 330,500 people (not including Chinese who are naturalized as citizens of host countries, or children born locally of Chinese descent).

Italy established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in 1970. Italy was ranked 58th in Reporters Without Borders' 2021 World Press Freedom Index, and free in Freedom House's 2021 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 90/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    47.7% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    47.7% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    29.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    9.1% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    59.1% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    36.4% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    36.4% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    31.8% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 2 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2143.pdf
  2. https://news.cgtn.com/news/3d3d414f3245544e33457a6333566d54/index.html

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    Yes

    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Not Found

    1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2143.pdf
    2. https://www.china-files.com/go-east-speciale-il-2021-delle-relazioni-italia-cina/

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Not Found

      1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2143.pdf
      2. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf
      3. https://italian.cri.cn/1781/2018/06/26/481s322813.htm

      Supplementary Notes

      Few references to who paid for the trips

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Hide
        5.
        Exposure

        In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

        No

        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        1 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        24 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        22 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        7 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        18 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

        Hide
        6.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

        Yes

        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        2 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        44 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        19 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        3 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        0 countries chose this answer

        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Not Found

        1. https://www.ilmessaggero.it/economia/flash_news/class_editori_crea_joint_venture_la_cinese_hmi-704958.html
        2. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2143.pdf
        3. https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1603954235127688447&wfr=spider&for=pc
        4. http://dw.chinanews.com/chinanews/hmtopic.jsp?cname=ydlxhsb
        5. http://www.ouhuatimes.cn/html/muying/

        Supplementary Notes

        There are two small local mediaoutlets 意大利新华时报 (see URL4 above) & 欧华联合时报 (see URL5 above) written in Chines targeting Chinese Diaspora community (we suppose) in Italy.

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

          Hide
          7.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

          Yes

          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          22 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          21 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          6 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          23 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          7 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Hide
          8.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

          Yes

          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          38 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          13 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          15 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          8 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Hide
          9.
          Pressure

          In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

          Yes

          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          57 countries chose this answer

          4/ Yes

          24 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Hide
          10.
          Effect

          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

          Yes

          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          4 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          51 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          11 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          3 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          9 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          4 countries chose this answer

          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

          1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2143.pdf
          2. https://www.ilfoglio.it/politica/2019/03/23/news/la-solidarieta-della-politica-sulle-minacce-cinesi-alla-giornalista-del-foglio-il-silenzio-di-lega-e-m5s-245020/
          3. https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1703991493660074818&wfr=spider&for=pc

          Supplementary Notes

          In 2021 some Italian media including: Classeditori、「希肖内传媒集团」、「日報」(might be dailyonline.it)、Money.it、「"意大利新闻在线" 母集团亚特兰尼斯集团」sent regards to the Chinese Communist Party for its 100th anniversary. This might be signal that some self-censorship takes place in these media (see URL3 above) .

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

            Hide
            11.
            Effect

            In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

            Yes

            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            18 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            4 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            9 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            5 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Not Found

            1. https://formiche.net/2021/08/grillo-uiguri-network-claudio-mutti/
            2. https://www.lantidiplomatico.it/dettnews-la_fake_news_del_genocidio_degli_uiguri_smascherata_dalla_matematica/8_39326/
            3. https://www.radioradicale.it/scheda/639021/la-repressione-cinese-degli-uiguri-e-il-negazionismo-nel-blog-di-beppe-grillo?qt-blocco_interventi=1

            Supplementary Notes

            Beppe Grillo used to be extremely well-known, so the negation of Uygur genocide was significant, but he has since nuanced his position

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

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              Academia

              The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

              1.
              Exposure

              In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              0/ No

              9 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              11 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              31 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              25 countries chose this answer

              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

              Hide
              2.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

              Yes

              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

              More

              0/ No

              5 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              14 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              5 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              31 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              27 countries chose this answer

              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

              Hide
              3.
              Exposure

              My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

              Yes

              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              46 countries chose this answer

              4/ Yes

              35 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Hide
              4.
              Exposure

              In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

              Yes

              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              2 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              40 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              17 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              14 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              2 countries chose this answer

              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Not Found

              1. http://www.ucmsr.com/meminfo/71

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                Hide
                5.
                Exposure

                In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                Yes

                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                10 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                21 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                11 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                11 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                19 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                10 countries chose this answer

