Ghana

$2,445.3
31.08M
Ranking
20/ 82
Original Score

* As some Indicators can be skipped where data is unavailable, the maximum overall and Domain scores are not identical for each country. Country rankings are generated from ratios of the maximum scores and the achieved scores.

168/ 396
Executive partner
Emeka Umejei
Index Year
2022
Layer Scores

The Indicators have been classified by the stage of the influence process at which they occur. Some Indicators correspond to exposure to PRC influence, e.g. the presence of Confucius Institutes. Others test for pressure – such as visa denials to academics or journalists. Finally, some Indicators capture the effect of PRC influence, such as national policy changes in favor of PRC interests.
The individual Layer scores for each country are tallied and displayed via rankings.

Exposure

53%

Exposure assesses the conditions that make the target country vulnerable to PRC's influence, e.g. in terms of economic dependence, or the receiving of some form of benefit.

Pressure

19%

Pressure measures the actions that the PRC directly or indirectly exerts over the target country in order to change the behavior of people in the target country, e.g. in terms of threatening economic punishment to provoke/prevent a political decision.

Effect

31%

Effect evaluates the degree of accommodations the target country makes to the PRC, and the actual effects and impacts on the target country.

In 2021, Ghana had a GDP per capita of US$2,445, and a total population of 31.08 million people (World Bank, 2020). China established diplomatic relations with Ghana in 1960.

Ghana established diplomatic relations with the PRC in 1960. Ghana was ranked 60/180 in Reporters without Border’s 2022 World Press Freedom index and ranked Free in Freedom Status in Freedom House’s 2022 Global Freedom Status with a score of 80/100

Domain Scores
Country Percentage
Index Average

Percentage scores do not suggest some degree out of a “completely influenced” level of 100%. The percentages express the country’s score out of the total achievable amount based on the Indicators for each Domain.

  • Media
    54.5% / 30.1%
  • Academia
    34.1% / 34%
  • Economy
    27.3% / 33.6%
  • Society
    36.4% / 23.6%
  • Military
    45.5% / 23.4%
  • Law Enforcement
    29.5% / 30.2%
  • Technology
    59.1% / 40.8%
  • Domestic Politics
    38.6% / 37.2%
  • Foreign Policy
    56.8% / 41%

Media

The Media Domain evaluates how PRC entities influence public debate and media coverage about the PRC in the Index country.

1.
Exposure

In my country, there are media organizations that belong to the World Chinese Media (世界华文媒体) network.

Yes

Answer ( 3 / 4 )

More

Skipped

2 countries chose this answer

0/ No

42 countries chose this answer

1/ Few, but insignificant

19 countries chose this answer

2/ More than a few, but insignificant

4 countries chose this answer

3/ Few, but significant

13 countries chose this answer

4/ More than a few, and significant

2 countries chose this answer

80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

Supporting Evidence

Though imax claims to be a fully Ghanaian owned business, it has an affiliation with StarTimes which is a Chinese-owned media company.

  1. https://medium.com/@eolander/chinas-startimes-is-now-one-of-africa-s-most-important-media-companies-103843ebc376

    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

    Hide
    2.
    Exposure

    In my country, there are journalists or media organizations which are members of the Belt and Road Media Cooperation Alliance/Union, the Belt and Road News Alliance, or other Belt and Road media networks that connected to PRC (e.g. Belt and Road Media Community, Belt and Road Journalists Network, Belt and Road News Network, or B&R TV Networks).

    No

    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

    More

    Skipped

    1 countries chose this answer

    0/ No

    39 countries chose this answer

    1/ Few, but insignificant

    23 countries chose this answer

    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

    4 countries chose this answer

    3/ Few, but significant

    14 countries chose this answer

    4/ More than a few, and significant

    1 countries chose this answer

    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

    Supporting Evidence

    Even though Ghanaian journalists have attended media exchanges programme in China, there is no evidence they are members of the Belt and Road news alliance. There is also no Ghanaian media organisation on the Belt and Road News Network or Belt and Road News Alliance.

    1. http://en.brnn.com/n3/2019/0425/c415308-9571930.html

      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

      Hide
      3.
      Exposure

      In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have attended all-expenses paid media tours in PRC.

      Yes

      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

      More

      Skipped

      11 countries chose this answer

      0/ No

      15 countries chose this answer

      1/ Few, but insignificant

      15 countries chose this answer

      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

      5 countries chose this answer

      3/ Few, but significant

      23 countries chose this answer

      4/ More than a few, and significant

      13 countries chose this answer

      71 countries answered this indicator; 11 countries skipped this indicator

      Supporting Evidence

      I found that local journalists were in china mostly for training and not media tours. The reference however mentions that the major activities of the training included lecturers, workshops, study tour and excursions

      1. http://www.faapa.info/en/2018/09/24/ghana-and-china-media-professionals-urged-to-collaborate/
      2. https://ghanaguardian.com/ghanaian-journalists-sharpen-their-skills-in-china

        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

        Hide
        4.
        Exposure

        In my country, there are journalists, media organizations or online influencers who have received trainings from PRC state-owned media or PRC-connected entities.

        Yes

        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

        More

        Skipped

        3 countries chose this answer

        0/ No

        37 countries chose this answer

        1/ Few, but insignificant

        16 countries chose this answer

        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

        2 countries chose this answer

        3/ Few, but significant

        14 countries chose this answer

        4/ More than a few, and significant

        10 countries chose this answer

        79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

        Supporting Evidence

        Several Ghanaian journalists have received training organised by PRC-connected entities such as Huawei, the Research and Training Institute (RTI) of National Radio and TV Administration (NRTA), etc.

        1. https://dailyguidenetwork.com/journalists-undergo-training-in-china/
        2. https://citinewsroom.com/2021/05/huawei-day-with-media-chinese-tech-giant-shares-plans-with-ghanaian-journalists/

          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

          Hide
          5.
          Exposure

          In my country, PRC state-media (including print, radio, and video) is broadcasted or distributed in a local language.

