India

$2,277.4
1.393B
Ranking
55/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

96/ 376
Executive partner
Doueblethink Lab
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

23%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

31%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

29%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, India had a GDP per capita of US$2,277 and a total population of 1.393 billion people. No official figures on the Chinese population are provided.

India was ranked 150th in Reporters Without Borders' 2022 World Press Freedom Index, and Partly Free in Freedom House's 2022 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 66/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    25.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    15.6% / 34%
  • Economy
    18.2% / 33.6%
  • Society
    4.5% / 23.6%
  • Military
    30.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    50.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    20.5% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    29.5% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    35.0% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

No

Answer ( 0 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

There are no media organizations in India that belong to the World Chinese Media Network.

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

      Hide
      2.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

      No

      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      1 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      39 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      23 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      4 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      14 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      1 countries chose this answer

      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      Indian media houses or journalists are not members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that are connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

          Hide
          3.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

          Yes

          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          11 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          15 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          15 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          5 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          23 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          13 countries chose this answer

          71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          The focus of such trips has mostly been for journalists and media organizations and the numbers are not that high basesd on the huge media landscape in India with multiple regional languages. The reason for it being insignificant is that such stories haven't changed the perception of China that much in the India community.

          1. https://theprint.in/opinion/china-is-paying-foreign-journalists-including-from-india-to-report-from-beijing/154013/

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

            Hide
            4.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

            Yes

            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            3 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            37 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            16 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            2 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            10 countries chose this answer

            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            Among the Indian media organisations that have participated in the programme are the Indo-Asian News Service (IANS), Jansatta, and The Indian Express. Though the impact is insignificant due to large number of media houses in India. From 2016 at least, the foreign ministry of China has hosted at least a hundred journalists from leading news networks in Asia and Africa. The journalists have received quite significant allurements such as plush apartments, a monthly stipend worth Rs. 50,000 and free tours twice a month to different Chinese provinces. The journalists also received language classes and degrees in international relations from a Chinese University.

            1. https://www.opindia.com/2020/09/china-chinese-cmmunist-party-propaganda-indian-mainstream-media/
            2. https://theprint.in/opinion/china-is-paying-foreign-journalists-including-from-india-to-report-from-beijing/154013/

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

              Hide
              5.
              Exposure

              In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

              Yes

              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              24 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              22 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              18 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              From the report "Mapping Chinese footprints and influence operations in India" page 24 "China's aspiration to influence Indians at grassroots through local languages is not restricted to news apps that create/aggregate content in regional languages alone. China also uses the broadcast medium to push the pro-China narrative in India. The Tamil broadcast of “China Radio International" (CRI) is working on a sustained basis to actively propagate the Chinese narrative amongst India's Tamil-speaking population."

              1. https://defence.capital/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/MAPPING-CHINESE-FOOTPRINTS-AND-INFLUENCE-OPERATIONS-IN-INDIA2.pdf

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

                Hide
                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                The Tamil broadcast of “China Radio International" (CRI) is working on a sustained basis to actively propagate the Chinese narrative amongst India's Tamil-speaking population. The reach of this media is insignificant in terms of reach in Tamil Nadu.

                1. https://defence.capital/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/MAPPING-CHINESE-FOOTPRINTS-AND-INFLUENCE-OPERATIONS-IN-INDIA2.pdf
                2. https://www.1films.in/2020/04/top-tamil-tv-channels-barc-trp-ratings.html

                Supplementary Notes

                The radio and streaming services are for mostly music and other entertainment content and not media per se which has seen some major investments from Chinese companies. However, it must be noted that at the same time, India has very strict rules against ownership by foreign companies.

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

                  Hide
                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  21 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  23 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  Indian mainstream media, in recent times, has carried propaganda articles by Chinese mouthpieces to further the Chinese agenda on contentious issues. Hindustan Times, for instance, on its 13th of December, 2019 edition carried two articles by one Yuan Shenggao under the sponsorship of China Watch Daily, a Chinese government mouthpiece. The articles were titled “Decades of progress highlighted” and “Unparalleled change experienced within a space of generation". Also, there is active probing by Indian Government authorities of such articles.

                  1. https://www.opindia.com/2020/11/it-department-probe-the-hindu-hindustan-times-lro-chinese-propaganda/
                  2. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/ed-probes-media-portals-funding-from-businessman-linked-to-china-regime/articleshow/84514212.cms

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

                    Hide
                    8.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    38 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    13 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    15 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    8 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Hide
                    9.
                    Pressure

                    In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    57 countries chose this answer

                    4/ Yes

                    24 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    The Chinese embassy has made a number of public statements and related to the fact that India should stick to the One-China Policy with regards to Taiwan with regards to the National Day celebration as well as discussions around Taiwan's participation in WHO.