                72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                Not Found

                1. https://decode39.com/2337/china-ccp-italy-influence/
                2. https://www.fondazioneitaliacina.it/it/la-fondazione/chi-siamo/network/

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                  Hide
                  6.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  47 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  11 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  10 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  5 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Hide
                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  13 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  17 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  15 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  11 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  12 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  14 countries chose this answer

                  69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                  Hide
                  8.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  64 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  5 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Not Found

                  1. https://www.asianews.it/notizie-it/Politecnico-di-Milano,-docente-cinese-a-studente-di-Taipei:-Taiwan-%C3%A8-Cina-55458.html

                  Supplementary Notes

                  There have been accusations, but they are mostly about self-censorship and have largely been disproven

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                    Hide
                    9.
                    Pressure

                    In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    64 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    0 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    6 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Not Found

                    1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                    Supplementary Notes

                    If it exists, it has not been noted in the plentiful documentation about PRC's influence in Italy

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                      Hide
                      10.
                      Effect

                      In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      2 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      64 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      16 countries chose this answer

                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                      1. https://formiche.net/2020/12/istituto-confucio-giunipero-unica/

                      Supplementary Notes

                      The connection is indirect: Italian academics who have autonomy over the design of curricula are hired en-masse by Confucius Institutes (~16 in Italy) and it is possible that PRC exerts influence over them in an informal way. There has been no official contestation of the sort in the public sphere, but when the majority of China scholars in the country are also somehow paid by the PRC, some invisible influence is possible

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                        Hide
                        11.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        65 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        1 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        6 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Not Found

                        1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2152.pdf
                        2. https://www.corriere.it/la-lettura/19_dicembre_19/istituti-confucio-cina-polemica-replica-tripodi-venezia-la-lettura-9591dd64-2265-11ea-8e32-6247f341a5cc.shtml

                        Supplementary Notes

                        Plenty of accusations, nothing really confirmed, though it is hard to prove. Rather than actively militate against such discussions, PRC-connected institutions seem to try to coopt such discussions to better control the narrative

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                          Hide

                          Economy

                          The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                          1.
                          Exposure

                          The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          31 countries chose this answer

                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                          1. https://oec.world/en/profile/country/ita/

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                            Hide
                            2.
                            Exposure

                            PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            Skipped

                            1 countries chose this answer

                            0/ No

                            77 countries chose this answer

                            4/ Yes

                            4 countries chose this answer

                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                            Hide
                            3.
                            Exposure

                            The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                            No

                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                            More

                            0/ No

                            62 countries chose this answer

                            4/ Yes

                            20 countries chose this answer

                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            Not Found

                            1. https://www.mef.gov.it/focus/I-rapporti-tra-Italia-e-Cina/
                            2. https://oec.world/en/visualize/tree_map/hs92/export/ita/chn/show/2020/

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                              Hide
                              4.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              36 countries chose this answer

                              4/ Yes

                              46 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Hide
                              5.
                              Exposure

                              My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                              Yes

                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              27 countries chose this answer

                              4/ Yes

                              55 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Hide
                              6.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              0/ No

                              41 countries chose this answer

                              4/ Yes

                              41 countries chose this answer

                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                              1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y64BgwEIxiw&ab_channel=IAIChannel
                              2. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2140.pdf
                              3. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2118.pdf

                              Supplementary Notes

                              The only things that may qualify are acquisitions: Pirelli bought by ChemChina, PRC SOE. In addition Ansaldo Energia was bought by Shanghai Electric, a public PRC company

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                Hide
                                7.
                                Pressure

                                My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                No

                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                More

                                0/ No

                                64 countries chose this answer

                                4/ Yes

                                18 countries chose this answer

                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                Not Found

                                1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2152.pdf

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                  Hide
                                  8.
                                  Pressure

                                  In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ Yes

                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Not Found

                                  1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2152.pdf
                                  2. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                  Supplementary Notes

                                  Some Italian brands have a corporate presence in China, but never opened stores there, and there was no boycott.