          No

          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

          More

          Skipped

          1 countries chose this answer

          0/ No

          24 countries chose this answer

          1/ Few, but insignificant

          22 countries chose this answer

          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

          7 countries chose this answer

          3/ Few, but significant

          18 countries chose this answer

          4/ More than a few, and significant

          10 countries chose this answer

          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

          Supporting Evidence

          media houses in Ghana that use a local Ghanaian language are not known to have any affiliations with Chinese state media. However, StarTimes, which is not a state-media but is closely linked to the Chinese Communist party (CCP) has just begun a new programme that is broadcast in local Twi language in Ghana.

          1. http://www.faapa.info/blog/startimes-to-start-showing-journey-to-the-west-in-twi/

            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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            6.
            Exposure

            In my country, there are local media outlets wholly or partly owned by PRC citizens or corporations.

            No

            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

            More

            Skipped

            2 countries chose this answer

            0/ No

            44 countries chose this answer

            1/ Few, but insignificant

            19 countries chose this answer

            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

            3 countries chose this answer

            3/ Few, but significant

            14 countries chose this answer

            4/ More than a few, and significant

            0 countries chose this answer

            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

            Supporting Evidence

            The interview revealed that several print media houses (Finder, Ghanaian Times, Business Times, Daily Graphic) have a very close partnership with China, its not known if they are owned by China in any way

            1. https://freedomhouse.org/country/ghana/beijings-global-media-influence/2022

              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

              Hide
              7.
              Exposure

              In my country, there are media outlets that have delivered cheap or free contents provided by PRC state-fund media.

              Yes

              Answer ( 3 / 4 )

              More

              Skipped

              3 countries chose this answer

              0/ No

              22 countries chose this answer

              1/ Few, but insignificant

              21 countries chose this answer

              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

              6 countries chose this answer

              3/ Few, but significant

              23 countries chose this answer

              4/ More than a few, and significant

              7 countries chose this answer

              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

              Supporting Evidence

              Interview with local Ghana media organisations such as The Finder newspaper, Ghanaian Times, Business Times, and Daily Graphic revealed that they enjoy a working relationship with the Local Chinese Embassy and publish their content from time to time.

              1. https://freedomhouse.org/country/ghana/beijings-global-media-influence/2022
              2. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegh//eng/sgxw/t1418945.htm

                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                Hide
                8.
                Exposure

                In my country, there are regular PRC state-media or government advertisements inserted within local newspapers, online news websites or social media.

                Yes

                Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                More

                Skipped

                1 countries chose this answer

                0/ No

                38 countries chose this answer

                1/ Few, but insignificant

                13 countries chose this answer

                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                7 countries chose this answer

                3/ Few, but significant

                15 countries chose this answer

                4/ More than a few, and significant

                8 countries chose this answer

                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                Supporting Evidence

                It was clearly revealed in the interview that a few mentioned Ghanaian news media organizations such as the Finer newspaper, the Ghanaian Times, Financial and Business Times, daily Graphics, agency do place advertisement sent to them by the Chinese representation in Ghana

                1. https://freedomhouse.org/country/ghana/beijings-global-media-influence/2022

                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                  Hide
                  9.
                  Pressure

                  In my country, there are journalists who have had pressure exerted on them by the PRC, including (but not limited to) public denouncement, revocation of journalist ID, denial of visa.

                  Yes

                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                  More

                  Skipped

                  1 countries chose this answer

                  0/ No

                  57 countries chose this answer

                  4/ Yes

                  24 countries chose this answer

                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                  Supporting Evidence

                  The local Chinese Embassy in Ghana once criticised the Ghanaian media for their reporting on the involvement of Chinese national nationals in illegal mining of Gold in the country

                  1. https://citifmonline.com/2017/04/chinese-mission-angry-over-galamsey-reportage-calls-for-fairness/#sthash.zK07RwyE.dpuf

                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                    Hide
                    10.
                    Effect

                    In my country, there are incidents of media outlets censoring views critical of the PRC government.

                    Yes

                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                    More

                    Skipped

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    0/ No

                    51 countries chose this answer

                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                    11 countries chose this answer

                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                    3 countries chose this answer

                    3/ Few, but significant

                    9 countries chose this answer

                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                    4 countries chose this answer

                    78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                    Supporting Evidence

                    The lecturer interviewed mentioned that he had spoken to a Ghanaian journalist who was extremely pro china and added that some media outlets with partnership with China will hardly publish anything that will be critical of the Chinese government. This is especially the case for the Finder newspaper which has an exclusive media content partnership with Xinhua news agency.

                    1. https://freedomhouse.org/country/ghana/beijings-global-media-influence/2022

                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                      Hide
                      11.
                      Effect

                      In my country, there are media personalities (including reporters, journalists or commentators) or celebrities who deny the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC (e.g. a media personality that doubts there are re-education camps for Uyghurs in Xinjiang).

                      No

                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                      More

                      Skipped

                      2 countries chose this answer

                      0/ No

                      44 countries chose this answer

                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                      18 countries chose this answer

                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                      4 countries chose this answer

                      3/ Few, but significant

                      9 countries chose this answer

                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                      5 countries chose this answer

                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                      Supporting Evidence

                      Rather than denying the existence of human rights abuses in the PRC especially in the Xinjiang region, African personalities perceived it as an internal affair of China.

                      1. https://www.persecution.org/2021/04/20/african-leaders-ignore-chinas-religious-freedom-violations/

                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                        Hide

                        Academia

                        The Academia Domain measures how the PRC state attempts to restrict academic freedom by influencing or interfering with the Index country’s academic and educational activities.

