Greece

$20,276.5
10.6M
Ranking
69/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

73/ 364
Executive partner
BIRN Ltd
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

26%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

0%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

18%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Greece had a GDP per capita of US$20,277 and a total estimated population of 10.66 million people. Data relating to foreigners, including Chinese citizens, living in Greece have yet to be released. Since 2013, Greece has run a Golden Visa programme and, as of January 2022, there were 19,354 Golden Visa holders.

Greece established diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China in 1972. Greece was ranked 108th in Reporters Without Borders 2021 World Press Freedom Index, and listed as Free in Freedom House’s 2021 Global Freedom Status, with a score of 87/100.

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    20.0% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    17.5% / 34%
  • Economy
    27.3% / 33.6%
  • Society
    30.6% / 23.6%
  • Military
    0.0% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    0.0% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    30.0% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    20.0% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    34.1% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Skip

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Not Found

  1. https://china.greekreporter.com/
  2. https://www.cgw.gr/

Supplementary Notes

Some online media (websites and Facebook groups) have been identified which may be Chinese media in Greece and which appear to belong to the World Chinese Media network. These include: 《希华时讯》 and 《希中网》(see URL above). However, it is not entirely clear whether these media really exist in Greece, or whether they are obscure websites based in China. For this reason, we have decided to skip this question.

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Not Found

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        3.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

        Yes

        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        11 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        15 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        15 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        5 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        23 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        13 countries chose this answer

        71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Not Found

        1. http://chinaandgreece.com/dr-tzogopoulos-a-delegate-in-the-second-brf/

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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          4.
          Exposure

          In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          3 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          37 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          16 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          2 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          14 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          Not Found

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              5.
              Exposure

              In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              1 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              24 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              22 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              7 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              18 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              10 countries chose this answer

              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              The Athens Macedonian News Agency (AMNA) has had a cooperation agreement with Xinhua since May 2016. Furthermore, in December 2017 AMNA signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the China Economic Information Service (CEIS), an affiliate of Xinhua, for the establishment of a Belt and Road Economic and Financial Information Service. One of the significant daily newspapers in Greece, Kathimerini, signed a cooperation agreement with Xinhua in April 2017. A study produced by the Institute of International Economic Relations in Athens finds that in 2020 the English edition of the newspaper carried 66 Xinhua stories on its website, i.e. one every fifth day. Xinhua content is occasionally broadcast by Greek state TV (ERT), on the basis of an MoU with China’s National Radio and Television Administration. The MoU was signed in November 2019, during President Xi’s state visit to Greece.

              1. http://media.gov.gr/symfonia-synergasias-metaksy-ton-ethnikon-praktoreion-elladas-kai-kinas-ape-mpe-kai-xinhua-ypegrafi-simera-sti-ngee/
              2. https://www.amna.gr/en/article/210631/ANA-and-Xinhua-sign-MoU-on-Belt%E2%80%94Road-Financial-Information-Partnership
              3. https://www.ekathimerini.com/economy/217828/greek-chinese-news-cooperation/
              4. https://idos.gr/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Sino-Greek-Relations_in_Media_18-3-2021.pdf

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                6.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                Yes

                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                2 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                44 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                19 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                3 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                14 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                0 countries chose this answer

                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                There is a Chinese newspaper, China Greece Times, which is owned by the Chinese community in Greece. It has a Facebook page, 《China Greece Times》(see URL below). Having said that, no Greek media outlets are owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

                1. https://www.facebook.com/China-Greece-Times-1480319618714126/

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  7.
                  Exposure

                  In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  3 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  22 countries chose this answer

                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                  21 countries chose this answer

                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                  6 countries chose this answer

                  3/ Few, but significant

                  23 countries chose this answer

                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                  7 countries chose this answer

                  79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  One of the significant daily newspapers in Greece, Kathimerini, signed a cooperation agreement with Xinhua in April 2017. A study produced by the Institute of International Economic Relations in Athens finds that in 2020 the English edition of the newspaper carried 66 Xinhua stories on its website, i.e. one every fifth day. Social media outlets have also delivered such content, such as: - the Facebook page of Greece-China Radio (see URL3 below). - the Facebook page of China Radio International(see URL4 below). or the website of CRI-Greece(see URL5 below)