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                    Hide
                                    9.
                                    Effect

                                    My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    51 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ Yes

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    Not Found

                                    1. https://policy.trade.ec.europa.eu/eu-trade-relationships-country-and-region/countries-and-regions/china_en

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    Not possible as a EU member country

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                      Hide
                                      10.
                                      Effect

                                      In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      0/ No

                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                      1. https://investmentpolicy.unctad.org/investment-policy-monitor/measures/3445/italy-establishes-a-new-special-economic-zone-
                                      2. https://www.agenziacoesione.gov.it/zes-zone-economiche-speciali/

                                      Supplementary Notes

                                      Italy has established special economic zones, but there is absolutely no sign it has done so on the behest of PRC investment, nor are there signs that these zones have received significant PRC investment

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                        Hide
                                        11.
                                        Effect

                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                        No

                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        76 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ Yes

                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                        1. https://www.china-files.com/go-east-speciale-il-2021-delle-relazioni-italia-cina/

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                          Hide

                                          Society

                                          The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                          1.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                          Yes

                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          49 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                          1. https://web.archive.org/web/20200310091132/https://henryjacksonsociety.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/HJS-Sharp-Power-Report-FINAL.pdf
                                          2. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf
                                          3. http://www.zhongguotongcuhui.org.cn/hnwtchdt/

                                          Supplementary Notes

                                          There is a China Council for the Promotion of Peaceful National Reunification which is extremely active in Italy and has even coordinated mask donations during the COVID19 crisis

                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                            Hide
                                            2.
                                            Exposure

                                            In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                            Yes

                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                            More

                                            Skipped

                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                            0/ No

                                            62 countries chose this answer

                                            4/ Yes

                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                            Supporting Evidence

                                            A local organization "意大利华侨华人贸易总会" belongs to 世界華人聯合總會WUCA. And there is confirmation that WUCA & UWCA (mentioned in the indicator) are part of the same group

                                            1. http://www.wuca.net/plus/view.php?aid=374

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                              Hide
                                              3.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              68 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ Yes

                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                              1. https://www2.cgil.it/cina-acftu-e-cgil-continuano-il-confronto/
                                              2. https://www2.cgil.it/dopo-20-anni-incontro-tra-la-cgil-e-il-sindacato-cinese-acftu/

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              The most left-wing major trade union in Italy seems to have had some connections with the ACFTU, but they haven't written anything since 2014. Seeing the type of public pressure normally put by Italian society on trade unions, it is unlikely that such a cooperation would have continued

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                Hide
                                                4.
                                                Exposure

                                                In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                Yes

                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                50 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                A UFWD affiliate, Soong Ching Ling Foundation, is extremely active in Italy and present in many ways in both Italian and Chinese immigrant settings

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                  Hide
                                                  5.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                  Yes

                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Not Found

                                                  1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                  Very difficult to find information online. Exchanges might exist, but they are definitely not close, nor do they seem publicized

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                    Hide
                                                    6.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                    Yes

                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    Catholic network of support during pandemics (see the URL below)

                                                    1. https://www.gospeltimes.cn/article/index/id/51471?btwaf=97477338

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                      Hide
                                                      7.
                                                      Exposure

                                                      In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      38 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                        No sign of anything like this in the Italian language. It would likely be difficult to do in a rich country, such as Italy

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                          Hide
                                                          8.
                                                          Effect

                                                          Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                          1. https://frontierenews.it/2020/11/la-dura-vita-di-chi-fa-lasiatico-nei-film-italiani/

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          From my experience, not at all. The PRC is generally portrayed as self-interested, exploitative and authoritarian

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                            Hide
                                                            9.
                                                            Effect

                                                            In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Not Found

                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                              Nobody has heard of anything of the sort, nor can we find anything in Italian or English

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                Hide
                                                                10.
                                                                Effect

                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                No

                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                Skipped

                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                0/ No

                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                Not Found

                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                  Apart from individual MPs or political leaders, such as Petrocelli, Rosato or Grillo, there is nothing of the sort. Even they speak squarely as individuals, not as representatives of the government; see section on Politics.