                        1.
                        Exposure

                        In my country, universities have established research partnerships with PRC-connected entities. (e.g. Huawei, Tencent or Alibaba)

                        Yes

                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                        More

                        0/ No

                        9 countries chose this answer

                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                        11 countries chose this answer

                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                        6 countries chose this answer

                        3/ Few, but significant

                        31 countries chose this answer

                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                        25 countries chose this answer

                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                        Supporting Evidence

                        Other private universities have also signed MoUs with PRC-connected entities are Pentecost University, UMAT and Kumasi Polytechnic

                        1. https://ucc.edu.gh/news/chinese-university-partners-five-ghanaian-universities-establish-centre-west-african-studies
                        2. https://www.ug.edu.gh/news/university-ghana-and-tianjin-university-traditional-chinese
                        3. https://www.uhas.edu.gh/en/public/news/uhas-signs-mou-with-shantou-university-medical-college.html

                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                          Hide
                          2.
                          Exposure

                          In my country, there are Confucius Institutes/Classrooms.

                          Yes

                          Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                          More

                          0/ No

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                          14 countries chose this answer

                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                          5 countries chose this answer

                          3/ Few, but significant

                          31 countries chose this answer

                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                          27 countries chose this answer

                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                          Hide
                          3.
                          Exposure

                          My country plans to include, or does include, Chinese as a foreign language in K12 or primary education, and receives free or subsidized (e.g. offered below market price) educational books and teachers from PRC.

                          No

                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                          More

                          Skipped

                          1 countries chose this answer

                          0/ No

                          46 countries chose this answer

                          4/ Yes

                          35 countries chose this answer

                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                          Supporting Evidence

                          Though some government institutions are teaching Chinese language, there is no evidence or data to confirm if its going to be integrated into educational curriculum

                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                              Hide
                              4.
                              Exposure

                              In my country, one or more think tanks and academic research centers belong to PRC-affiliated networks/associations (such as: the Silk Road Think Tank Association, Silk Road Think Tank Network [SiLKS], Belt and Road Studies Network, University Alliance of the Silk Road, University Consortium of the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road).

                              No

                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                              More

                              Skipped

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              0/ No

                              40 countries chose this answer

                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                              17 countries chose this answer

                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                              7 countries chose this answer

                              3/ Few, but significant

                              14 countries chose this answer

                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                              2 countries chose this answer

                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                              Supporting Evidence

                              it has been established that some institutes of higher learning in Ghana has reseach partnerships with Chinese institutions but there's no evidence of ownership

                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                  Hide
                                  5.
                                  Exposure

                                  In my country, think tanks and academic research centers have received financial support from PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                  Yes

                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                  More

                                  Skipped

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  0/ No

                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                  11 countries chose this answer

                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                  10 countries chose this answer

                                  72 countries answered this indicator; 10 countries skipped this indicator

                                  Supporting Evidence

                                  The University of Health and Allied Sciences (UHAS) has a research partnership with a Chinese institution and that could be be a factor in the donation received from china

                                  1. https://www.graphic.com.gh/news/education/ghananews-china-gives-60m-for-uhas-project.html

                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                    Hide
                                    6.
                                    Exposure

                                    In my country, experts participate in PRC talent recruitment programs such as the Thousand Talents Program or Changjiang Scholars program.

                                    No

                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                    More

                                    Skipped

                                    3 countries chose this answer

                                    0/ No

                                    47 countries chose this answer

                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                    79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                    Supporting Evidence

                                    no data/ evidence to verify this

                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                        Hide
                                        7.
                                        Exposure

                                        In my country, scholars have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                        Yes

                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                        More

                                        Skipped

                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                        0/ No

                                        17 countries chose this answer

                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                        15 countries chose this answer

                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                        69 countries answered this indicator; 13 countries skipped this indicator

                                        Supporting Evidence

                                        Faculty exchange was identified in all educational institutions with MoUs with Chinese universities and research centers

                                        1. http://www.ug.edu.gh/confucius-institute/ch/%E5%AD%94%E9%99%A2%E6%96%B0%E9%97%BB/china-ghana-educational-cooperation-and-exchange

                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                          Hide
                                          8.
                                          Pressure

                                          In my country, organized PRC-connected student groups, such as Chinese Students and Scholars Associations (CSSAs), are involved in attempts to censor staff or students (e.g. by harassing students protesting human rights abuses in the PRC, or formally complaining about the identification of Taiwan as a country in lecture slides).

                                          No

                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                          More

                                          Skipped

                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                          0/ No

                                          64 countries chose this answer

                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                          3 countries chose this answer

                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                          Supporting Evidence

                                          no data/ evidence to verify this

                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                              Hide
                                              9.
                                              Pressure

                                              In my country, scholars or academics have been denied visas to travel to the PRC after expressing opinions or producing scholarship that is critical of the PRC.

                                              No

                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                              More

                                              Skipped

                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                              0/ No

                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                              6 countries chose this answer

                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                              75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                              Supporting Evidence

                                              no data/ evidence to verify this

                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                  Hide
                                                  10.
                                                  Effect

                                                  In my country, PRC-connected entities have been involved in school or university curriculum design, such as courses about East Asian history, modern politics, etc.

                                                  No

                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                  More

                                                  Skipped

                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                  0/ No

                                                  64 countries chose this answer

                                                  4/ Yes

                                                  16 countries chose this answer

                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                  The University of Ghana has a center for Asian Studies that will likely have a course on Asian History, however this cannot be considered as curriculum design by prc entities

                                                  1. https://coh.ug.edu.gh/centre-asian-studies

                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                    Hide
                                                    11.
                                                    Effect

                                                    In my country, there are confirmed reports of teachers or professors avoiding the discussion of sensitive political issues (e.g. Uyghur re-education camps, Taiwan independence, Tiananmen Square Massacre).

                                                    No

                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                    More

                                                    Skipped

                                                    5 countries chose this answer

                                                    0/ No

                                                    65 countries chose this answer

                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                    77 countries answered this indicator; 5 countries skipped this indicator

                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                    no data was found to support this indicator

                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                        Hide

                                                        Economy

                                                        The Economy Domain measures the PRC’s economic leverage in the Index country, and how this is used to influence economic policy or corporate behavior in ways that favor the PRC.

                                                        1.
                                                        Exposure

                                                        The PRC is my country's number one trading partner (for trade in goods only).