                  1. https://www.ekathimerini.com/economy/217828/greek-chinese-news-cooperation/
                  2. https://idos.gr/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Sino-Greek-Relations_in_Media_18-3-2021.pdf
                  3. https://www.facebook.com/greecechinaradio
                  4. https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100068848134907&ref=aymt_homepage_panel
                  5. https://greek.cri.cn/index.htm

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                    8.
                    Exposure

                    In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                    No

                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    1 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    38 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    13 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    7 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    15 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    8 countries chose this answer

                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    Not Found

                      Supplementary Notes

                      There are no such known cases. The Greek service of China Radio International has a Facebook page with a significant following (more than 140,000 followers as of March 2021), but these are most probably Chinese followers: Link

                      1. https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100068848134907&ref=aymt_homepage_panel

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      9.
                      Pressure

                      In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      1 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      57 countries chose this answer

                      4/ Yes

                      24 countries chose this answer

                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Not Found

                        Supplementary Notes

                        No such incidents have been reported.

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          10.
                          Effect

                          In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          51 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          11 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          3 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          9 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          4 countries chose this answer

                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Not Found

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              11.
                              Effect

                              In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              44 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              18 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              4 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              9 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              5 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              Not Found

                                Supplementary Notes

                                While human rights abuses in Xinjiang are reported by the media, there is no public debate about this issue.

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                  Academia

                                  The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                                  1.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  0/ No

                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  25 countries chose this answer

                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  In July 2021, the University of the Peloponnese annouced its cooperation with the Huawei ICT Academy (see URL1 below). In December 2021, the University of Western Macedonia announced a cooperation agreement with the Huawei ICT Academy (see URL2 below). In May 2022, the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh) signed an agreement with Huawei for cooperation with the Huawei ICT Academy on the following subjects taught at AUTh: ΑΙ; ΙοΤ; Cloud Computing; Big Data; Wireless Networks; Security of IT Systems; 5G Technologies; Data Communications, Routing and Switching (see URL3 below). Again in May 2022, Huawei granted 27 Seeds for the Future scholarships to students from 8 Greek universities: The Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the National Polytechnic University, the Athens University of Economics and Business, the University of Thessaly, the University of Crete, the University of Macedonia (Thessaloniki), the University of Patras and the University of Piraeus (see URL4 below).

                                  1. https://www.epixeiro.gr/article/284363
                                  2. https://www.uowm.gr/epikairotita/deltia-typoy/synergasia-toy-panepistimioy-dytikis-makedonias-me-tin-polyethniki-etaireia-huawei/
                                  3. https://m.naftemporiki.gr/story/1860883/huawei-kai-apth-upegrapsan-mnimonio-sunergasias-gia-ti-diasundesi-tou-panepistimiou-me-tin-agora-ergasias
                                  4. https://www.uom.gr/11765-ypotrofies-se-27-spoydastes-apo-8-ellhnika-aei-sto-plaisio-toy-programmatos-ypotrofion-ths-huawei-seeds-for-the-future

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                    2.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                                    Yes

                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    0/ No

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    27 countries chose this answer

                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    There are Confucius institutes at: - the Athens University of Economics and Business, - the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, - the University of Thessaly.

                                    1. https://www.confucius.aueb.gr/
                                    2. http://confucius-institute.web.auth.gr/el/
                                    3. https://confucius.uth.gr/

                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                      3.
                                      Exposure

                                      My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                                      No

                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                      More

                                      Skipped

                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                      0/ No

                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                      4/ Yes

                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                      Supporting Evidence

                                      Not Found

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          4.
                                          Exposure

                                          In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          17 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          14 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          Not Found

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              5.
                                              Exposure

                                              In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                              Skip

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              21 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                              72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              Not Found

                                              1. https://idis.gr/chinese-studies-seminar/

                                              Supplementary Notes

                                              There have been various activities jointly organized by Greek institutions and the PRC embassy in Athens or the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) (see the URL above). While financial details have not been publicised, it seems likely that financial support has been recieved from PRC entities, but there is no evidence to back this up.