                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                    Hide
                                                                    11.
                                                                    Effect

                                                                    In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    Skipped

                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Hide

                                                                    Military

                                                                    The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                    1.
                                                                    Exposure

                                                                    My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                    No

                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                    More

                                                                    0/ No

                                                                    36 countries chose this answer

                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                    Not Found

                                                                    1. https://www.esercito.difesa.it/equipaggiamenti/Armamento-leggero-e-supporto-di-fuoco/

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      2.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                      Yes

                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      Skipped

                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      74 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://www.ilpost.it/2019/06/09/armi-italia-esportazioni/
                                                                      2. https://documenti.camera.it/_dati/leg18/lavori/documentiparlamentari/IndiceETesti/067/002v01/INTERO.pdf

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      Italy is among the largest arms exporters in the world, so it's almost inevitable that they export arms to the PRCas well, but the quota is extremely low

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        3.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        66 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://first.art-er.it/_aster_/viewNews/46950/italia-cina-online-il-piano-d-azione-per-il-2025

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          4.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          Not Found

                                                                          1. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/nato_countries.htm

                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                          Hard to privide positive evidence for non-actions

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            5.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/nato_countries.htm

                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                            Italy received some masks as donations from PRC but there is no PLA affiliation

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              6.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                              1. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/nato_countries.htm

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                7.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                1. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/nato_countries.htm

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  8.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                  1. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/nato_countries.htm

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    9.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                    1. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/nato_countries.htm

                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                    No information of anything of the sort and extremely unlikely in general. The Italian Army has a reputation for being extremely pro-American

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      10.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                      1. https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/nato_countries.htm

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        11.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                        1. http://italian.irib.ir/notizie/mondo/item/192881-italia-e-cina-aumentano-le-cooperazioni-militari

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        There is a piece of news on the internet about this in the past, but it is not corroborated with anything on Italy Defense Ministry website. Moreover it seems impossible that such cooperation exists today

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                          Law Enforcement

                                                                                          The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                          1.
                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                          My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                          1. https://www.giustizia.it/giustizia/it/mg_1_3.page?tabait=y&tab=a&aia=AIA1199503&detail=y

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            2.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                            1. https://www.interno.gov.it/it/notizie/italia-cina-piu-collaborazione-nel-contrasto-criminalita-transnazionale

                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                            While there is no trace of any cooperation on combatting terrorism, there is an agreement against transnational crime

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              3.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              5.
                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                              1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2152.pdf
                                                                                              2. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              No sign that state espionate or cyber-attacks from the part of the PRC are seen as a risk. The only potential such discussion could be had surrounding the Huawei 5G discussion, which has been closed

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                1. https://www.poliziadistato.it/articolo/15435b163b244ead0568454355
                                                                                                2. https://www.poliziadistato.it/articolo/225dc132752fd60626399822

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                  1. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-italy-xinjiang-idUSKBN1AD16Z

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    10.
                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                    My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      No information about this was found, so it is unlikely to have happened, though the Italian media seems interested in the subject.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                        My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                        1. https://www.ilfoglio.it/esteri/2022/01/11/news/interpol-ed-estradizioni-cosi-la-cina-da-la-caccia-ai-dissidenti-3530579/

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        No information about this was found, although the Italian media seems interested in the subject

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                          Technology

                                                                                                          The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                          1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2152.pdf

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          Agreements were repeatedly blocked by the government, though there is a theoretical possibility that Huawei or ZTE may at some point sign an agreement with one of the providers

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                            1. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-04-30/vodafone-found-hidden-backdoors-in-huawei-equipment
                                                                                                            2. https://www.ansa.it/innovazione_5g/notizie/tecnologia/2021/10/06/internet-provideroperatori-nazionali-sono-asset-strategico_79b84c2c-1f05-4cef-bbac-bb390b63c60e.html

                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                            This has been mitigated by the fact that the government is pressuring telecom companies to revamp their service provision

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                              1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2152.pdf
                                                                                                              2. https://chinatechmap.aspi.org.au/#/map/

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              The use of the Golden Power tool, used by the Draghi government also retroactively, has severely limited any clear provision of technology by PRC connected entities to the government

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Huawei did provide such services for some subnational governments, but it is unclear if these contracts were kept after the Draghi government ceased cooperation with Huawei at the central level. The fall of the Draghi government further increases uncertainty here.