                                                        Yes

                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                        More

                                                        0/ No

                                                        51 countries chose this answer

                                                        4/ Yes

                                                        31 countries chose this answer

                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                        Not Found

                                                        1. https://wits.worldbank.org/CountrySnapshot/en/GHA
                                                        2. https://tradingeconomics.com/ghana/imports-by-country

                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                          Hide
                                                          2.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          PRC-connected entities own more than 50% of my country’s sovereign debt.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          Skipped

                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                          0/ No

                                                          77 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          4 countries chose this answer

                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Hide
                                                          3.
                                                          Exposure

                                                          The PRC is the top customer for my country’s extractive industries.

                                                          No

                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                          More

                                                          0/ No

                                                          62 countries chose this answer

                                                          4/ Yes

                                                          20 countries chose this answer

                                                          82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                          Not Found

                                                          1. https://media.africaportal.org/documents/Ghana.pdf
                                                          2. https://www.africanews.com/2017/06/29/ghana-signs-10b-bauxite-deal-with-china//

                                                          Supplementary Notes

                                                          Page 12 downwards of the first reference shows low amount of minerals exported to china, however, the bauxite deal is also quite significant

                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                            Hide
                                                            4.
                                                            Exposure

                                                            In my country, PRC-related entities own, operate or substantially control critical infrastructure (e.g. ports, power plants, digital data centers, etc) or sensitive sectors (biotech, raw materials, etc.)

                                                            No

                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                            More

                                                            0/ No

                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                            4/ Yes

                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                            Page 6 indicates some Chinese investment in the manufacturing sector in Ghana which is not in the critical or sensitive category. No Chinese affiliated data center was found

                                                            1. https://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/p15738coll2/id/131119/filename/131330.pdf
                                                            2. https://www.songhaiadvisory.com/blog/2021/9/1/ghanas-digital-economy-amp-the-impact-of-data-centres

                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                              Hide
                                                              5.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              My country joined (or applied to join) the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).

                                                              Yes

                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              27 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              55 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Hide
                                                              6.
                                                              Exposure

                                                              In my country, major businesses are members of the Silk Road Chamber of International Commerce, or of the Belt and Road Industrial and Commercial Alliance, or of the Belt and Road General Chamber of Commerce.

                                                              Yes

                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              41 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Hide
                                                              7.
                                                              Pressure

                                                              My country has been the target of PRC economic coercion (e.g. trade or investment sanctions) that was specifically tailored at products or services that are highly dependent on the PRC market.

                                                              No

                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                              More

                                                              0/ No

                                                              64 countries chose this answer

                                                              4/ Yes

                                                              18 countries chose this answer

                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                              there's no data to support this indicator

                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                  Hide
                                                                  8.
                                                                  Pressure

                                                                  In my country, local businesses have been harassed, threatened, or boycotted, due to their activities or statements in support of causes deemed unacceptable by the PRC government (e.g. Taiwanese independence, Hong Kong democracy, Tibet or Xinjiang issues, etc).

                                                                  No

                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                  More

                                                                  Skipped

                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                  0/ No

                                                                  65 countries chose this answer

                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                  15 countries chose this answer

                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                  there's no data to support this indicator

                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      9.
                                                                      Effect

                                                                      My country has free-trade agreement(s) with the PRC (either bilateral or as part of regional agreement(s)) that primarily deals with trade in goods or services, including digital goods or services.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      31 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Hide
                                                                      10.
                                                                      Effect

                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have relaxed or removed regulatory restrictions, or have established special economic zones (or free trade zones, industrial parks, etc.) to attract investments or economic participation from the PRC.

                                                                      No

                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                      More

                                                                      0/ No

                                                                      47 countries chose this answer

                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                      Ghana may have at some point have a SEZ to attract PRC investors but current studies does not confirm that

                                                                      1. https://sci-hub.se/https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022278X10000649

                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                        Hide
                                                                        11.
                                                                        Effect

                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected entities requisitioned infrastructure or land for failure to repay debts in a timely manner.

                                                                        No

                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                        More

                                                                        Skipped

                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                        0/ No

                                                                        76 countries chose this answer

                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                        4 countries chose this answer

                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                        there's no data to support this indicator

                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                            Hide

                                                                            Society

                                                                            The Society Domain measures the extent and effectiveness of the PRC’s efforts to advance its soft power in the Index country, including its influence over the actions and views of local organizations and citizens.

                                                                            1.
                                                                            Exposure

                                                                            In my country, there are local groups or organizations with words like “Promotion of Peaceful Reunification” in their name, and they regularly publicize their views on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang issues.

                                                                            No

                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                            More

                                                                            Skipped

                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                            0/ No

                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                            Not Found

                                                                            1. http://gh.china-embassy.gov.cn/eng/sgxw/200702/t20070213_6137545.htm

                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                              Hide
                                                                              2.
                                                                              Exposure

                                                                              In my country, there are members and member organizations of United World Chinese Association (世界华人协会).

                                                                              No

                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                              More

                                                                              Skipped

                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                              0/ No

                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                              The United Chinese World Association has presence in Africa but there is no evidence of African countries on its membership.

                                                                              1. http://www.uwca.net/member.html

                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                Hide
                                                                                3.
                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                In my country, labor unions cooperate on exchanges or official visits to the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) in the PRC.

                                                                                No

                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                More

                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                The reports on the ACFTU seminar for African Trade Unions does not specify representattives of the Ghana Trade Union were present

                                                                                1. https://oatuu.org/2019/11/20/acftu-oatuu-china-africa-trade-union-leaders-seminar-field-visit-in-beijing/

                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                  4.
                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                  In my country, there are local reports of personnel linked to the UFWD who make appearances at Chinese diaspora community events and activities (e.g. Lunar New Year events, Dragon Boat festival tournaments, etc).