                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                Hide
                                                6.
                                                Exposure

                                                In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                                No

                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                More

                                                Skipped

                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                0/ No

                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                11 countries chose this answer

                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                5 countries chose this answer

                                                79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                Not Found

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    7.
                                                    Exposure

                                                    In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                    Yes

                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    13 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                    69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    One example, which is likely not isolated, is Mr George Tzogopoulos, founder of the China and Greece blog, and senior researcher at the Hellenic Foundation for Foreign and European Policy (ELIAMEP) was invited to the second Belt and Road Forum in Beijing in 2019 (see the URL below).

                                                    1. http://chinaandgreece.com/dr-tzogopoulos-a-delegate-in-the-second-brf/

                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                      Hide
                                                      8.
                                                      Pressure

                                                      In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                                      No

                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                      More

                                                      Skipped

                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                      0/ No

                                                      64 countries chose this answer

                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                      Not Found

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          9.
                                                          Pressure

                                                          In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              10.
                                                              Effect

                                                              In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              Skipped

                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                              0/ No

                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              Not Found

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  11.
                                                                  Effect

                                                                  In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                  77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  Not Found

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                      Economy

                                                                      The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                                      1.
                                                                      Exposure

                                                                      The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Not Found

                                                                      1. https://wits.worldbank.org/CountryProfile/en/Country/GRC/Year/2019/TradeFlow/EXPIMP/Partner/by-country#:~:text=Greece%20trade%20balance%2C%20exports%20and%20imports%20by%20country&text=In%202019%2C%20Greece%20major%20trading,Italy%2C%20Russian%20Federation%20and%20China

                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                      Greek main trading partners are in Europe. In 2019, China was not among the top export markets for Greece, and was the fifth biggest importer into the Greek market.

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        2.
                                                                        Exposure

                                                                        PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        77 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        Not Found

                                                                        1. https://www.esm.europa.eu/blog/euronomics-fresh-look-greek-debt-sustainability

                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                        Some 55% of Greece’s cumulative debt is held by the European Stability Mechanism (ESM). China is not among the major creditors of Greece.

                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                          Hide
                                                                          3.
                                                                          Exposure

                                                                          The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                                          Yes

                                                                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                          More

                                                                          0/ No

                                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                          While there are other extractive industries as well, the main products that Greece exported to China are refined petroleum and marble. Some 60 percent of all exportable raw Greek marble is absorbed by China.

                                                                          1. https://oec.world/en/profile/bilateral-country/chn/partner/grc

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide
                                                                            4.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                                            Yes

                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            A Chinese state-owned enterprise, COSCO, owns 67% of the stock of the Piraeus Port Authority (see URL1 below). In addition, State Grid, another Chinese state-owned giant, holds a 24% stake in the operator of the high-voltage electricity grid of Greece (see URL2 below). Chinese companies are also involved in power generation - specifically wind - and rolling out fast internet provision.

                                                                            1. https://www.porttechnology.org/news/cosco-increases-piraeus-stake-to-67/
                                                                            2. https://www.naftemporiki.gr/printStory/1175365
                                                                            3. https://www.reuters.com/article/greece-shenhua-group-copelouzos-idAFL8N1N83BE
                                                                            4. http://kpzg.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2017/0516/c404389-29279229.html
                                                                            5. https://carnegieendowment.org/2021/10/13/china-s-influence-in-southeastern-central-and-eastern-europe-vulnerabilities-and-resilience-in-four-countries-pub-85415

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              5.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                                              Yes

                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              27 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              55 countries chose this answer

                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              Not Found

                                                                              1. https://tvxs.gr/news/ellada/i-ellada-melos-tis-asiatikis-trapezas-ependyseon-kai-ypodomon

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                6.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    7.
                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                    My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                                                    No

                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        8.
                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                        In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                                        No

                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            9.
                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                            My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                              The EU has no FTA with China and it would not be feasible for Greece to strike a bilateral deal with China.

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                47 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                1. https://ec.europa.eu/competition/state_aid/cases/245376/245376_1659473_211_2.pdf

                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                It is still worth noting that there was an occasion in the past (2015), when the European Commission challenged some tax exemption clauses in favor of COSCO in the port of Piraeus. The money was retrieved by the Greek state (see the URL above) ; In the past, Greece has supported (along with EU countries such as Sweden and the Netherlands) loosening existing FDI screening mechanisms, but the goal of this was not specifically to make it easier for PRC capital to enter Greece, but FDI in general.