                    1. https://thewire.in/media/taiwan-national-day-one-china-policy
                    2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cein//eng/embassy_news/t1779206.htm

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

                      Hide
                      10.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                      Yes

                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      51 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      11 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      3 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      It was usually "The Hindu" which is run by Narasimhan Ram and under his leadership, there have been anecdotal stories of censoring views critical of the PRC government. However, after his stepping down as Editor-in-chief in 2012, such cases are not visible. However, as he is still the Chairman of the Kasturi & Sons Limited and publisher of 'The Hindu' and group publications, the underlying advertise shows the support for PRC government.

                      1. https://tfipost.com/2021/07/n-rams-love-for-china-at-its-full-romantic-glory-a-full-page-advertorial-for-ccp-centennial-celebration/

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

                        Hide
                        11.
                        Effect

                        In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                        No

                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                        More

                        Skipped

                        2 countries chose this answer

                        0/ No

                        44 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        18 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        4 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        5 countries chose this answer

                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        The re-education camps for Uygyurs in Xinjiang is not major news in India, however denial of the existence is not seen.

                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Lhakpa Kyizom

                            Hide

                            Academia

                            The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                            1.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                            More

                            0/ No

                            9 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            11 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            6 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            31 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            25 countries chose this answer

                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                            Hide
                            2.
                            Exposure

                            In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                            Yes

                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                            More

                            0/ No

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                            14 countries chose this answer

                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                            5 countries chose this answer

                            3/ Few, but significant

                            31 countries chose this answer

                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                            27 countries chose this answer

                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                            Supporting Evidence

                            The significance is hard to measure as it is not widespread but the tie ups are with some of the premier institutes in India which primarily offer Chinese language courses. At the same time, they are around 7 universities or institutes that has affiliations or had Confucius institutes, however as noted in the evidence listed below, concerns are being raised on this issue at the Ministry level.

                            1. https://www.oneindia.com/india/chinas-confucius-institutes-in-india-part-of-its-foreign-intelligence-to-infiltrate-higher-education-3190438.html
                            2. https://indianexpress.com/article/education/education-ministry-meeting-to-review-confucius-institutes-ends-with-no-decision-6541434/
                            3. https://www.sandia.gov/app/uploads/sites/148/2022/02/SAND2022-1249O.pdf

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                              Hide
                              3.
                              Exposure

                              My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              1 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              46 countries chose this answer

                              4/ Yes

                              35 countries chose this answer

                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Just after the Ministry of Education (MoE) decided to drop Chinese from its list of suggested languages for schools, in another move, the ministry has decided to hold a review of Chinese Language programmes provided by higher education institutions on August 5, 2020

                              1. https://www.indiatvnews.com/education/news-national-education-policy-mandarin-removed-foreign-languages-list-schools-can-teach-students-other-language-638951
                              2. https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/ministry-of-education-to-review-chinese-language-courses-taught-in-indian-varsities-1707868-2020-08-05

                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                Hide
                                4.
                                Exposure

                                In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                Skip

                                More

                                Skipped

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                0/ No

                                40 countries chose this answer

                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                17 countries chose this answer

                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                7 countries chose this answer

                                3/ Few, but significant

                                14 countries chose this answer

                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                2 countries chose this answer

                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                Supporting Evidence

                                The reason for skipping this question is that eventhough there are cases of Think-tanks/academia in India who have a pro-china bend but most of the information relating to that is not clear cut and work under the auspices of Sino-Indian friendship. As such, I have been able to find any direct correlation or partnership.

                                1. https://defence.capital/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/MAPPING-CHINESE-FOOTPRINTS-AND-INFLUENCE-OPERATIONS-IN-INDIA2.pdf

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                  Hide
                                  5.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Hide
                                  6.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                  No

                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  47 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  Based on my research, I have not seen any experts in India participate in the PRC talent recruitment programs.

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    However, there are few professors who are directly involved with PRC or Universities in China. B R Deepak has received prestigious awards as well and currently he is one of the board of advisors for News from China, a magazine published by embassy of PRC in India and frequently featured on major China portals and media. Link

                                    1. https://news.cgtn.com/news/3d3d514f78497a4e34457a6333566d54/index.html

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                    Hide
                                    7.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                    Skip

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    I have been unable to find information relating to direct support/paid trips eventhough the circumstantial evidence is overwhelming as outlined in the supporting links.