                                                                                  No

                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                  More

                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                  50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                  9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                  7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                  No UFWD associated report was found on local Ghanaian news sites

                                                                                  1. https://allafrica.com/stories/201702010906.html
                                                                                  2. http://www.ug.edu.gh/confucius-institute/news/celebration-2018-chinese-new-year-confucius-institute-university-ghana-0

                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    5.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, there are PRC-connected professional associations that are closely engaged with their counterparts locally, such as All-China Journalists Association (中华全国新闻工作者协会), China Artists Association (中国艺术家协会), China Writers Association (中国作家协会) or All-China Women Federation (全国妇联).

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    33 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    6.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, PRC-connected individuals or entities donate money or provide other types of support to religious communities and charities.

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                    35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                    7.
                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                    In my country, the PRC government or PRC-connected entities distribute entertainment products (including: drama and TV shows) or related hardwares (e.g. OTT streaming players hosting PRC media channels) freely or at a cheap price.

                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                    Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                    More

                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                    38 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                    21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                    4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                    StarTimes is a major player in the Ghana media sector distributing entertainment products to homes at a cheaper price than the competition

                                                                                    1. https://yen.com.gh/108040-startimes-channels-prices-ghana-2022.html

                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                      8.
                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                      Cultural products (such as films and TV shows) produced by my country’s production studios typically portray the PRC in a positive light.

                                                                                      No

                                                                                      Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                      More

                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                      60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                      15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                      75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                      Kalybos in China could have offered some insight ino this indicator but there isnt much infoemation about the movie

                                                                                      1. https://www.myjoyonline.com/when-stephen-amoah-enacted-kung-fu-moves-while-announcing-introduction-of-ghana-chinese-in-kumawood-movies/

                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                        9.
                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                        In my country, celebrities regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC.

                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                        Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                        More

                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                        67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                        10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                        0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                        3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                        Not Found

                                                                                        1. https://news.cgtn.com/news/3d3d774d3041544f79457a6333566d54/index.html

                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          10.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, the national or local governments regularly publish or share propaganda narratives from the PRC (e.g. statements from the PRC government or embassies).

                                                                                          Yes

                                                                                          Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          54 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                          12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                          5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                          11.
                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                          In my country, a majority of citizens have positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                          No

                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                          More

                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                          50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                          25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                          75 countries answered this indicator; 7 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                          The average Ghanaian has no 'interest' in th PRC government per se but generally have a negative view of the Chinese presence in Ghana and their government's engagement with the Chinese government and its effect on them. According to the Afrobarometer report, though views are generally low and mixed, some aspects have improved over the years

                                                                                          1. https://afrobarometer.org/sites/default/files/africa-china_relations-3sept20.pdf
                                                                                          2. https://chinadialogue.net/en/business/6005-special-report-china-s-image-crisis-in-ghana/
                                                                                          3. https://digitalcollections.sit.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3925&context=isp_collection

                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                            Hide

                                                                                            Military

                                                                                            The Military Domain gauges the bilateral military relationship between the PRC and the Index country, including PRC efforts to influence local military personnel.

                                                                                            1.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            My country currently imports (or receives in-kind donation of) military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment from the PRC.

                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                            2.
                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                            My country currently exports military or law-enforcement equipment or components of equipment to the PRC.

                                                                                            No

                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                            More

                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                            74 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                            I think this should be the other way round as Ghana does not produce military wares of any kind; it is dependent on import for its military wares

                                                                                            1. https://www.piie.com/blogs/realtime-economic-issues-watch/arms-and-influence-chinese-arms-transfers-africa-context

                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                              3.
                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                              My country co-develops or co-produces military or law-enforcement equipment with the PRC.

                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                              More

                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                              66 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                              81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                              The donated items indicated in the first reference were office supplies to the Interpol division of the Ghana Police Service but it can be noted that a proposed training programs for the personnel in the sevice was mentioned

                                                                                              1. http://gh.china-embassy.org/eng/sgxw/201601/t20160122_6142928.htm
                                                                                              2. https://allafrica.com/stories/201610280968.html

                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                4.
                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                In my country, there are reports that the PRC has expressed intentions or has taken actions to establish basing.

                                                                                                No

                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                More

                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                Ghana has not been indicated as a potential candidate for a chinese military base

                                                                                                1. https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics/International-relations/Indo-Pacific/China-has-multiple-military-basing-options-in-Africa-analysts-say
                                                                                                2. https://www.defense.gov/News/News-Stories/Article/Article/2969935/general-says-china-is-seeking-a-naval-base-in-west-africa/

                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                  5.
                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                  In my country, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) has participated in a humanitarian relief/disaster assistance (HADR) effort.

                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                  19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                  The PRC has participated in humanitarian relief both physically and through donation of cash.

                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                      In my country, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) military personnel are permanently or rotationally deployed (excluding defense attaches and peacekeepers).

                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                      77 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                      Even if there is no Chinese military base in Ghana, the local Chinese embassy has a permanent defence attaché

                                                                                                      1. https://newsghana.com.gh/94th-anniversary-of-the-founding-of-the-chinese-peoples-liberation-army-building-a-community-with-a-shared-future-for-mankind/
                                                                                                      2. https://dailyguidenetwork.com/chinese-embassy-presents-ppe-to-defence-press-corps/

                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                        In my country, members of the military have received professional military education from the PRC.

                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                        48 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                        34 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                        'In terms of a $7.5 million grant facility agreement signed in July this year, 28 Ghanaian military officers will be sent to China to study subjects that include security and defence. In August 15 Ghanaian officers went to China for military training, on courses ranging from three months to one year'.

                                                                                                        1. https://www.defenceweb.co.za/sea/sea-sea/ghana-commissions-chinese-patrol-boats/

                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                          8.
                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                          In my country, members of the military have received peacekeeping training from the PRC.

                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                          2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                          67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                          80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                          While there is no data to support that China has trained Ghanaian military officials in peacekeeping, there are indications that this could have formed part of the military exchanges between both countries.

                                                                                                          1. http://english.chinamil.com.cn/view/2022-05/20/content_10156858.htm

                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                            9.
                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                            In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officers have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public service.