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  76 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                      Society

                                                                                                      The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                      1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegr//chn/xwdt/t208592.htm
                                                                                                      2. https://www.tellerreport.com/amp/2021-01-22-%0A---greece-china-peaceful-reunification-promotion-association-holds-online-re-election-ceremony%0A--.HkwwNCnDku.html

                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                      While there is evidence of the existance of groups such as the Greece-China Peaceful Reunification Promotion Association, there are reservations about their actual existence, i.e. whether they really exist and/or are operational beyond Chinese government outlets and propaganda.

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        2.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                                                        Skip

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                        1. http://2008.sohu.com/20080403/n256094177.shtml

                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                        While there is some evidence of such organizations having existed in the past (see URL above), it dates back to 2008 and it is in any case unclear whether they actually existed, or were a product of PRC propaganda.

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          3.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                          1. https://www.kanep-gsee.gr/nea-anakoinoseis/-/%CF%83%CF%85%CE%BD%CE%AC%CE%BD%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%83%CE%B7-%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%B3%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%82-%CF%84%CE%BF%CF%85-%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%BD%CE%B5%CF%80-%CE%BC%CE%B5-%CE%B5%CE%BA%CF%80%CF%81%CE%BF-2/

                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                          While there is no evidence of such cooperation or visists, there have been some contacts with PRC entities. There is one available media report about a visit of a delegation from Shaanxi province to the Centre for the Development of Educational Policies of the Greek Labor Confederation (KANEP-GSEE) in 2014. The Chinese delegation was comprised of “social partners and research institutions” (see URL above).

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                                            Skip

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                            1. https://chinaobservers.eu/the-chinese-golden-visa-rush-in-greece/

                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                            It should be noted that there is a growing Chinese community in Greece, not least because of the Golden Visa programme which attracts primarily Chinese citizens. It cannot be precluded that UFWD staff may be part of this community (see the URL above). One individual identified as being the supposed head of the Chines diaspora group in Greece seems to be the deputy minister of UNFW of 大关 county/云南 province, hence we have decided to skip this indicator.

                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                              In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                              33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                              1. https://www.facebook.com/people/%E9%9B%85%E5%85%B8%E4%B8%AD%E5%9B%BD%E6%96%87%E5%8C%96%E4%B8%AD%E5%BF%83-China-Cultural-Center-in-Athens/100063915798354/

                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                              However, the associations "China Cultural Center in Athens" in question may be linked to the China Cultural Centre in Athens(see the URL above).

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                6.
                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Big Chinese SOES (Huawei, COSCO, State Grid) donated masks to various state bodies and non-governmental groups in 2020: see chapter on Greece in the 2020 ETNC report (see URL1 below). In addition, COSCO operating in the sea port of Piraeus has made donations to the local community, e.g. a playground (see URL2 below).

                                                                                                                1. https://www.ifri.org/sites/default/files/atoms/files/etnc_special_report_covid-19_china_europe_2020.pdf
                                                                                                                2. https://www.olp.gr/en/news/press-releases/item/12267-ppa-s-a-cosco-shipping-creates-a-new-modern-playground-park-and-a-bike-lane-for-the-municipality-of-piraeus
                                                                                                                3. http://cn.brnn.com/n3/2020/0618/c414912-9701674.html

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                  In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                  4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                  1. http://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201905/06/WS5ccf9c26a3104842260b9fe7_3.html

                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                  While there is some evidence on the distribution of such content, such as the above-referenced film festival, the distribution of such entertainment content is very limited. As mentioned in the section on Media, there are intergovernmental agreements for the exchange of content. However, this is primarily related to the domain of news and current affairs.

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                    Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                    7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x468Vbdrc_k
                                                                                                                    2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z50YbAwO1ps
                                                                                                                    3. https://greekcitytimes.com/2022/04/01/vassilisxiros/
                                                                                                                    4. https://www.neaptolemaidas.gr/2019/11/blog-post_6353.html

                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                    While there are some very positive media reports like "Στην Κίνα υπάρχει ΕΡΤ όπου όλοι γνωρίζουν άπταιστα ελληνικά " (see URL1 above), there are also very critical ones like "Σοκάρουν οι εικόνες από τα "Στρατόπεδα Καραντίνας" στην Κίνα | 15/1/22| ΕΡΤ" (see URL2 above). A Greek diplomat, who served as the consul general in Shanghai between 2015 and 2019, has produced a film about the city(see URL3 above). There have been reports about intergovernmental discussions about Sino-Greek cooperation in film production (see URL4 above).