                                    1. https://www.sundayguardianlive.com/news/communist-chinas-influence-operations-indias-think-tanks-politicians-intellectuals-academia-media-targets
                                    2. https://zeenews.india.com/india/chinas-subversive-activities-in-india-with-think-tanks-study-centers-under-security-radar-2304475.htm
                                    3. https://frontline.thehindu.com/cover-story/article30195867.ece/amp/

                                    Supplementary Notes

                                    In the past it happened the Hindu editor N.Ram visited Tibet in 2000 and 2007 and wrote pro-China editorials and articles.

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                      Hide
                                      8.
                                      Pressure

                                      In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Chinese students are not present in India in large numbers and CSSA's are not present.

                                      1. https://www.livemint.com/education/news/where-does-india-get-foreign-students-from-1569212306082.html

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                        Hide
                                        9.
                                        Pressure

                                        In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                        Skip

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                        75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Not Found

                                        1. https://www.ndtv.com/india-news/india-foundation-cancels-visit-to-china-after-visa-denied-to-2-junior-researchers-1722005

                                        Supplementary Notes

                                        The news story above confirms the denial of Visa but it is not directly clear that it was due to what the 2 Junior researchers from India Foundation published.

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                          Hide
                                          10.
                                          Effect

                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ Yes

                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          No such information exist on PRC connected entities being involved in school or university curriculum design around East Asian History, modern politics, etc.

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                              Hide
                                              11.
                                              Effect

                                              In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                              77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              There are no such reports of such avoidance of discussion on such issues.

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                  Hide

                                                  Economy

                                                  The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                  1.
                                                  Exposure

                                                  The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  0/ No

                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  Currently, the US is the largest trading partner of India, however China is in second place.

                                                  1. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/foreign-trade/us-largest-trading-partner-of-india-during-apr-oct-govt/articleshow/88072704.cms?from=mdr

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                    Hide
                                                    2.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    77 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ Yes

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    IDA, ADB and IBRD are major creditors of India's sovereign debt.

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                        Hide
                                                        3.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                        No

                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        20 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        The US is India's largest customer for extractive industries.

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                            Hide
                                                            4.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Most critical infrastructure in India are state owned and some are public-private partnerships and there is no evidence that PRC-related entities control such infrastructures.

                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                Hide
                                                                5.
                                                                Exposure

                                                                My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                Yes

                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                More

                                                                0/ No

                                                                27 countries chose this answer

                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                55 countries chose this answer

                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                India is a member of AIIB.

                                                                1. https://www.aiib.org/en/about-aiib/governance/members-of-bank/index.html

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  6.
                                                                  Exposure

                                                                  In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  41 countries chose this answer

                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  I found no evidence of major India businesses as members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      7.
                                                                      Pressure

                                                                      My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      I found no evidence of such section but the other way around where PRC companies have been sanctioned in India.

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          8.
                                                                          Pressure

                                                                          In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                          No

                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          Skipped

                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          65 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          15 countries chose this answer

                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          There is no such evidence or report of such cases, however if you are an Indian company primarily working with the PRC, the likelihood of supporting such activities is also very less.

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              9.
                                                                              Effect

                                                                              My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              India and China have an agreement as part of the Asia-Pacific Free Trade Agreement

                                                                              1. https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/156696/adbi-dp59.pdf
                                                                              2. https://www.india-briefing.com/news/whats-going-on-with-india-china-preferential-and-free-trade-agreements-21727.html/

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                10.
                                                                                Effect

                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                India has set up SEZ's which in some ways is to compete with PRC rather than attract investments from PRC.

                                                                                1. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/policy/what-is-special-economic-zone/articleshow/1164460.cms

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  11.
                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  I found no evidence or reports of such acquisition of infrastructure or lands for failure to repay debts.

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                      Society

                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                      1.
                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      There is no evidence or reports of such groups in India.

                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                        While there are no such organisations, the Chinese Ambassador has in the past on more than one occasion used Indian newspapers and media to promote his views on why what is happening in Hong Kong is necessary. Link

                                                                                        1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cgkolkata//eng/zlgxw/t1800669.htm

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        2.
                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        There is no evidence of report of such organizations in India.

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            3.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            However, ACFTU visited India.

                                                                                            1. https://cpiml.net/liberation/2012/06/acftu-delegation-visits-aicctu-hq

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              4.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                              No

                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              UFWD is not prominent in India and India doesn't have any prominent Chinese diaspora community which holds such community events.