                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                            4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                            67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                            78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                            no data was found to support this indicator

                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                Effect

                                                                                                                In my country, high-ranking retired or current military and/or intelligence officials advocate for more coordination with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).

                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                1. https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Chinese-may-rule-over-Ghana-one-day-Retired-military-officer-warns-1278460

                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                  My country cooperates with the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) on military exchange exercises, including drills and war games.

                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                  51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                  31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                  evidence of military to military cooperation is overwhelming

                                                                                                                  1. https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2019/642232/EPRS_BRI(2019)642232_EN.pdf
                                                                                                                  2. http://eng.chinamil.com.cn/view/2018-06/06/content_8053858.htm
                                                                                                                  3. https://allafrica.com/stories/199806180168.html

                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                    Hide

                                                                                                                    Law Enforcement

                                                                                                                    The Law Enforcement Domain measures law enforcement cooperation between the PRC and the Index country, as well as the nature and extent of PRC-related criminal activity in the Index country.

                                                                                                                    1.
                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                    My country currently maintains an extradition treaty, legal mutual assistance or other similar arrangements with the PRC.

                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    4/ Yes

                                                                                                                    50 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                    82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                    An extradition treaty was signed between Ghana and China in 2018.

                                                                                                                    1. https://thefinderonline.com/news/item/14172-ghana-china-ties-on-new-path

                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                      In my country, law enforcement authorities have signed cooperation agreements with the PRC on combatting terrorism.

                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                      55 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                      26 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                      In the Page 4 of the referenced article states that China’s growing involvement in Africa’s security has led some African countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Sudan, and Ethiopia, among others, to extend invitations to China to help with their security-related issues, including building the capacity of their military and police, provision of equipment and joint counter-piracy operations, and intelligence sharing in the fight against terrorist groups.

                                                                                                                      1. https://sci-hub.se/https://doi.org/10.1142/S2377740017500257

                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                        3.
                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                        In my country, PRC-connected gangs (such as Triad, 三合会) are known to be operating in my country.

                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                        52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                        29 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                        No data was found to support this indicator

                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                            4.
                                                                                                                            Pressure

                                                                                                                            In my country, there are reports of economic espionage targeting the private sector that were suspected to benefit PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                            Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                            2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                            49 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                            9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                            80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                            The evidence might not be a strong indication of this happening in Ghana

                                                                                                                            1. https://www.seafoodsource.com/news/environment-sustainability/report-finds-concealed-chinese-companies-denying-ghana-fishing-revenues

                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                              5.
                                                                                                                              Pressure

                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of cyber attacks targeting government, critical infrastructure, or enterprises that were suspected to be initiated from the PRC.

                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                              37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                              14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                              15 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                              There has been attempted hacking on the government of ghana website but its origin is unknown

                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                  6.
                                                                                                                                  Pressure

                                                                                                                                  In my country, triads are known to have threatened or used violence to coerce, intimidate or punish Chinese dissidents.

                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                  67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                  2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                  80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                  No data was found to support this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                      7.
                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                      My country has deployed video or internet surveillance systems from the PRC for law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                      51 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                      1. https://allafrica.com/stories/202111040537.html

                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                        8.
                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                        In my country, representatives of the PRC police force have had joint patrols with local law enforcement.

                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                        71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                        82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                        There has been joint patrol between the Ghanaian and Chinese navies but not with the local Police.

                                                                                                                                        1. http://eng.chinamil.com.cn/view/2018-06/06/content_8053858.htm

                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                          9.
                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                          My government has detained people at the request of the PRC for committing a crime involving engagements with social movements or resistance activities in Hong Kong, Xinjiang or for other human rights or civic rights issues.

                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                          68 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                          13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                          No data was found to support this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                              10.
                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                              My country has deported Taiwan citizens to the PRC to face prosecution.

                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                              71 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                              80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                              No data was found to support this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                  11.
                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                  My country has extradited or has deported individuals to the PRC, although such decisions had attracted criticisms from politicians, government employees or from local or foreign NGOs.

                                                                                                                                                  No

                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                  61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                  Ghana is the first country in Africa to deport illegal Chinese miners to China.

                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                      Hide

                                                                                                                                                      Technology

                                                                                                                                                      The Technology Domain gauges the PRC’s influence over the technology sector in the Index country, including the activity and financial leverage of PRC companies, use of PRC hardware, and bilateral research partnerships.

                                                                                                                                                      1.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities (such as China Mobile, China Unicom or China Telecom) or their subsidiaries provide telecom services.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      52 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      2.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have signed agreements to adopt hardwares or technical specifications of 4G or 5G cellular networks that are produced or developed by Huawei, ZTE or other PRC enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      27 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      30 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, telecoms have adopted hardware or technical specifications by PRC-connected entities in internet/wifi/telecommunication service infrastructure projects, in addition to 4G/5G cellular network.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      74 countries answered this indicator; 8 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, PRC-connected entities are authorized vendors to supply tech-related equipment or services to our government, military or security services.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      28 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                      53 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      5.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, central or local governments have collaboration (such as data collection or exchange agreement, or adoption of related hardwares) with the PRC government or PRC-connected entities on facial, voice recognition or other applications involving biometrics achieved by AI.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      42 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                      6.
                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                      In my country, one or more cities have procured, or have signed contracts with PRC-connected entities to establish “smart city” systems.

                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                      35 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                      25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                      There had been initial talk of Huawei handling this project but was eventually handed over to Celtell, who has announced it will be using both Chinese and American technology

                                                                                                                                                      1. https://nita.gov.gh/whale-cloud-and-alibaba-partner-ghana-on-innovative-city-development/
                                                                                                                                                      2. https://developingtelecoms.com/telecom-technology/wireless-networks/12627-ghana-s-celltel-gets-the-go-ahead-for-major-wi-fi-project.html
                                                                                                                                                      3. https://quarmecaptain.com/ama-taking-steps-to-make-accra-smart-city/

                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                        7.
                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                        In my country, financial institutions use the China Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) clearing and settlement services system.