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                      In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                      0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                          In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                                                          Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                          54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                          The Greek state news agency AMNA and Xinhua have a cooperation agreement, which occasionally leads to joint reports or exchange of content, e.g. this artical "Το Πεκίνο θέλει να ενισχύσει περαιτέρω την συνεργασία του με τις χώρες-μέλη του ASEAN " (see URL below).

                                                                                                                          1. https://www.amna.gr/anaxinhua/article/467482/To-Pekino-thelei-na-enischusei-peraitero-tin-sunergasia-tou-me-tis-chores-meli-tou-ASEAN

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                            In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                            25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            While the answer is yes, there have been developments lately. While Greece has traditionally been among the “China-friendly” countries in the EU, the mood has changed for the worse lately, particularly after the outburst of the pandemic.

                                                                                                                            1. https://idos.gr/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/China-Image-in-Greece_9-10-2018.pdf
                                                                                                                            2. https://idos.gr/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Sino-Greek-Relations_in_Media_18-3-2021.pdf

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide

                                                                                                                              Military

                                                                                                                              The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                                                              1.
                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                              My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                              46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                  My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                      My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          4.
                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                            It would be almost impossible for a NATO member such as Greece to even consider such an option.

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                              In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                  In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                              11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                      My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://greekcitytimes.com/2017/07/28/greece-china-joint-military-exercises/
                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.ekathimerini.com/news/1158090/chinese-defense-minister-in-athens-to-promote-defence-cooperation/

                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                      Some cooperation was discussed in the mid-2010s in the area of training. There has been one case, in 2017, of one-day joint naval drills off the coast of Athens. It was deemed highly symbolic, of little practical value. Since then, military cooperation between the two countries has been nil. This may have been one of the reasons for the visit of the PRC Defence Minister to Greece in 2021. Notably, the subject of military contacts between Greece and China is not covered at length by the media.

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide

                                                                                                                                                                        Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                                                                        The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                        1.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        While an extradition treaty between the two countries was signed during Xi Jiping’s state visit to Greece in 2019, the treaty has not been ratified by the Greek parliament.

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/3037250/xi-jinping-hails-greece-deals-model-chinese-cooperation-europe
                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://chinaobservers.eu/xis-visit-to-greece-four-questions-waiting-to-be-answered/

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          2.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                          26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              3.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                                                                              Skip

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-china-beltandroad-piraeus-exclusive-idUKKBN1HR2LL

                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                              Based on the Reuters report above, it seems there are suspicions that PRC-connected gangs are active in Greece, though it has not been proven conclusively.

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                  No reported activities relating to economic espionage. In addition, Greece is not a highly advanced country in terms of technology and does not compare to some other EU member states that excel in this respect.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    5.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://blog.talosintelligence.com/2022/05/mustang-panda-targets-europe.html
                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.welivesecurity.com/2022/03/23/mustang-panda-hodur-old-tricks-new-korplug-variant/

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                    The Chinese hacker group "Mustang Panda" has attacked many countries around the world in 2022, including Greece. Mustang Panda has attacked not only governments but also NGO and other private sectors. It is not clear whether it was the Greek government or some other organization that was attacked.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                      67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                        No reports of related activities. At the same time, it should be noted that the Greek state and media do not have insights into the Chinese communities in the country.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          7.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                          51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                          1. https://www.skroutz.gr/c/688/kameres-parakolouthisis/f/917397/Wi-Fi.html
                                                                                                                                                                                          2. https://www.skroutz.gr/c/688/kameres-parakolouthisis/f/917398/exoterikou-chorou.html

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                          No reports about state services using Chinese surveillance equipment. At the same time, Chinese cameras are widely available on the market and are purchased by private customers.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                            71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                              At the same time, given that Greece targets the huge pool of outgoing Chinese tourists, such a prospect may be on the cards in the future, as is the case in Italy or Serbia.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.politico.eu/article/greek-police-arrest-activists-olympic-ceremony-disruption-beijing-tibet-protest/
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.dw.com/en/beijing-winter-games-flame-lit-in-greece-amid-protests/a-59536701

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                However, there was a couple of incidents in October 2021, ahead of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games. Several pro-Tibet activists were arrested for disrupting the flame-lighting ceremony in ancient Olympia. They all had foreign passports (see the URLs above).