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                In 2015, an Indian think tank from Kolkata organsied a visit from a Chinese delegation comprising GT personnel. They were takem to Tangra, the China town in Kolkata. I was present there as I was the interpreter. The diaspora in Tangra is mainly third or fourth generation and hardly speaks Mandarin. The Chinese side did ask me to ask them if they missed the 'motherland', the answer to which was "India is the motherland". There have been some of these visits, which, while not coordinated by the UFWD, still do take place. Influence operations in India follow a different model and not the one recognised in the West/East. There is no coverage in the media of this mentioned visit. However, I was present there when the event took place. (Expert Reviewer Note)

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  I found no reports or evidence or any such engagement. "Again, such exchanges take place through individuals or through 'think tanks'. In 2015 again, China Daily had organised a visit to Maotai town in Guizhou. I was on the trip. We were expected to come back and write in national dailies or our think tanks about how the production of Maotai has lifted the people out of poverty and is a great economic development model to follow. It is a separate thing that I added bits about the pollution due to Maotai liquor production, after coming back to India. But these trips do happen, and again, there are no specific organisations from China earmarked for these for India. However, exchanges do happen." - Expert Reviewer Note

                                                                                                  1. https://www.orfonline.org/research/developing-towns-and-cities-chinas-maotai-case-study/

                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                    I found no reports or evidence linking PRC-connected entities or individuals providing support to religious communities and charities in India.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Chinese shows and movies are available in India via different distribution channels(free and paid) and also available dubbed in Hindi, however most of the shows are focused on "Martial Arts". However, whether they are supported directly by PRC is not available. With content primarily focused on "Martial Arts", its impact is insignificant in terms of changing perceptions of PRC.

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                            Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            PRC is not shown in positive light and recent shows have shown the opposite where there have been TV shows produced which show the 1962 war between India and China.

                                                                                                            1. https://www.imdb.com/title/tt13923092/

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                              In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              There is no report or evidence to show that celebrities share propaganda narratives from the PRC. Celebrities don't but academicians do. An example is how China's debt trap diplomacy is called an "Indian narrative" by some Indian academicians.

                                                                                                              1. https://www.sundayguardianlive.com/user/b-r-deepak

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                There is no evidence or reports of national or local governments publishing propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    The 1962 war, Covid-19 and the 2020 border clashes reflect that majority of citizens of Indian don't view the PRC in a positive view.

                                                                                                                    1. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/ex-armymen-stage-stir-near-chinese-embassy-against-killing-of-indian-soldiers-in-galwan-valley/articleshow/76423668.cms?from=mdr

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Sriparna Pathak

                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                      Military

                                                                                                                      The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      The PRC being a hostile neighbor to India with existing“Sino-Indian”border dispute, India imports military equipment from Russia, France, Israel , Japan. India has different programs/schemes to try to indigenize the defence production and reduce the dependence on import.

                                                                                                                      1. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/india-stops-import-of-2851-components-used-in-defence-platforms/articleshow/88564208.cms
                                                                                                                      2. https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/indias-arms-imports-down-by-33-says-sipri-report-101615806230302.html

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        India mainly exports or works with Russia in terms of military equipment. At the same time, it working more and more with the US and France(Rafales), reducing the dependence on Russia.

                                                                                                                        1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/india-russia-military-weapons-defence-ties-7795804/#:~:text=India's%20missile%20programme%20has%20been,of%20Sukhoi%20and%20MiG%20jets

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                          Skip

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                          1. https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/emerging-global-issues-the-china-india-boundary-crisis-and-its-implications/
                                                                                                                          2. https://www.forbes.com/sites/vikrammittal/2022/02/21/the--lesser-known-border-disputechina-and-india/?sh=23a1c7ae192d
                                                                                                                          3. https://thediplomat.com/2022/03/no-breakthrough-at-15th-round-of-china-india-talks/

                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                          The “Sino-Indian” border dispute implies that PRC has intentions like basing such with no breakthroughs in 15 diplomatic rounds of talks between China and India. However, this is not the traditional meaning of basing, so, it can also be No.

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            5.
                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                            In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            The PLA has provided India with satellite data on India's flood-hit regions to assist its flood relief efforts. PLA also exported 3,800 tonnes of medical supplies and over 26,000 ventilators to India in April, 2021 to help fight the surging Covid-19 pandemic in the country.

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/china-provided-india-satellite-data-on-flood-hit-regions-for-relief-efforts-says-envoy-119072600413_1.html
                                                                                                                            2. https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/faster-customs-clearance-to-medical-consignment-to-india-china-101619778048582.html
                                                                                                                            3. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/first-policy-shift-in-16-yrs-india-open-to-foreign-aid-ok-to-buying-from-china-7293052/

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              There is no PLA military deployed in India.