                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                        63 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                        18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                        Ghana is known to use SWIFT for cross border transaction and SWIFT is likely partnered with CIPS but the submitted reference was not accessible

                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                            Hide
                                                                                                                                                            8.
                                                                                                                                                            Exposure

                                                                                                                                                            In my country, PRC-connected venture capital invests in technology start-ups.

                                                                                                                                                            No

                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                            1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                            32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                            8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                            12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                            11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                            81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                            According to Crunchbase, none of Ghana's fintech startups has chinese investors except Jetstream which is a logistics startup with investment from china's MSA Capital

                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.crunchbase.com/organization/jetstream-africa/company_financials

                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                              9.
                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                              In my country, companies have publicly announced that they had signed MOUs to collaborate on technological development (such as collaborations in A.I., Blockchain, Cloud Computing, Big Data) with PRC-connected entities.

                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 2 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                              31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                              8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                              12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                              79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                              According to the second reference, Inspur has worked with local Ghanaian businesses on cloud computing and Big Data development but could not find any information on said local businesses with an MoU

                                                                                                                                                              1. https://presidency.gov.gh/index.php/briefing-room/news-style-2/813-chinese-i-t-giant-inspur-group-to-establish-west-africa-headquarters-in-ghana
                                                                                                                                                              2. http://www.bjreview.com/Special_Reports/2018/5_Years_of_the_Belt_and_Road_Initiative/From_the_Magazine/201810/t20181018_800144491.html

                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                10.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, PRC-connected entities are shareholders or developers of the top five popular social media/messaging apps, based on usage.

                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                44 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                11.
                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                In my country, the central or local government(s) has collaborated with the PRC on endorsing the use of BeiDou satellite navigation system.

                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                Global Navigation Satellite System – GNSS Referencing Station. This section on the webpage reveals Beidou as one of the satellites used in Ghana

                                                                                                                                                                1. https://eoric.uenr.edu.gh/?bunch_services=global-navigation-satellite-systems

                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hide

                                                                                                                                                                  Domestic Politics

                                                                                                                                                                  The Domestic Politics Domain evaluates PRC efforts to influence the political landscape in the Index country, and the footprint of PRC security companies.

                                                                                                                                                                  1.
                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                  In my country, politicians or government employees at the sub-national level are signing agreements with the PRC government or state-owned enterprises.

                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 3 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  5 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                  12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                  23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                  There are evidences of partnership agreements at subnational level between Ghanaian entities and PRC's

                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://newsghana.com.gh/ghana-signs-sister-city-deal-with-china/
                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://www.graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/ama-secures-750-million-chinese-grant-for-projects.html

                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                    2.
                                                                                                                                                                    Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, local municipalities have sister-city ties (友好城市) with municipalities in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                    19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                    23 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                    Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://newsghana.com.gh/ghana-signs-sister-city-deal-with-china/

                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                      3.
                                                                                                                                                                      Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have taken trips to the PRC paid for by PRC-connected individuals or entities.

                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                      9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                      22 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                      16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                      73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                      There are indications that there is a growing partnership between the CCP and Ghana's political actors. There are regular trips by government officials to China

                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://mfa.gov.gh/index.php/the-minister-for-foreign-affairs-and-regional-integration-hon-shirley-ayorkor-botchwey-pays-official-visit-to-china/
                                                                                                                                                                      2. http://gh.china-embassy.gov.cn/eng/dszl/dsjh/201509/t20150909_6894149.htm

                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                        4.
                                                                                                                                                                        Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees visit the PRC and have meetings with PRC officials and think tanks.

                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                        14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                        25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                        32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                        This is an area of partnership that will witness increased engagement in the next 5-10 years

                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://mfa.gov.gh/index.php/the-minister-for-foreign-affairs-and-regional-integration-hon-shirley-ayorkor-botchwey-pays-official-visit-to-china/

                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                          5.
                                                                                                                                                                          Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, law enforcement and judicial related training offered the PRC-connected individuals or entities has been accepted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                          1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                          46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                          16 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                          6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                          81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                          Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                              6.
                                                                                                                                                                              Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, there are reports of politicians or political parties receiving campaign donations that originate in the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                              Yes

                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                              60 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                              0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                              10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                              4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                              78 countries answered this indicator; 4 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                              There are evidences that the Chinese Communist party has made donations to the ruling NPP in Ghana

                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://ghanapoliticsonline.com/bawumia-takes-npp-cash-begging-bowl-china/
                                                                                                                                                                              2. https://www.modernghana.com/news/424418/chinese-company-funds-ndc-afag-alleges-ndc-denie.html
                                                                                                                                                                              3. http:/dailyguidenetwork.com/Chinese-communist-party-donates-to-npp/

                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                7.
                                                                                                                                                                                Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have hosted fundraisings or have provided other forms of support for government employees, politicians or parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                No

                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                64 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                evidence of UFWD presence was not found in Ghana.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                    8.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                    In my country, groups with reported links to the United Front Work Department (UFWD) have made public statements opposing the candidacy of a local political candidate or party, claiming them being “anti-China”.

                                                                                                                                                                                    No

                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                    78 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                    0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                    81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                    Evidence of UFWD presence was not found in Ghana.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                        9.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                        In my country, politicians or government employees have publicly expressed positive views of the PRC government.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                        12 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                        7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                        37 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                        Mahamadu Bawumia, the Vice President of the Republic of Ghana, gabby Asare the most influential political actor without portfolio, and other top government functionaries express positive views about China.

                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://english.www.gov.cn/statecouncil/wangyi/202204/20/content_WS625f44c4c6d02e5335329a53.html
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. https://dailyguidenetwork.com/ghana-china-relationship-has-been-robust-exemplary-bawumia/

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                          10.
                                                                                                                                                                                          Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                          In my country, politicians or government employees have received direct or deferred benefits from PRC-connected individuals or entities openly or covertly (e.g. have been appointed to lucrative positions as board members or consultants with PRC-invested firms, casinos, energy companies, etc.) during or in retirement from public office.