                                                                                                                1. http://extranet.greens-efa.eu/public/media/file/1/7297
                                                                                                                2. https://www.tomshw.it/altro/huawei-e-acea-insieme-per-un-colosseo-piu-sicuro-grazie-alle-telecamere-smart/

                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                While biometric recognition processes are used (in a relatively restrictive way), none of the companies providing the service seem to be connected with the PRC

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                  1. https://www.ipresslive.it/comunicates/26432/smart-city-for-intelligent-life-accordo-tra-huawei-e-lassociazione-italia-startup
                                                                                                                  2. https://e.huawei.com/it/material/local/fec7bd5bf6c5431aba9137c986318197
                                                                                                                  3. https://www.snewsonline.com/smart-city-nel-pnrr-10-miliardi-28-comuni-italiani-ha-almeno-un-progetto/

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  It seems impossible to identify precisely which provider offered what to a certain city, but one of the largest players in the field is Politecnico di Milano, which has a long-standing partnership with Huawei. The mitigating factor here is the government's strong impetus to control for the provision of technology through PRC-connected entities

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                    1. https://www.wired.it/economia/start-up/2019/05/28/shopping-tax-free-stamp-cina/
                                                                                                                    2. https://www.wired.it/economia/start-up/2021/09/17/startup-cina-finanziamenti-europa-mappa/

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    While there has been some investment, EU and Italian national legislation is flexible enough that it can likely block any type of PRC investment that would be considered threatening to the security of the country

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                      1. https://www.corriere.it/economia/consumi/22_febbraio_28/huawei-pay-italia-accordo-intesa-bancomat-pagamenti-contactless-b6cc876a-987c-11ec-899b-30de360aaa79.shtml
                                                                                                                      2. https://www.ilsole24ore.com/radiocor/nRC_23.09.2019_18.26_5463318
                                                                                                                      3. http://www.lucidamente.com/49203-perche-laccordo-huawei-unibo-sullia-desta-molte-perplessita/

                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                      Huawei is a significant player in the Italian tech sector and is embedded in many initiatives, but the government has the capacity to stop them with relatively little effort

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                        1. https://ec.europa.eu/defence-industry-space/eu-space-policy/galileo/galileo-system_en

                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                        No sign of anything of the like, plus EU countries would be interested to use Galileo rather than Beidou if they would ever choose to change from GPS

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                          Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                          The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                          1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                            1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                              1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                8.
                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                1. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                There seems to be no evidence of anything of the sort. If it would happen, it would likely be restricted to areas with large Chinese immigrant populations and not be highly visible in the media

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  9.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                  37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                  In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/iaip2152.pdf
                                                                                                                                  2. https://sinopsis.cz/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/it0.pdf

                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                                    Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                    The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                    My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                    57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.camera.it/application/xmanager/projects/leg18/attachments/upload_file_europaestero/upload_files/000/000/466/PRESIDENZE_SEZ_BIL_AMICIZIA_15_03_2022.pdf
                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.geopolitica.info/litalia-entra-nellalleanza-inter-parlamentare-sulla-cina/

                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                    On the other hand, Italy also joined the Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China (see URL2 above).

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                      The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Apparently three trainings hosted for civil servants took place, most recent in 2020. Chacking Italian sources they look like examples of public administration practices used in China which are presented and discussed in the Italian school 1. 2020/11, 中央党校(国家行政学院)「中央党校(国家行政学院)与意大利阿斯平研究所合作举办“后疫情时代的世界”中意学术研讨会」(see URL1 below) 2. 2014/06, 陝西行政学院学报「意大利高中级官员研修班一行来我院培训学习」(see URL2 below) 3. 2015/01, 中国共产党新闻网「副校长赵长茂会见意大利国家行政学院院长特里亚一行」(see URL3 below)

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.ccps.gov.cn/bmpd/gjhzb/xwdt/202011/t20201117_144899.shtml
                                                                                                                                      2. http://www.yidu.edu.cn/100000/detail/article/57749ef5ede4fe1a838f4ca5.html?org=100000&uorg=999999
                                                                                                                                      3. http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2015/0108/c87228-26350853.html

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3oYJDSeBv0&ab_channel=TubeRadio

                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                        Score should be 1 but it does not appear in menu. One incident is mentioned in the source, but it does not appear serious

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.visiontimes.com/2021/11/23/interpol-committee-china.html
                                                                                                                                          2. https://yiqinfu.github.io/posts/united-nations-general-assembly/

                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                          Most likely not, but it is extremely difficult to prove something didn't happen

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                            My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                            Oppose

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.rappler.com/nation/114816-italy-support-ph-south-china-sea-row/

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Sorin Ionita

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                              17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                              Oppose

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                              24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Hide
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