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  There is no such evidence or reports of such education from PRC. Before 2017, there used to be a seat for a Chinese officer in the College of Defence Management in Hyderabad, but it has now stopped.

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      On the contrary, India along with the U.S is providing peacekeeping training to some southeast Asian countries

                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-us-looking-at-training-south-east-asian-nations-in-un-peacekeeping/article33102175.ece

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                        In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        There is no such evidence or reports of such benefits from PRC. However, retired Indian officers have been regularly invited to Chinese Embassy on special occasions.

                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                            68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                            In the wake of clashes between India and the PLA along Galwan Valley, to de-escalate further conflicts, many military/intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the PLA. CBMs are in place to avoid escalation, but no collaborations. for example hotlines, BPM, Senior Commanders meetings, etc.. at the same time, the IA has started a course on Tibetiology for officers of the ranks of Capt. and Majors.

                                                                                                                                            1. https://mea.gov.in/press-releases.htm
                                                                                                                                            2. https://www.idsa.in/system/files/jds_4_4_rndas.pdf
                                                                                                                                            3. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/russia-assures-india-says-no-to-military-alliance-with-china/articleshow/81937254.cms?from=mdr

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                                              Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                              The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              At present, India has enforced bilateral extradition treaties with 48 countries and extradition arrangements with 12 countries and none with PRC. However India has a 1997 Surrender of Fugitive Offenders treaty with Hong Kong and as such there are implications on how this treaty might be applied with passing of the National Security Law in Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                              1. https://mea.gov.in/leta.htm
                                                                                                                                              2. https://idsa.in/resources/parliament/Extraditiontreatywithneighbouringcountries19.8.10
                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/law-and-crime/article/3141414/hong-kong-resident-wanted-indian-government-over
                                                                                                                                              4. https://www.orfonline.org/research/hong-kongs-national-security-law-implications-for-india/
                                                                                                                                              5. https://www.tribuneindia.com/news/punjab/ramanjit-singh-romi-most-wanted-accused-in-nabha-jail-break-to-be-extradited-from-hong-kong-411789

                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                India hasn't solely signed cooperative agreements with the PRC. However it is one of the eight member states as part of SCO. They have send a three-member team to participate in the Pabbi anti-terror 2021 exercise in Pakistan's Nowshera district from October 3 as part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) RATS framework. At the meeting, representatives of the SCO member states also approved the draft programme of cooperation for 2022-2024 to counter-terrorism, separatism and extremism.

                                                                                                                                                1. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/india-likely-to-send-three-member-team-to-scos-anti-terror-exercise-in-pakistan/articleshow/86635408.cms
                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/india-pak-china-to-participate-in-sco-joint-anti-terrorism-exercise-this-year-1782023-2021-03-22
                                                                                                                                                3. http://eng.sectsco.org/politics/20211004/786524.html
                                                                                                                                                4. https://www.globaltimes.cn/page/202109/1234029.shtml
                                                                                                                                                5. https://dppa.un.org/en/shanghai-cooperation-organization

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Although there are Chinese link cases where individuals have been arrested for fraud and illegal activities, there isn't any clear proof that those groups and individuals are part of PRC-connected gangs. There are also cased of Chinese individuals links to Hawala Racket(Money Transfer Method outside the traditional banking system).

                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.firstpost.com/india/delhi-police-busts-chinese-app-loan-fraud-eight-arrested-10515751.html
                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/chinese-man-crore-hawala-racket-multiple-companies-india-chinese-bank-link-1710612-2020-08-13

                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                    49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                    There has been cases of political espionage targeting the government of India as well as those that target the Civil Society. At the same time, the private sector is targeted as well, however the economic benefit received by PRC-connected entities through these attacks is not clear.

                                                                                                                                                    1. https://inc42.com/features/the-anatomy-of-cyberwarfare-is-india-ready-to-take-on-china/

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      There is no such reports or evidence of such cases, though there are anecdotal stories or transnational repression of Tibetans in India by the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                          My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Hikvision is the market leader in Surveillance cameras and the Chinese Government holds 41% of the company and has 35% market share in India. Moreover, It has also crawled its way to Prime Minister's “Make in India’ Initiatives. Hikvision India is named as Prama Hikvision India Pvt. Ltd and is also one of the vendors for Bharat Electronics (BEL) that works on highly sensitive and classified defense projects in India. Hikvision has allegedly also supplied solutions to Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), and the Special Protection Group (SPG), which is responsible for the security of the prime minister.

                                                                                                                                                          1. https://theprint.in/opinion/chinas-hikvision-controls-indias-surveillance-market-modi-needs-to-do-more-than-ban-apps/452014/
                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.theweek.in/news/india/2021/09/03/indian-military-under-target-by-chinese-origin-surveillance-systems.html

                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                          However, agencies are more aware of these issues currently.