                                                                                                                                                                                          No

                                                                                                                                                                                          Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                          More

                                                                                                                                                                                          Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                          9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                          40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                          0 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          18 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                          8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                          73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                          Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                          No data/ evidence to verify this

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                              11.
                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                              In my country, security services (安保/保安) offered by private PRC companies are contracted by national or subnational governments.

                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                              67 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                              82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                              Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                              1. https://africacenter.org/spotlight/chinese-security-firms-spread-african-belt-road/

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                Foreign Policy

                                                                                                                                                                                                The Foreign Policy Domain gauges PRC efforts to achieve diplomatic objectives by influencing key actors in the Index country.

                                                                                                                                                                                                1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                My country’s legislature has a joint parliamentary friendship group, committee or other forms of sub-organizations with PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                More

                                                                                                                                                                                                0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                25 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                57 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegh//eng/xwdt/t220791.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                2. https://www.graphic.com.gh/news/general-news/ghana-china-resolve-to-deepen-ties.html

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Exposure

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Representatives of a political party in my country’s national legislature have met officially with representatives of the PRC.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  20 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                  40 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                  82 countries answered this indicator; 0 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gabby Asare Okyere Darko, considered unofficially, as the Prime Minister, is the cousin of the president and is the single most powerful person around the President. Also, the ruling party's International Affairs Director, Mr. Attafuah, has has several meetings with PRC officials. One significant observation is that both persons were very distant ideologically from the PRC but have warmed up considerably to the PRC in recent times.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cegh/eng/dszl/dsjh/t1269683.htm
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. https://mfa.gov.gh/index.php/ambassador-of-china-to-ghana-pays-courtesy-call-on-minister-for-foreign-affairs-and-regional-integration/

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The PRC provides training to diplomats or civil servants on governance from my country (such as at 国家行政学院 or 中央党校).

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                    39 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    11 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    10 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                    14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Ministry of Commerce of China through the Academy for International Business Officials (AIBO) organized a training session for 20 stewards from the Office of the President in China.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://mofep.gov.gh/sites/default/files/pbb-estimates/2016/2016-PBB-18-MFARI.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                      4.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                      In my country, politicians or government employees have been pressured by PRC diplomats to change their political or diplomatic stances.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answer ( 1 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                      41 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      8 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                      7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                      81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Found

                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Jailing-Aisha-Huang-in-Ghana-wasn-t-important-won-t-give-us-cash-Osafo-Maafo-739502

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        Pressure

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Citizens of my country have been detained in PRC or denied exit visas, and believed to be suffering from unfair legal treatments for political reasons, a.k.a. “hostage diplomacy”.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                        2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                        61 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                        19 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                        80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                        no data/ evidence to verify this

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                            6.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                            The head of state, head of government or foreign minister of my country has denied Taiwan’s right to participate as a member, observer or guest in WHO.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Answer ( 4 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                            More

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                            3 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                            65 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            4/ Yes

                                                                                                                                                                                                            14 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                            79 countries answered this indicator; 3 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ghana supports and enforces the 'One China' Policy and therefore does not support Taiwan's participation in the WHO when China is there.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. https://www.mfa.gov.cn/ce/cebw//eng/zfgx/t258994.htm#:~:text=The%20Ghanaian%20side%20reiterated%20its,cause%20of%20peaceful%20national%20reunification.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                              7.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                              My country publicly supported the appointment of a PRC official to be the head of a United Nations agency (such as the FAO or ICAO) or other intergovernmental organizations (such as INTERPOL).

                                                                                                                                                                                                              No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Answer ( 0 / 4 )

                                                                                                                                                                                                              More

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                              9 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              0/ No

                                                                                                                                                                                                              62 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/ Few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2/ More than a few, but insignificant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              3/ Few, but significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              7 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              4/ More than a few, and significant

                                                                                                                                                                                                              1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                              73 countries answered this indicator; 9 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                              no data/ evidence to verify this

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  8.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  My government has shown support of PRC's territorial claims (such as on the South China Sea arbitration ruling issued by the UNCLOS Arbitral Tribunal in July 2016; except claims over Taiwan, which are indirectly covered in indicator 6.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0/ My country has rejected PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  4/ My country has adhered to PRC’s claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Although Ghana has not spoken out for or against China in the South Sea Dispute, it has questioned the tribunal's jurisdiction on ruling on similar matters relating to Ghana itself

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. https://www.itlos.org/fileadmin/itlos/documents/cases/case_no.20/C20_Response_Ghana.pdf

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Uyghur population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    31 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    17 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ghana has not openly supported China on the persecution of Uyghur Moslems in the Xinjiang province

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. https://qz.com/africa/1667141/african-leaders-defend-china-arrests-of-uyghur-muslims-in-xinjiang/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-56717986

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      My country has shown one of the following stances on PRC’s treatment of its Tibet population.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      46 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      13 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      80 countries answered this indicator; 2 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The reference cited mentions some African countries that has declared support of China's treatment of Tibetans

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. https://thediplomat.com/2020/10/2020-edition-which-countries-are-for-or-against-chinas-xinjiang-policies/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. https://thediplomat.com/2020/04/chinas-investment-in-africa-cannot-buy-the-silence-of-a-continent/

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Effect

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        My government has not publicly criticized the PRC’s imposition of the National Security Law on Hong Kong.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Silence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Skipped

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0/ My country has denounced PRC

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        24 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2/ My country has remained silent

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        36 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4/ My country has voiced support to PRC’s stance

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        21 countries chose this answer

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        81 countries answered this indicator; 1 countries skipped this indicator

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Supporting Evidence

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Ghana is not on the list of countries known to be in support of the imposed law on Hong Kong

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. https://www.axios.com/2020/07/02/countries-supporting-china-hong-kong-law

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Answered by 1 anonymous expert, and has been reviewed by another 1 anonymous expert.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hide
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