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Technology

                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                          52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                          30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Until 2020, Huawei made significant inroads into the Greek telecoms market (see URL1 below). Since 2020, Huawei has been eased out of the core of 5G networks in Greece (see URL2 below). ZTE routers are widely used in Greece (see URL3 below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://technode.com/2020/12/09/how-huawei-hooked-greek-telcos/
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Huawei-crackdown/Greece-joins-anti-Huawei-camp-as-US-seals-stronger-ties
                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. https://www.skroutz.gr/c/775/adsl-modem/m/4834/ZTE.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Up to 2020, Huawei made significant inroads into the Greek telecoms market (see URL1 below). Since 2020, Huawei has been eased out of the core of 5G networks in Greece (see URL2 below).ZTE routers are widely used in Greece (see URL3 below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://technode.com/2020/12/09/how-huawei-hooked-greek-telcos/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Huawei-crackdown/Greece-joins-anti-Huawei-camp-as-US-seals-stronger-ties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://www.skroutz.gr/c/775/adsl-modem/m/4834/ZTE.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No reports about PRC companies supplying equipment or services to government, military and security services. However, Huawei or Xiami mobile phones may very well be used by staff in these services.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            While there is evidence that a Chinese company and a Greek University have signed an MoU on developing smart city technologies, there is nothing to suggest that these MoUs have actually been implemented, let alone that contracts between Greek cities and PRC entities have been signed to set up smart cities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No relevant reports. In addition, Greece would not be allowed to use CIPS due to its membership in the European banking union.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.trendingtopics.eu/greek-fintech-provider-viva-wallet-raises-80m-from-tencent-ebrd-to-expand-its-sme-centric-neobank/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  There are few other reports of PRC-connected venture capital investing in tech startups in Greece.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    During Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras’ trip to China in July 2016 and his visit to the ZTE’s R&D center, the corporation signed a Cooperation Agreement with the Greek company Forthnet for the development of a next-generation network (NGN). Pacific Century CyberWorks (PCCW Global) is a subsidiary of Hong Kong Telecom (HKT), which is active in the areas of telecommunications equipment, network management, mobile telephony and big data management. The PCCW Global has bought off the Greek start-up company Crypteia Networks, which specializes in security-as-a-service.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://www.reporter.gr/Eidhseis/Epicheirhseis/Telecommunication-Equipment-Applications/295147-Synergasia-metaxy-Forthnet-kai-ths-ZTE-ypegrafh-sthn-Kina
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.linkedin.com/company/crypteia-networks/about/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.kathimerini.gr/society/1071570/oi-dimofileis-efarmoges-tis-karantinas/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notably, in March 2020 TikTok appeared as the most “downloaded” app in Greece, but evidence as to its use is not readily available (see URL above).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              One reservation regarding this question is that twinning agreements are not always reported and their content often remains obscure.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Some 20 twinning agreements between Greek and Chinese local authorities are recorded, though the validity of these agreements is not easy to verify. Sometimes, twinning agreements between local authorities (e.g. Athens and Beijing) extend to hospitals.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://dimoschalkideon.gr/en/twinning-agreement-paves-way-cooperation-chalkida-wuhan/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://greekherald.com.au/news/athens-and-beijing-children-s-hospitals-sign-twinning-agreement/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. https://news-ta.gr/%CF%80%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%89%CE%B8%CE%B5%CE%AF-%CE%B1%CE%B4%CE%B5%CE%BB%CF%86%CE%BF%CF%80%CE%BF%CE%B9%CE%AE%CF%83%CE%B5%CE%B9%CF%82-%CE%B4%CE%AE%CE%BC%CF%89%CE%BD-%CE%BC%CE%B5-%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%82-%CE%BA/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4. https://www.ekathimerini.com/multimedia/images/257530/attica-twins-with-china-s-sichuan-region/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skip