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            Didn't find any proof that Indian law enforcement or either PRC police force have had any joint patrol.

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Government and local authorities detain people at the request of PRC's India based embassies. Sometimes protesters are detained without the request from the PRC to maintain the bilateral relationship.

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.aninews.in/news/national/general-news/galwan-stand-off-police-detain-protestors-from-outside-chinese-embassy20200617150609/
                                                                                                                                                                2. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/faceoff-netizens-outrage-as-delhi-police-detains-free-tibet-protesters/articleshow/84015549.cms
                                                                                                                                                                3. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/tibetans-in-india-demonstrate-against-beijing-olympics/articleshow/89342305.cms

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  India has clear policy on trade, investment, tourism, culture, education and other such people-to-people exchanges with Taiwan. However India does not have any formal diplomatic ties with Taiwan. So it could be possible to depart Taiwanese citizens to the PRC to face prosecution technically.

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/our-policy-on-taiwan-clear-consistent-india/article37817148.ece

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    11.
                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                    My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    There is no public evidence of extradition or deportation of individuals to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                        Technology

                                                                                                                                                                        The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        After China's 2017 National Intelligence Law and after the border dispute of 2020 between China and India, Chinese telecom services are considered not trustworthy.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://theprint.in/opinion/chinese-firms-left-out-of-5g-trials-in-india-but-modi-govt-played-fair-heres-how/664638/
                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/citing-national-security-govt-set-to-bar-chinese-telecom-gear/articleshow/79769475.cms

                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                        Indian intelligence agencies have been warning and reporting on threats from spyware in Chinese Android and iOS apps over the years, advising users to be cautious about data extraction and cyber espionage. The latest ban was issued by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology on the grounds that these apps were transferring the sensitive data of Indians to servers in foreign countries such as China. The official announcement further stated that the recommendations made by the intelligence agencies were backed by the National Security Council, signaling the concurrence of India’s highest security agency on the threats posed by these apps to India's internal security, and their detrimental impact on data security.

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          In 2018, the DoT had excluded companies like Huawei and ZTE from participating in trials to develop 5G use cases in India. For national security reasons, in Dec, 2020, India's National Security Directive (NSDTC) mandated service providers to purchase equipment from“trusted sources”. With immediate effect from 15th June 2021, new restrictions for providing licenses have been implemented. License shall only connect trusted products in its network and also seek permission from designated authority for up-gradation or expansion of existing Network. The action is intended to stop Chinese suppliers like Huawei and ZTE from giving Indian telecom carriers equipment for the impending 5G services.

                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://theprint.in/opinion/chinese-firms-left-out-of-5g-trials-in-india-but-modi-govt-played-fair-heres-how/664638/
                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/telecom-equipment-china-india-ban-7107663/#:~:text=%2C%E2%80%9D%20Prasad%20said.-,In%20recent%20months%2C%20India%20has%20banned%20the%20import%20of%20equipment,embedded%20in%20the%20imported%20equipment
                                                                                                                                                                          3. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/citing-national-security-govt-set-to-bar-chinese-telecom-gear/articleshow/79769475.cms

                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                            24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                            74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                            The national security concerns for India after border clash with PRC in 2020 resulted in top-down restrictions for PRC-connected entities to operate in India. Government facilitated service providers were mandated to not use Chinese equipment in their facilities.

                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/telecom-equipment-china-india-ban-7107663/#:~:text=%2C%E2%80%9D%20Prasad%20said.-,In%20recent%20months%2C%20India%20has%20banned%20the%20import%20of%20equipment,embedded%20in%20the%20imported%20equipment
                                                                                                                                                                            2. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/citing-national-security-govt-set-to-bar-chinese-telecom-gear/articleshow/79769475.cms

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Tech giants such as Tencent and Bytedance even had their popular apps such as WeChat, PubG, TikTok were removed from Indian iOS app store and android play store, specially after the border clash of 2020 with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://edition.cnn.com/2020/12/10/tech/india-china-tech-tensions-intl-hnk/index.html
                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.scmp.com/tech/tech-war/article/3167162/indias-latest-ban-chinese-apps-casts-shadow-over-mainland-tech-firms
                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.cnbc.com/2020/09/04/india-crackdown-on-chinese-tech-opens-doors-for-us-giants.html

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              India plans to impose stringent quality control measures and higher tariffs on imports from China, Calls for defending India's tech sovereignty has been issued even by the Indian armed forces, cautioning against the dangers of Chinese instant messaging apps.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Due to lack of proper Data protection laws in India, it is still adopting data collection equipment such as HikVision CCTVs. In 2019 Central government think tank criticized the local administration in Delhi for hiring the Indian arm of Chinese firm Hikvision to set up 150,000 CCTVs, saying the move could spur illegal hacking and data leaks to the Chinese government. Hikvision had presented itself as a significant Make in India partner at the 2018 IFSEC Conference — South Asia’s largest security conference — held in New Delhi. As per the 2018 annual report, the company made “major project breakthroughs in India”. It is also listed as a vendor by Bharat Electronics (BEL), which works on highly sensitive and classified defence projects for the government of India.

                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.biometricupdate.com/202106/chinese-facial-recognition-deployments-in-india-europe-prompt-warnings
                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/india-is-planning-a-huge-china-style-facial-recognition-program/articleshow/71213132.cms?from=mdr
                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.indiatoday.in/mail-today/story/installation-of-1-4-lakh-chinese-cctv-cameras-by-delhi-govt-sparks-row-1696032-2020-07-02

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

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                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                  35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                  Although India attracted Chinese investors in its“smart city" systems, It is largely insignificant with PRCs image constantly dropping among India's governing bodies and restrictions being applied.

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/ahmedabad/smart-city-state-inks-rs19k-cr-agreement-with-china/
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://zeenews.india.com/economy/indias-smart-cities-attract-chinese-investors-experts-caution-about-risk-factors-2155613.html

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  The 100 smart cities is a Government of India initiative and initially, there was a lot of investments from China, however the restrictions outlined in the two supporting evidence has reduced the impact as well as investments. MOU, pledging investment worth Rs 19000 crore to build a new smart city in Gujarat, was signed between Gujarat government and China Small and Medium Enterprise Investment Limited (CSMEI) on May 17, 2015 of Chief Minister Anandiben Patel’s tour of China.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    7.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    India has its SFMS (Structured Financial Messaging Systems). Although in 2019, State Bank of India's Shanghai branch is connected to China's National Advance Payment System (CNAPS). For an alternative to U.S SWIFT payment system, India plans to link the Central Bank of Russia's platform with a service, currently under development.

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.businesstoday.in/latest/corporate/story/sbi-becomes-1st-indian-bank-to-link-up-with-chinas-national-advance-payment-system-220315-2019-08-03
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.iftas.in/services/sfms/
                                                                                                                                                                                    3. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/foreign-trade/india-russia-china-explore-alternative-to-swift-payment-mechanism/articleshow/72048472.cms?from=mdr
                                                                                                                                                                                    4. https://financialservices.gov.in/circulars/use-sfms-sending-and-receiving-letter-credit-and-bank-guarantee-instruments

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Although PRC-connected investments in technology startups in India is huge, the geopolitical crisis in 2020 left it insignificant for the investments to make any huge impact.

                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://restofworld.org/2021/chinese-investors-lose-out-in-indian-tech-ipo-boom/
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://qz.com/india/2090203/do-indias-startups-need-chinese-vc-funding/
                                                                                                                                                                                      3. https://scroll.in/article/1010783/china-has-invested-a-lot-less-in-indian-startups-than-you-thought-it-did
                                                                                                                                                                                      4. https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/chinese-investments-in-indian-startups-trends-and-controversies/

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        India largely depends on US based social media/ messaging apps instead of China, although many other startup apps have their investments from PRC-connected entities. After 2020, many popular social media/messaging apps such as WeChat, TikTok which are based in China are banned in India.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://telecom.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/unlike-china-india-has-to-depend-on-us-social-media-apps/80922082
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://startuptalky.com/indian-companies-backed-chinese-investment/

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        After the military and economic counter-China moves, India is under the process of banning all applications (apps) of Chinese companies that fall under the purview of China’s National Intelligence Law of 2017. Indian Government focus more with home grown apps and funding for domestic app developers.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Tenzin Dalha

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          11.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                          Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                          The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          This is an example of agreements signed when Xi Jinping visited India in 2014. It has changed after 2017 and in any case it was only State to State agreements and not at the sub-national level.

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/24012/List+of+Documents+signed+during+the+State+Visit+of+Chinese+President+Xi+Jinping+to+India

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            2.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                            16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            This used to be the case before 2017, however after the 2017 Doklam military clash, this is not the case anymore.

                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.sundayguardianlive.com/news/communist-chinas-influence-operations-indias-think-tanks-politicians-intellectuals-academia-media-targets

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              With the recent border issues, even though there are many visits but the impact has been significantly reduced.