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://kede.gr/synantisi-g-patouli-me-to-proedreio-tis-enosis-filias-tis-kinas-me-laous-xenon-choron/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No related details are reported, but it is not inconceivable that politicians, e.g. from local authorities, would avail themselves of invitations and paid-for travel to China. For instance, the president of the Greek Union of Local Authorities visited China in 2017, though it is not clear who covered his travel and accommodation expenses (see the URL above).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Greek and Chinese officials have signed two three-year Action Plans (2017-2019 and 2020-2022), the Chinese counterpart being NDRC. These plans have not made any difference and appear to be more of a political statement. The Greek coordinator for the implementation of these plans is a deputy minister of foreign affairs, with the title Deputy Minister for Economic Diplomacy and Openness In addition, in March 2022 Greece and China signed an Action Plan for cooperation in the area of tourism over a three-year period (2022-24).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://news.gtp.gr/2022/03/15/greece-china-agree-tourism-action-plan-2022-2024-period/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://global.chinadaily.com.cn/a/202203/15/WS62300190a310cdd39bc8ca92.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No media reports on such a form of cooperation.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No media reports on such links.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                No such links have been reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No such links have been reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.ekathimerini.com/economy/253464/greece-committed-to-further-strengthening-ties-with-china-says-georgiadis/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://www.tovima.gr/2021/10/27/international/mitsotakis-chinese-foreign-minister-meeting-to-expand-investment-relations-between-the-two-countries/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      For the sake of clarification, there are regularly positive statements by public officials about Sino-Greek relations and China as an economic powerhouse. Positive statements about China’s political system are rare, mostly from left-leaning politicians – and, in general, in opposition to what they see as western neoliberal domination in Europe.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No such links have been reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No such links have been reported.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                There is a Greece-China Friendship Group in parliament, bringing together 27 MPs (out of a total of 300) from all the political parties. The latest activity of this group reported on the parliament’s website relates to a meeting with a delegation from Sichuan province in October 2019 (see below URL2).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.hellenicparliament.gr/Diethneis-Drastiriotites/Diethnes-Perivallon/Omades-Filias-All/?countryId=47396220-bd10-4e34-aa16-f651cb703dca&pageNo=1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.hellenicparliament.gr/Enimerosi/Deltia-Typou/?press=cbe94ec9-8876-431f-91e7-aaed00ff3ac9.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  As an example, a member of parliament from the New Democracy party has posted on Facebook pictures from his visit to China in November 2019 at the invitation of the CCP (see beolw URL1). No further evidence of this visit is publicly available. In addition, in May 2022 there was an online meeting between the speaker of the Greek parliament and the chairman of the National People's Congress (NPC) Standing Committee (see beolw URL2). It was covered by the Greek media as well, e.g. "Τηλεδιάσκεψη Τασούλα με τον Πρόεδρο του Λαϊκού Κογκρέσου της Κίνας: «Πρέπει να λήξει άμεσα ο πόλεμος στην Ουκρανία»" (see beolw URL3).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=286527472305442&set=a.109284620029729
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/ctenglish/2018/zdtj/202205/t20220525_800295173.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3. https://www.newsbeast.gr/politiki/arthro/8640723/tilediaskepsi-tasoula-me-ton-proedro-tou-laikou-kogkresou-tis-kinas-prepei-na-lixei-amesa-o-polemos-stin-oukrania

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jun/18/greece-eu-criticism-un-china-human-rights-record

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        No related incidents reported. Having said that, in the past Greece has supported China on its human rights record. In 2017, Greece blocked the release of an EU statement on human rights abuses in China. It is not clear whether this came about under PRC pressure or was a gesture of goodwill by the then government of Greece, which was anti-western and anti-European in its stance.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                But neither has Greece supported proposals for Taiwan’s accession to WHO.Greece is firmly committed to the One-China policy and is extremely cautious not to cause any stir in relation to China’s sensitivities about Taiwan.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Support

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In 2016, Greece effectively supported PRC’s claim over the South China Sea, by dismissing the ruling of the international tribunal in The Hague. Greece was one of the three EU member states to challenge the ruling (see the URL below).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.euractiv.com/section/global-europe/news/eu-unable-to-adopt-statement-upholding-south-china-sea-ruling/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Greece has been consistently silent on Xinjiang and has abstained from statements at UN level critical of China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Greece has been consistently silent on Tibet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supplementary Notes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Greece has not distanced itself from EU statements on Honk Kong. However, on several occasions over the past few years, Greece opted for abstaining from statements critical of China on Hong Kong at UN level.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
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