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.thehindu.com/brandhub/70-years-of-diplomatic-relations-between-china-and-india-1950-2020/article31219737.ece
                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/bjp-delegation-in-beijing-for-a-week-long-tour-of-china/articleshow/70851381.cms?from=mdr

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                I found no evidence of such trainings.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    No such reports are available. They have been donations to different foundations run by different political parties but not campaign donations.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        I found no such evidence of such links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            China or groups linked with UFWD haven't made any public statements with regards to local Indian political candidates or party. Even if they have done os, it is very discreet and no such public statement evidence exists.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Mainly the Community party of India which has made such statements.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/left-parties-congratulate-communist-party-of-china-on-its-centenary-applaud-its-governance/articleshow/84040012.cms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I haven't seen any evidence of such appointments. It is usually more in terms of invitation to visit China rather than appointments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      As shown in the evidence, Hikvision is the market leader in India and has been deployed in various capacities in India both official and private.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://theprint.in/opinion/chinas-hikvision-controls-indias-surveillance-market-modi-needs-to-do-more-than-ban-apps/452014/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        At the same time, there are associations such as the India-China Friendship Association (ICFA) and The China-India Friendship Association (CIFA) in China, which could be instrumental in influencing the choice of the controversial topic or initiating any activities in favor of the PRC, China. India-China Friendship Association Karnataka Chapter, which is very active in the organization of different functions related to India and China. Recently they planned to organize a “Seminar on Taiwan” with a controversial topic, "Interference of US imperialist in the internal affairs of the People's Republic of China" and a Chinese photographic exhibition, however, at the last minute, it got canceled.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://ipg.nic.in/LIstPFG.aspx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cein/eng/ssygd/fiveprinciple/t146472.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/karnataka/2022/aug/28/india-china-friendship-association-calls-off-seminar-after-siddaramaiah-declines-invitation-2492194.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. https://cpaffc.org.cn/index/xiehui/diquguobieyouxie_detail/id/45/lang/2.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5. https://www.facebook.com/ICFADelhi/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Some leaders of the Communist Party of India (M) aligns with the PRC based on historical connection and ideological connection. At the same time, one could find in the past, that the Indian Union Minister of State for Planning M. V. Rajasekharan has attended functions organized by ICFA, Karnataka chapter. In the guise of people-to-people diplomacy, perhaps they are executing the works of the PRC, Beijing.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.timesnownews.com/india/article/left-leaders-sitaram-yechury-d-raja-others-attend-chinese-communist-partys-centenary-event/791968

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            India has an extensive and very structured Civil Service system which is very different from the Chinese system. I haven't found any official training given to Indian civil servants from the PRC, though they are cases of Indians studying in China who may be civil servants.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.upsc.gov.in/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              There are some cases, however at the moment due to the border clashes, it has almost no impact in terms of the response from the Indian government. In the past, India had canceled the Visa of Uyghur activist Dolkun Isa in 2016.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.aninews.in/news/world/asia/china-objects-to-participation-of-indian-mps-at-tibetan-parliament-in-exile-event20211231165356/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/china-objects-to-visit-by-taiwan-mps-warns-india-to-follow-one-china-policy/story-dXglcfkhpcOrVPBueb8OwK.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/we-approached-india-on-visit-of-uyghur-activist-says-china-116042601304_1.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Technically not an exit visa denial but the border region has had issues of hostage diplomacy.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/china-pla-indian-boy-abduction-7732399/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I have not found any evidence of India denying Taiwan's right to participate, however I have also not found any support for the same.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I have not found any public official support from the Indian government towards the appointment of a PRC official.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Oppose

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.republicworld.com/india-news/politics/south-china-sea-part-of-global-commons-india.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://theprint.in/opinion/india-and-pakistan-silent-on-china-horrific-muslim-re-education-camps/113779/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              India has officially remained silent on the treatment of the Tibetan people by the PRC, however it must be understood that India has supported the Tibetans diaspora for decades in their religious, language and cultural preservation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.aninews.in/news/world/asia/china-objects-to-participation-of-indian-mps-at-tibetan-parliament-in-exile-event20211231165356/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A number of Indian MP's do take a stronger stand with regards to Tibet such as through support Tibet's independence, however the official stand of the Government is different. India has always adhered to its Non-alignment principles set in the 1950's.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/in-a-first-india-speaks-up-on-hong-kong/articleshow/76737816.cms

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                India hasn't been silent in the case of HK but not sure if the word denounced PRC is also applicable. India has raised the issue in the following words, ""We have heard several statements expressing concern on these developments. We hope the relevant parties will take into account these views and address them properly, seriously and objectively,"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by Dr. Tenzin Tsultrim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
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